Recent Submissions

  • Introducing Sport Psychology Interventions: Self-Control Implications

    Devonport, Tracey; Lane, Andrew; Fullerton, Christopher L. (Human Kinetics journals, 2016-03-01)
    Evidence from sequential-task studies demonstrate that if the first task requires self-control, then performance on the second task is compromised (Hagger, Wood, Stiff, & Chatzisarantis, 2010). In a novel extension of previous sequential-task research, the first self-control task in the current study was a sport psychology intervention, paradoxically proposed to be associated with improved performance. Eighteen participants (9 males, 9 females; mean age = 21.6 years, SD = 1.6), none of whom had previously performed the experimental task or motor imagery, were randomly assigned to an imagery condition or a control condition. After the collection of pretest data, participants completed the same 5-week physical training program designed to enhance swimming tumble-turn performance. Results indicated that performance improved significantly among participants from both conditions with no significant intervention effect. Hence, in contrast to expected findings from application of the imagery literature, there was no additive effect after an intervention. We suggest practitioners should be cognisant of the potential effects of sequential tasks, and future research is needed to investigate this line of research.
  • Knowing in primary physical education in the UK: negotiating movement culture

    Ward, Gavin; Quennerstedt, Mikael (2015-01-21)
    This paper aims to understand how pupils and teachers actions-in-context constitute being-a-pupil and being-a-teacher within a primary school physical education (PE) movement culture. Dewey and Bentley's theory of transaction, which views organism-in-environment-as-a-whole, enables the researcher to explore how actions-in-ongoing activities constitute and negotiate PE movement culture. Video footage from seven primary school PE lessons from a school in the West Midlands in the UK was analysed by focusing upon the ends-in-view of actions as they appeared through the educational content (what) and pedagogy (how) of the recorded PE experiences. Findings indicated that the movement culture within the school was a monoculture of looks-like-sport characterised by the privileging of the functional coordination of cooperative action. Three themes of pupils' and teachers' negotiation of the movement culture emerged U-turning, Knowing the game and Moving into and out of games. This movement culture required teachers to ensure pupils looked busy and reproduced cooperative looks-like-sport actions. In fulfilling this role, they struggled to negotiate between their knowledge of sport-for-real and directing pupils towards educational ends-in-view within games activities. Simply being good at sports was not a prerequisite for pupils' success in this movement culture. In order to re-actualise their knowledge of sport, pupils were required to negotiate the teacher's ‘how’ and ‘what’ by exploring what constituted cooperative actions within the spatial and social dimensions of the activities they were set. These findings suggest that if PE is to be more than just the reproduction of codified sport, careful adjustment and consideration of ends-in-view is of great importance. Without regard for the latter there is potential to create significant complexity for both teachers and pupils beyond that required by learning and performing sport.
  • Transactions in primary physical education in the UK: a smorgasbord of looks-like-sport

    Ward, Gavin; Quennerstedt, Mikael (2014-06-10)
    Background: Crum proposes the term ‘movement culture’ as a means to best understand the relationships between PE and wider movement practices. Learning within movement culture is practical and embodied, and integral to the cultural and institutional contexts within which PE is situated. Purpose: Using visual data gathered from PE lessons within a UK primary school this paper aims to identify movement cultures across the observed PE lessons, and understand how these movement cultures are shaped and maintained by analysing how teachers and pupils' actions-in-on-going-events make the movement cultures something ‘in-common’. Participants, research design and data collection: A mixture of Year 5 and 6 PE lessons were video recorded within a primary school in the West Midlands. Careful attention was paid to the ethical considerations involved in the collection and storage of the data. Data analysis: By dissolving the dualism between an individual and their environment, Dewey and Bentley's (1949/1991) transactional theory of learning supports an analysis of action in context. Application of this theory enables the researcher to explore actions-in-on-going activities and understand how this action shapes the movement culture within which it occurs. In this process we did not use theory to deduce the participants' intentions or potential changes in their cognitive structures; rather it was the functions' actions constituted in the observed situation, which lead the analysis. Findings: The existence of a multi-activity idea of sampling different sports within this study of primary PE amounted to eating from a smorgasbord where the flavours of the dishes initially looked different, but actually tasted the same. Each dish was differentiated by the use of contrasting equipment, physical locations and named activities. In reality what was realised was a diluted, repetitive and overriding flavour of looks-like-sport. Pupils were tasked with actions which functioned to produce a stage managed show of controlled activity. This was supplemented by their compliance to strict behaviour codes and by attempting to make highly cooperative tasks and games work. This was aided by the adoption and acceptance of different roles. Succeeding within this movement culture demanded an implicit understanding of the need to coordinate actions with others cooperatively. Conclusions: The standout flavour within this smorgasbord involved gymnastics, where the removal of competition and provision of space for pupils to re-actualise their knowledge, created an interesting blend of pupil engagement, sustained physical activity, creativity, inclusion and cooperation. These interesting flavours may have been curtailed by a need to replicate movements acceptable to doing gymnastics-for-real and suggests that other forms of looks-like-sport may have the potential to elicit similar action. Continued investigation of the directions of actions-in-context-in-PE-settings would aid our understanding of the creation, nature and reproduction of learning experiences within this looks-like-sport movement culture. More specifically, analysis of the educational content and pedagogy of the recorded PE lessons within this school would support our understanding of how teachers and pupils negotiate the complex mix of educational, sport and health discourses that constitute the looks-like-sport movement culture.
  • Modeling longitudinal changes in maximal-intensity exercise performance in young male rowing athletes.

    Mikulic, Pavle; Blazina, Tomislav; Nevill, Alan M.; Markovic, Goran (Human Kinetics, 2012-05)
    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of age and body size upon maximal-intensity exercise performance in young rowing athletes. Male participants (n = 171) aged 12-18 years were assessed using an "all-out" 30-s rowing ergometer test, and reassessed after 12 months. The highest rate of performance development, which amounts to [mean(SD)] +34%(23%) and +32%(23%) for mean and maximal power output, respectively, is observed between the ages of 12 and 13, while this rate of development gradually declines as the athletes mature through adolescence. Performance increases with body size, and mass, stature and chronological age all proved to be significant (all p < .05) explanatory variables of mean power output, with respective exponents [mean(SE)] of 0.56(0.08), 1.84(0.30) and 0.07(0.01), and of maximal power output, with respective exponents of 0.54(0.09), 1.76(0.32) and 0.06(0.01). These findings may help coaches better understand the progression of rowing performance during adolescence.
  • The reproducibility of 31-phosphorus MRS measures of muscle energetics at 3 Tesla in trained men.

    Edwards, Lindsay M; Tyler, Damian J; Kemp, Graham J; Dwyer, Renee M; Johnson, Andrew; Holloway, Cameron J; Nevill, Alan M.; Clarke, Kieran (PLOS, 2012)
    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides an exceptional opportunity for the study of in vivo metabolism. MRS is widely used to measure phosphorus metabolites in trained muscle, although there are no published data regarding its reproducibility in this specialized cohort. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of (31)P-MRS in trained skeletal muscle.
  • Modelling handgrip strength in the presence of confounding variables: results from the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey.

    Nevill, Alan M.; Holder, R L (Taylor & Francis, 2000-10)
    Differences in handgrip strength, caused by risk factors such as physical inactivity, will be influenced by 'confounding' variables, e.g. age, body size. The aims of the study were to identify the confounding variables associated with handgrip strength and to assess the benefit that physical activity plays in maintaining grip strength within a population, having adjusted for differences in these confounding variables. The most appropriate linear body size dimension associated with grip strength was height rather than demispan. Non-linear associations with age and body mass were also identified. Handgrip strength peaked in the age group 25 - 34 years for male subjects and in the age group 35 - 44 years for female subjects. Similarly, handgrip strength increased with body mass until it peaked at a body mass of approximately 100 kg for male and 90 kg for female subjects; thereafter a rapid decline in grip strength was observed. Differences in handgrip strength were found to be significantly associated with levels of physical activity even having controlled for differences in age and body size (height, mass and percentage body fat), but the observed association was not linear. The level of physical activity necessary to maintain an optimal level of handgrip strength was found to be a balance of moderate or vigorous occasions of physical activity.
  • Inverted BMI rather than BMI is a better proxy for percentage of body fat

    Nevill, Alan M.; Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, Antonios; Metsios, Giorgos S.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Holder, Roger L.; Kitas, George D.; Mohammed, Mohammed A. (Informa UK, Ltd., 2011)
    Background: Percentage of body fat (BF%) is a known risk factor for a range of healthcare problems but is difficult to measure. An easy to measure proxy is the weight/height2 ratio known as the Body Mass Index (BMI kg/m2). However, BMI does have some inherent weaknesses which are readily overcome by its inverse iBMI (1000/BMI, cm2/kg). Methods: The association between BF% and both BMI and iBMI together with their distributional properties was explored using previously published data from healthy (n ¼ 2993) and diseased populations (n ¼ 298). Results: BMI is skewed whereas iBMI is symmetrical and so is better approximated by the normal distribution. The relationship between BF% and BMI is curved, but that of iBMI and BF% is linear and thus iBMI explains more of the variation in BF% than BMI. For example a unit increase in BMI for a group of thin women represents an increase of 2.3% in BF, but for obese women this represents only a 0.3% increase in BF—a 7-fold difference. The curvature stems from body mass being the numerator in BMI but the denominator in BF% resulting in a form of hyperbolic curve which is not the case with iBMI. Furthermore, BMI and iBMI have different relationships (interaction) with BF% for men and women, but these differences are less marked with iBMI. Conclusions: Overall, these characteristics of iBMI favour its use over BMI, especially in statistical models
  • Effect of Leg Length on ROM, VJ and Leg Dexterity in Dance

    Wyon, Matthew A.; Nevill, Alan M.; Dekker, K.; Brown, D. D.; Clarke, Frances; Pelly, J.; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Georg Thieme Verlag, 2010)
    We investigated the associations between leg length and specific ballet movements in different skill groups. Volunteers were from an undergraduate dance programme (n=18), a pre-professional school (n=43) and from an elite classical ballet company (n=45). Individual data were collected for anthropometry, vertical jump, leg dexterity, and leg active and passive ROM. ANCOVA identified both main effects as significant with regard to vertical jump (gender P<0.001 and skill P=0.017); leg length was also identified as a significant covariate (P=0.023). Analysis of leg dexterity identified no significant effects with gender, skill or leg length. Active and passive range of motion noted gender (P=0.001) and skill (P<0.001) differences. Leg length was found to be negatively associated with both active and passive ROM (P=0.002). In conclusion, the present data highlight the diverse and conflicting effects of leg length on fundamental ballet skills. The longer legs that benefit vertical jump have a negative influence on range of motion and leg dexterity except for highly skilled skilled dancers, who through skill, seem to have overcome the effects of some of these dichotomies.
  • Modelling the determinants of 2000 m rowing ergometer performance: a proportional, curvilinear allometric approach

    Nevill, Alan M.; Allen, S. V.; Ingham, S. A. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011)
    Previous studies have investigated the determinants of indoor rowing using correlations and linear regression. However, the power demands of ergometer rowing are proportional to the cube of the flywheel's (and boat's) speed. A rower's speed, therefore, should be proportional to the cube root (0.33) of power expended. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between 2000 m indoor rowing speed and various measures of power of 76 elite rowers using proportional, curvilinear allometric models. The best single predictor of 2000 m rowing ergometer performance was power at V̇O2max ()0.28, that explained R2=95.3% in rowing speed. The model realistically describes the greater increment in power required to improve a rower's performance by the same amount at higher speeds compared with that at slower speeds. Furthermore, the fitted exponent, 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.226–0.334) encompasses 0.33, supporting the assumption that rowing speed is proportional to the cube root of power expended. Despite an R2=95.3%, the initial model was unable to explain “sex” and “weight-class” differences in rowing performances. By incorporating anaerobic as well as aerobic determinants, the resulting curvilinear allometric model was common to all rowers, irrespective of sex and weight class.
  • Outcomes after cardiac surgery: are women of South Asian origin at increased risk?

    George, D. A.; Morrice, D.; Nevill, Alan M.; Bhabra, M. (2011)
    Objectives The population served by our centre has a relatively high proportion of people originating from the Indian subcontinent (“South Asians”) compared to the national average (14.3% vs 4.6%). We observed that the mortality rate in South Asian women undergoing cardiac surgery in our unit appeared to be relatively high. We investigated this observation further to determine whether ethnic origin was an independent risk factor for postoperative death in females. Methods Data for all patients undergoing cardiac surgery were collected prospectively in a registry. Retrospective analysis was carried using SPSS on data for 4901 patients operated on in the 6- year period April 2004 to March 2010. Categorical data associated with mortality were analysed using c2 tests. Risk factors for inhospital mortality were subjected to univariate analysis, and those found to be significant were tested for independence using multivariate logistic regression. Results During the study period, 1160 female patients underwent surgery with a mortality rate of 4.7%. Mortality in 113 South Asians was 8.9% vs 4.3% in non-Asians (p¼0.03). Of 20 risk factors tested with univariate analysis, 16 were significantly associated with mortality. Logistic regression showed the following to be independent predictors of postoperative mortality: urgency of operation (OR 32.0; p<0.001), older age (OR 24.2; p<0.001), preoperative renal dysfunction (OR 15.8; p<0.001), diabetes (OR 7.8; p¼0.005), South Asian ethnicity (OR 7.3; p¼0.007), extra-cardiac arteriopathy (OR 4.8; p¼0.028), and an operation other than isolated CABG (OR 5.8; p¼0.016). Conclusions In our population, South Asian ethnicity appears to be an independent risk factor for mortality in females undergoing cardiac surgery. Studies in larger populations are warranted.
  • Training effects of accumulated daily stair-climbing exercise in previously sedentary young women.

    Boreham, Colin A.G.; Wallace, W. F.; Nevill, Alan M. (Elsevier, 2000)
    BACKGROUND: The health and fitness benefits associated with short, intermittent bouts of exercise accumulated throughout the day have been seldom investigated. Stair climbing provides an ideal model for this purpose. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy female volunteers (18-22 years) were randomly assigned to control (N = 10) or stair-climbing (N = 12) groups. Stair climbers then underwent a 7-week stair-climbing program, progressing from one ascent per day in week 1 to six ascents per day in weeks 6 and 7, using a public access staircase (199 steps). Controls were instructed to maintain their normal lifestyle. Standardized stair-climbing tests were administered to both groups immediately before and after the program. Each paced ascent lasted 135 s, during which oxygen uptake (VO(2)) and heart rate (HR) were monitored continuously. Blood lactate concentration was also measured immediately following each test ascent. Fasting blood samples from before and after the program were analyzed for serum lipids. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. RESULTS: Relative to the insignificant changes in the control group, the stair-climbing group displayed a rise in HDL cholesterol concentration (P<0.05) and a reduced total:HDL ratio (P<0.01) over the course of the program. VO(2) and HR during the stair-climbing test were also reduced, as was blood lactate (all P<0.01). CONCLUSION: A short-term stair-climbing program can confer considerable cardiovascular health benefits on previously sedentary young women, lending credence to the potential public health benefits of this form of exercise
  • Are there limits to running world records?

    Nevill, Alan M.; Whyte, Gregory P. (American College of Sports Medicine, 2005)
    Purpose: Previous researchers have adopted linear models to predict athletic running world records, based on records recorded throughout the 20th century. These linear models imply that there is no limit to human performance and that, based on projected estimates, women will eventually run faster than men. The purpose of this article is to assess whether a more biologically sound, flattened "S-shaped" curve could provide a better and more interpretable fit to the data, suggesting that running world records could reach their asymptotic limits some time in the future. Methods: Middle- and long-distance running world record speeds recorded during the 20th century were modeled using a flattened S-shaped logistic curve. Results: The logistic curves produce significantly better fits to these world records than linear models (assessed by separating/partitioning the explained variance from the logistic and linear models using ANOVA). The models identify a slow rise in world-record speeds during the early year of the century, followed by a period of “acceleration” in the middle of the century (due to the professionalization of sport and advances in technology and science), and a subsequent reduction in the prevalence of record-breaking performances towards the end of the century. The model predicts that men’s world records are nearing their asymptotic limits (within 1–3%). Indeed, the current women’s 1500-m world record speed of 6.51 m s 1 may well have reached its limit (time 3:50.46). Conclusions: Many of the established men’s and women’s endurance running world records are nearing their limits and, consequently, women’s world records are unlikely to ever reach those achieved by men.
  • Evaluation of knee peak torque in athletic and sedentary children.

    Deighan, Martine A.; Nevill, Alan M.; Maffulli, Nicola; Cheng, Jack C. Y.; Gleeson, Nigel (Ekin Medical Publishing, 2009)
    Objectives: We examined the influence of sex, level of activity, and pubertal status on knee extension (Ext) and flexion(Fl) peak torque (PT) in children using an allometric modeling approach. Methods: A total of 140 students (67 males, 73 females)aged 12/13 years were enrolled from a Hong Kong junior high school, whose curricula were based on physical education (n=69) or arts (n=71). Isokinetic concentric Ext and Fl PT of the dominant leg was assessed at 1.04 rad/sec using a Cybex II+ dynamometer and body mass,stature, and pubertal stage were measured. A repeated-measures ANOVA test was performed on absolute PT data with muscle action (Ext and Fl) as a within-subject factor and between-subject factors including sex, group,and pubertal stage. To assess the effects on body sizeadjusted PT, linear ANCOVA and log-linear ANCOVA techniques were used with body mass and stature taken as covariates. Results: Peak torque was significantly greater in boys compared to girls, and in the physical education group compared to the arts group. When PT was adjusted for differences in body size, there was a greater difference in PT between girls in the two groups compared to boys, and there was a significant effect of pubertal stage. Allometric analysis showed that PT was influenced more by stature than body mass, and PT increased at a greater rate than body size (both p<0.01). Conclusion: There may be a need for a physical activity intervention in sedentary 12/13 year old girls. Peak torque appears to increase disproportionately to body size. This may result from a greater increase in leg muscle mass relative to body mass
  • Waist size and shape assessed by 3D photonic scanning

    Stewart, Arthur D.; Nevill, Alan M.; Stephen, R.; Young, J. (Smith-Gordon, 2010)
    Objective: To quantify waist girth at alternative locations using 3D photonic scanning and to identify the relationship between shape and size in a heterogeneous sample. Methods: Sixty-two male and 32 female healthy adults (aged 30.1 + 14.5 y) were assessed for stature, mass and 3D shape via photonic scanning, which enables the digital analysis of an individual’s body shape, avoiding postural and breathing artefacts which affect repeated measures using conventional anthropometry. Waist locations inferior to the 10th rib, and superior to the iliac crest, were identified as the ‘maximum’, ‘minimum’, ‘umbilicus’, and ‘maximum anterior extension’ via digital landmarking using system software. Sagittal and coronal diameters were measured at each waist. Girths were compared using repeated-measures ANCOVA with gender and age included, and Bonferroni adjustments made for multiple comparisons. Results: Across sites, waist girths differed by 4.9% in males and 11.7% in females. Girths showed differences at all four sites except maximum v maximum anterior extension (P = 0.061), (umbilicus v maximum P = 0.003; all other comparisons P < 0.0001). Waist girths were different between men and women ( P < 0.001), with a site-by-gender interaction (P < 0.001) and increased with age all four sites (all P < 0.001; β slopes 0.59 - 0.74 cm.yr-1). All pairwise comparisons of girth became different after excluding four men whose umbilicus fell slightly below the iliac crest. Shape (identified as sagittal : coronal diameter ratio) was highly correlated with body size at all sites. Conclusion:Waist girth exhibits significant variation according to site and is more variable in women than men. Waist increases with age and shape shows a progressive change with increasing body size.
  • The relationship between pedometer-determined physical activity, body mass index and lean body mass index in children.

    Duncan, Michael; Nevill, Alan M.; Woodfield, Lorayne; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya (2010)
    OBJECTIVE: To cross-sectionally assess weekend to weekday variation of physical activity in British children and to consider the role of Body Mass Index (BMI, W/H(2)) and Lean Body Mass Index (LBMI, H(2)/W) when examining this issue. METHODS: A total of 496 children aged 8-14 years, were measured for height and weight and the activity levels were analysed using pedometers to measure mean step counts for 4 consecutive days (2 weekdays, 2 weekend days). RESULTS: Boys had significantly lower BMI than girls. Higher values for average weekend steps were associated with lower BMI values. BMI values were; however, found to be positively skewed but when the analysis was repeated using LBMI, data was normally distributed and the conclusions remained the same. CONCLUSIONS: Weekday steps are higher than weekend steps for children irrespective of gender or weight status. Mean steps taken during weekend days are significantly associated with reduced BMI in children. These findings may be questioned because BMI is highly skewed and not normally distributed. However, LBMI provides a suitable alternative that is normally distributed and can be used to compare the relationship between weight status and physical activity.
  • Statistical methods for assessing measurement error (reliability) in variables relevant to sports medicine.

    Atkinson, Greg; Nevill, Alan M. (Adis International Limited., 1998)
    Minimal measurement error (reliability) during the collection of interval- and ratio-type data is critically important to sports medicine research. The main components of measurement error are systematic bias (e.g. general learning or fatigue effects on the tests) and random error due to biological or mechanical variation. Both error components should be meaningfully quantified for the sports physician to relate the described error to judgements regarding 'analytical goals' (the requirements of the measurement tool for effective practical use) rather than the statistical significance of any reliability indicators. Methods based on correlation coefficients and regression provide an indication of 'relative reliability'. Since these methods are highly influenced by the range of measured values, researchers should be cautious in: (i) concluding acceptable relative reliability even if a correlation is above 0.9; (ii) extrapolating the results of a test-retest correlation to a new sample of individuals involved in an experiment; and (iii) comparing test-retest correlations between different reliability studies. Methods used to describe 'absolute reliability' include the standard error of measurements (SEM), coefficient of variation (CV) and limits of agreement (LOA). These statistics are more appropriate for comparing reliability between different measurement tools in different studies. They can be used in multiple retest studies from ANOVA procedures, help predict the magnitude of a 'real' change in individual athletes and be employed to estimate statistical power for a repeated-measures experiment. These methods vary considerably in the way they are calculated and their use also assumes the presence (CV) or absence (SEM) of heteroscedasticity. Most methods of calculating SEM and CV represent approximately 68% of the error that is actually present in the repeated measurements for the 'average' individual in the sample. LOA represent the test-retest differences for 95% of a population. The associated Bland-Altman plot shows the measurement error schematically and helps to identify the presence of heteroscedasticity. If there is evidence of heteroscedasticity or non-normality, one should logarithmically transform the data and quote the bias and random error as ratios. This allows simple comparisons of reliability across different measurement tools. It is recommended that sports clinicians and researchers should cite and interpret a number of statistical methods for assessing reliability. We encourage the inclusion of the LOA method, especially the exploration of heteroscedasticity that is inherent in this analysis. We also stress the importance of relating the results of any reliability statistic to 'analytical goals' in sports medicine.
  • Typical error versus limits of agreement

    Atkinson, Greg; Nevill, Alan M. (Adis International, 2000)
  • Plyometric exercise increases serum indices of muscle damage and collagen breakdown.

    Tofas, Trifon; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Fatouros, Ioannis; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Sinouris, Efstathios A; Papageorgakopoulou, Nickoletta; Theocharis, Dimitrios A (Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., 2008)
    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of acute plyometric exercise on indices of muscle damage and collagen breakdown. Nine untrained men performed an intense bout of plyometric jumping exercises (experimental group) and nine men remained at rest (control group). Seven days before and 24, 48, and 72 hours after plyometric exercise or rest, several physiological and biochemical indices of muscle damage and two biochemical indices of collagen damage were determined. No significant changes in concentric and eccentric peak torque of knee extensors and flexors or flexion and extension range of motion were found after the plyometric exercise. Delayed-onset muscle soreness increased 48 hours after exercise. Creatine kinase increased 48 and 72 hours post exercise, whereas lactate dehydrogenase increased 24, 48, and 72 hours post exercise. Serum hydroxyproline increased 24 hours post exercise, peaked at 48 hours, and remained elevated up to 72 hours post exercise. Hydroxylysine (which was measured only before exercise and at 48 hours) was found increased 48 hours post exercise. No differences were found in any physiological or biochemical index in the control group. Intense plyometric exercise increased muscle damage, delayed-onset muscle soreness, and serum indices of collagen breakdown without a concomitant decrease in the functional capacity of muscles. Hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine levels in serum seem promising measures for describing exercise-induced collagen degradation. Coaches need to keep in mind that by using plyometric activities, despite the increased muscle damage and collagen turnover that follow, it is not necessarily accompanied by decreases in skeletal muscle capacity.
  • An Examination of Judging Consistency in a Combat Sport

    Myers, Tony D.; Nevill, Alan M.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya (bepress, 2010)
    Two related studies compared the consistency of two different methods of interpreting and applying scoring criteria in Muay Thai that are normally used by officials in the UK and that are used by officials in Thailand. In the first study, levels of consistency were determined by comparing judge's scores (n=270) from forty-five bouts judged by UK officials and forty-five judged by Thai officials. In the second study the original forty-five bouts judged by UK judges were compared with forty–five bouts judged by UK officials using Thai judging criteria. Consistency was examined in both studies using two methods. The first method compared differences in the range of the highest vs. lowest points awarded by judges for each bout. The second method compared homogeneity of variance between judges' scores. Results suggested that the Thai officials were more consistent than their UK trained counterparts but also that UK judges were more consistent when adopting the Thai judging criteria. It was suggested that the use of very clearly defined criteria and concrete operationalization of otherwise subjective concepts used in applying the system used in Thailand was the main reason for the findings.

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