AbstractSince the early 1990s, there has been a growing interest in four-dimensional computer aided design (4D CAD) for construction project planning. Commercial 4D CAD applications are becoming more accessible and the use of this technology allows the construction planner to produce more rigorous schedules. A review of the technical competencies of these packages highlights that most of the commercially available packages concentrate on the use of 4D CAD simulations for aesthetic visualization purposes. Very few packages offer the ability to carry out analytical tasks on the developed simulation and this is often left to the interpretation of the user. A thorough appraisal of emerging research developments in 4D planning highlights that this technology is employed for various applications; however, the amount of detail required in a 4D simulation is still ambiguous. A model is proposed to determine the attributes required for use with each of the various applications of 4D CAD simulations. Finally, various lines of future research are highlighted, including the need for improved use of data exchange standards and the automation of linking the construction tasks to the 3D CAD model.
CitationConstruction Management and Economics, 22(2): 171 - 182
PublisherRoutledge (Taylor & Francis)
JournalConstruction Management & Economics
DescriptionAs a result of the reported work a 4D-modelling course was created and disseminated to the construction industry via a £1M training grant from the European Social Fund.