• Acute Effects of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Muscle Strength in Judoka Athletes: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial.

      Wyon, Matthew; Wolman, Roger; Nevill, Alan M; Cloak, Ross; Metsios, George S; Gould, Douglas; Ingham, Andrew; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Wolters Kluwer Health, 2015-11-02)
      Objective: Indoor athletes have been shown to be prone to vitamin D3 deficiency. The aim of the study was to examine the acute effects of vitamin D supplementation on muscle function using isokinetic dynamometry. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Setting: Institutional. Participants: Adult male white national level judoka athletes (n = 22) who were involved in full-time training. Exclusion criteria were vitamin supplementation, overseas travel to sunny climes, and/or an injury incurred during the last 3 months before testing. Interventions: Subjects were randomly allocated to the treatment (150 000IU vitamin D3) or placebo and given blinded supplements by an independent researcher. Participants were tested twice, 8 days apart, on a Monday morning before the start of judo training and after 2 days of rest. A 5 to 7 mL of blood sample was collected followed by isokinetic concentric quadriceps and hamstring muscle function assessments on the right leg at 30 and 200°·s. Main outcome measures: Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze isokinetic muscle force and serum 25(OH)D3. Regression to the mean was used to examine changes in 25(OH)D3 levels over the study period. Results: The treatment group demonstrated a significant increase in serum 25(OH)D levels (34%, P ≤ 0.001) and muscle strength (13%, P = 0.01) between days 1 and 8. No significant differences were found for the placebo group for the same period. Conclusions: A single bolus of 150 000IU vitamin D3 had a significant positive effect on serum 25(OH)D levels and muscle function in vitamin D insufficient elite indoor athletes. Clinical relevance: Serum 25(OH)D3 levels of indoor athletes should be monitored throughout the year and especially during winter months. Beneficial responses, in muscle strength and serum 25(OH)D3, to 1 dose of vitamin D3 supplementation can be observed within 1 week of ingestion. Muscle strength is linked to serum 25(OH)D levels. Acute Effects of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Muscle Strength in Judoka Athletes: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283499805_Acute_Effects_of_Vitamin_D3_Supplementation_on_Muscle_Strength_in_Judoka_Athletes_A_Randomized_Placebo-Controlled_Double-Blind_Trial [accessed May 10, 2016].
    • Acute inflammation response to stretching: a randomised trial

      Wyon, Matthew; Apostolopoulos, N; Metsios, G; Tauton, J;; Koutedakis, Y (Società Scientifica di Riabilitazione e Posturologia dello Sport, 2015-09)
      Background: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of an intense stretch on selected serum-based muscle inflammation biomarkers. Methods: A randomised within-subject crossover trial was conducted with 12 healthy recreationally active males (age: 29±4.33yrs, mass: 79.3±8.78kg, height: 1.76±0.06m) participating in both an intense stretching and control intervention. During the stretch intervention the hamstrings, gluteals and quadriceps were exposed to an intense stretch by the same therapist, in order to standardise the stretch intensity for all participants. The stretch was maintained at a level rated as discomfort and/or mild pain with use of a numerical rating scale (NRS). Each muscle group was stretched for 3 x 60 seconds for both sides of the body equating to a total of 18 minutes. During the control intervention, participants rested for an equivalent amount of time. A 5ml blood sample was collected pre-, immediately post, and at 24h post for both conditions to assess the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Participants provided information about their level of muscle soreness 24, 48, and 72h post treatment, using a numeric rating scale. Results: hsCRP increased significantly at 24h compared to control and immediate post stretch intervention, for time (p=0.005), and time x condition (p=0.006). No significance was observed for IL-6, IL-1β or TNF-α (p>0.05). Conclusion: It is observed that intense stretching may lead to an acute inflammatory response supported by the significant increase in hsCRP. Acute Inflammation Response to Stretching : a Randomised Trial (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281097662_Acute_Inflammation_Response_to_Stretching_a_Randomised_Trial [accessed May 10, 2016].
    • Allometric scaling of uphill cycling performance

      Jobson, Simon A.; Woodside, J.; Passfield, L.; Nevill, Alan M. (Georg Thieme Verlag, 2008)
      Previous laboratory-based investigations have identified optimal body mass scaling exponents in the range 0.79 - 0.91 for uphill cycling. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate whether or not these exponents are also valid in a field setting. A proportional allometric model was used to predict the optimal power-to-mass ratios associated with road-based uphill time-trial cycling performance. The optimal power function models predicting mean cycle speed during a 5.3 km, 5.4 % road hill-climb time-trial were (V O (2max) . m (-1.24)) (0.55) and (RMP (max) . m (-1.04)) (0.54), explained variance being 84.6 % and 70.5 %, respectively. Slightly higher mass exponents were observed when the mass predictor was replaced with the combined mass of cyclist and equipment (m (C)). Uphill cycling speed was proportional to (V O (2max) . m (C)(-1.33)) (0.57) and (RMP (max) . m (C)(-1.10)) (0.59). The curvilinear exponents, 0.54 - 0.59, identified a relatively strong curvilinear relationship between cycling speed and energy cost, suggesting that air resistance remains influential when cycling up a gradient of 5.4 %. These results provide some support for previously reported uphill cycling mass exponents derived in laboratories. However, the exponents reported here were a little higher than those reported previously, a finding possibly explained by a lack of geometric similarity in this sample.
    • Are there limits to swimming world records?

      Nevill, Alan M.; Whyte, Gregory P.; Holder, Roger L.; Peyrebrune, M. (Georg Thieme Verlag, 2007)
      The purpose of this article was to investigate whether swimming world records are beginning to plateau and whether the inequality between men and women's swimming performances is narrowing, similar to that observed in running world records. A flattened "S-shaped curve" logistic curve is fitted to 100-m, 200-m, and 400-m front-crawl world-record swimming speeds for men and women from 1 May 1957 to the present time, using the non-linear least-squares regression. The inequality between men and women's world records is also assessed using the ratio, Women's/Men's world record speeds. The results confirm that men and women's front-crawl swimming world-record speeds are plateauing and the ratio between women's and men's world records has remained stable at approximately 0.9. In conclusion, the logistic curves provide evidence that swimming world-record speeds experienced a period of "accelerated" growth/improvements during the 1960 - 1970s, but are now beginning to plateau. The period of acceleration corresponded with numerous advances in science and technology but also coincided with the anecdotal evidence for institutionalised doping. Also noteworthy, however, is the remarkably consistency in the women's/men's world record ratio, circa 0.9, similar to those observed in middle and long distance running performances. These finding supports the notion that a 10 % gender inequality exists for both swimming and running.
    • Brief Online Training Enhances Competitive Performance: Findings of the BBC Lab UK Psychological Skills Intervention Study.

      Lane, Andrew M; Totterdell, Peter; MacDonald, Ian; Devonport, Tracey J; Friesen, Andrew P; Beedie, Christopher J; Stanley, Damian; Nevill, Alan (http://home.frontiersin.org/, 2016-03)
      In conjunction with BBC Lab UK, the present study developed 12 brief psychological skill interventions for online delivery. A protocol was designed that captured data via self-report measures, used video recordings to deliver interventions, involved a competitive concentration task against an individually matched computer opponent, and provided feedback on the effects of the interventions. Three psychological skills were used; imagery, self-talk, and if-then planning, with each skill directed to one of four different foci: outcome goal, process goal, instruction, or arousal-control. This resulted in 12 different intervention participant groups (randomly assigned) with a 13th group acting as a control. Participants (n = 44,742) completed a competitive task four times-practice, baseline, following an intervention, and again after repeating the intervention. Results revealed performance improved following practice with incremental effects for imagery-outcome, imagery-process, and self-talk-outcome and self-talk-process over the control group, with the same interventions increasing the intensity of effort invested, arousal and pleasant emotion. Arousal-control interventions associated with pleasant emotions, low arousal, and low effort invested in performance. Instructional interventions were not effective. Results offer support for the utility of online interventions in teaching psychological skills and suggest brief interventions that focus on increasing motivation, increased arousal, effort invested, and pleasant emotions were the most effective.
    • Confirmatory factor analysis of the thought occurrence questionnaire for sport (TOQS) among adolescent athletes

      Lane, Andrew M.; Harwood, Chris; Nevill, Alan M. (Routledge, 2005)
      There is an inherent link between theory and measurement suggesting that validation of measures should be the first stage of theory testing. The aim of the present study was to cross-validate the factorial validity of the Thought Occurrence Questionnaire for Sport for use among adolescent athletes. National standard young athletes (Individual N_/204; Team N_/360) completed the TOQS questionnaire. Single-sample and multisample confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the psychometric integrity of the hypothesized three-factor correlated model. Multisample results demonstrated invariance for factor loadings and correlations between individual and team athletes. Internal consistency coefficients were over the .70 criterion for acceptability. Findings lend support to previous validation studies conducted on samples of adult athletes and suggest that the TOQS provides an equally valid measure for use among adolescent athletes. It is suggested that the TOQS can be used to investigate theoretical issues related to cognitive interference during competition.
    • Construct Validity of the Profile of Mood States

      Lane, Andrew M.; Terry, Peter C.; Fogarty, Gerard (Elsevier, 2007)
      Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to extend the validation of the Profile of Mood States-Adolescents (POMS-A: Terry, P. C., Lane, A. M., Lane, H. J., & Keohane, L. (1999). Development and validation of a mood measure for adolescents. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 861-872) from adolescent to adult populations. Design: A strategy of assessing the invariance of the POMS-A factor structure among disparate samples and of testing relationships with concurrent measures was used. Methods: The POMS-A was administered to 2,549 participants from four samples: Adult athletes prior to competition (n = 621), adult student athletes in a classroom (n = 656), adolescent athletes prior to competition (n = 676), and adolescent students in a classroom (n = 596). A subset of 382 adult student athletes was used to test the criterion validity of the POMS-A. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the factorial validity of a 24-item, six-factor model using both independent and multi-sample analyses. Relationships between POMS-A scores and previously validated measures, that were consistent with theoretical predictions, supported criterion validity. Conclusion: Supporting evidence was found that the psychometric integrity of the POMS-A extended from adolescent to adult populations.
    • Current issues in contemporary sport development

      Biscomb, Kay; Medcalf, Richard; Griggs, Gerald. (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2016-01)
    • Determinants of 800-m and 1500-m Running Performance Using Allometric Models

      Ingham, Stephen A.; Whyte, Gregory P.; Pedlar, Charles R.; Bailey, David M.; Dunman, Natalie; Nevill, Alan M. (American College of Sports Medicine, 2008)
      Purpose: To identify the optimal aerobic determinants of elite, middle-distance running (MDR) performance, using proportional allometric models. Methods: Sixty-two national and international male and female 800-m and 1500-m runners undertook an incremental exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Mean submaximal running economy (ECON), speed at lactate threshold (speedLT), maximum oxygen uptake (V˙ O2max), and speed associated with V˙ O2max (speedV˙ O2max) were paired with best performance times recorded within 30 d. The data were analyzed using a proportional power-function ANCOVA model. Results: The analysis identified significant differences in running speeds with main effects for sex and distance, with V˙ O2max and ECON as the covariate predictors (P G 0.0001). The results suggest a proportional curvilinear association between running speed and the ratio (V˙ O2maxIECONj0.71)0.35 explaining 95.9% of the variance in performance. The model was cross-validated with a further group of highly trained MDR, demonstrating strong agreement (95% limits, 0.05 T 0.29 mIsj1) between predicted and actual performance speeds (R 2 = 93.6%). The model indicates that for a male 1500-m runner with a V˙ O2max of 3.81 LIminj1 and ECON of 15 LIkmj1 to improve from 250 to 240 s, it would require a change in V˙ O2max from 3.81 to 4.28 LIminj1, an increase of $0.47 LIminj1. However, improving by the same margin of 10 s from 225 to 215 s would require a much greater increase in V˙ O2max, from 5.14 to 5.85 LIminj1 an increase of $0.71 LIminj1 (where ECON remains constant). Conclusion: A proportional curvilinear ratio of V˙ O2max divided by ECON explains 95.9% of the variance in MDR performance.
    • Development and initial validation of the Music Mood-Regulation Scale.

      Hewston, Ruth M.; Lane, Andrew M.; Karag, Costas I. (Melbourne, Australia: Swinburne University, 2008)
      This study designed a measure to assess the perceived effectiveness of music as a strategy to regulate mood among a sport and exercise population. A strategy of assessing and comparing the integrity of competing hypotheses to explain the underlying factor structure of the scale was used. A 21-item Music Mood-Regulation Scale (MMRS) was developed to assess the extent to which participants used music to alter the mood states of anger, calmness, depression, fatigue, happiness, tension, and vigor. Volunteer sport and exercise participants (N = 1,279) rated the perceived effectiveness of music to regulate each MMRS item on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the integrity of four competing models, and results lend support to a correlated 7-factor structure for the MMRS (RCFI = .94; RMSEA = .06). Cronbach alpha coefficients were in the range of 0.74 – 0.88 thus demonstrating the internal reliability of scales. It is suggested that the MMRS shows promising degrees of validity. Future research should assess the extent to which individuals can develop the ability to use music as a strategy to regulate mood in situations in which disturbed mood might be detrimental to performance.
    • Do judges enhance home advantage in European championship boxing?

      Balmer, Nigel J.; Nevill, Alan M.; Lane, Andrew M. (Taylor & Francis, 2005)
      There have been many examples of contentious points decisions in boxing. Professional boxing is scored subjectively by judges and referees scoring each round of the contest. We assessed whether the probability of a home win (and therefore home advantage) increased when bouts were decided by points decisions rather than knockouts. Overall, we found that bouts ending in points decisions had a significantly higher proportion of home wins than those decided by a knockout, though this effect varied across time, and controlling for relative quality of boxers was only effective when using more recent data. Focusing on these data, again the probability of a home win was higher with a points decision and this effect was consistent as "relative quality" varied. For equally matched boxers ("relative quality" = 0), expected probability of a home win was 0.57 for knockouts, 0.66 for technical knockouts and 0.74 for points decisions. The results of the present study lend general support to the notion that home advantage is more prevalent in sports that involve subjective decision-making. We suggest that interventions should be designed to inform judges to counter home advantage effects.
    • Effect of training on accumulated oxygen deficit and shuttle run performance.

      Ramsbottom, Roger; Nevill, Alan M.; Seager, R. D.; Hazeldine, R. J. (Minerva Medica, 2001)
      BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to investigate changes in physiological, metabolic and performance parameters resulting from an intense 6 week training programme. METHODS: Sixteen volunteers were divided into a control (CN; 4 men and 2 women) and training group (TR; 6 men and 4 women). Laboratory measures included maximal aerobic power (VO2max), submaximal oxygen uptake (10.5 percent or 6 degrees treadmill inclination) and accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD). Performance was assessed during 20 metre shuttle run tests (PST, progressive shuttle run test; HIST, high intensity shuttle run test). RESULTS: TR improved their HIST performance (m) significantly compared with CN, identified by a significant "group-by-training" interaction (p<0.01). Similarly, AOD values improved more in TR compared with CN (p<0.01). There was a trend for TR to further reduce blood pH values after training compared with CN, although this decrease (approximately 0.05 units) did not attain statistical significance. The change in AOD was strongly correlated with the change in run time to exhaustion (r=0.76, p<0.01) and the change in estimated total work output (r=0.69, p<0.01) during 10.5 percent gradient running and modestly correlated with the change in HIST performance (r=0.49, p<0.05, assuming a directional test). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest changes in the anaerobic capacity, determined as AOD, due to training may be reflected in corresponding changes in laboratory and field performance.
    • Effects of rapid weight loss on mood and performance among amateur boxers.

      Hall, C.J.; Lane, Andrew M. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2001)
      AIMS: To examine the effects of rapid weight loss on mood and performance among amateur boxers. METHODS: Participants were 16 experienced amateur boxers. In stage 1, structured interviews were used to assess the type of strategies that boxers used to reduce weight and the value of performing at their desired weight in terms of performance. In stage 2, boxers completed a 4 x 2 minute (1 minute recovery) circuit training session. Boxers completed the circuit training session on three different occasions with a week between each. The first test was used to familiarise the boxers with the circuit training task; the second and third tasks were at their training weight and championship weight, respectively. Participants were given one week to reduce their body weight to their championship weight using their preferred weight making strategies; boxers reduced their body weight by an average of 5.16% of body weight. RESULTS: Boxers typically lost weight by restricting fluid and food intake in the week leading to competition. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance results indicated that rapid weight loss among boxers was associated with poor performance, increased anger, fatigue, and tension, and reduced vigour. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies used to make weight by boxers are associated with poor performance and a negative mood profile.
    • Emotional states of athletes prior to performance-induced injury

      Devonport, Tracey J.; Lane, Andrew M.; Hanin, Yuri (Asist Group, 2005)
      Psychological states experienced by athletes prior to injured, best and worst performances were investigated retrospectively using a mixed methodology. Fifty-nine athletes volunteered to complete an individualized assessment of performance states based on the Individual Zones of Optimal fFunctioning (IZOF) model. A subsection (n = 30) of participants completed a standardized psychometric scale (Brunel Mood Rating Scale: BRUMS), retrospectively describing how they felt before best, worst, and injured performances. IZOF results showed similar emotion states being identified for injured and best performances. Analysis of BRUMS scores indicated a significant main effect for differences in mood by performance outcome, with post-hoc analyses showing best performance was associated with lower scores on depression and fatigue and higher vigor than injured performance and worst performance. Worst performance was associated with higher fatigue and confusion than injured performance. Results indicate that retrospective emotional profiles before injured performance are closer to successful performance, than unsuccessful, and confirm differences between successful and unsuccessful performance. Qualitative and quantitative approaches used to retrospectively assess pre-performance emotional states before three performance outcomes, produced complimentary findings. Practical implications of the study are discussed.
    • Emotions and performance in rugby

      Lane, A. M.; Campo, M.; Champely, S.; Rosnet, E; Ferrand C (Elsevier, 2016-05)
      Purpose: This study investigated emotion-performance relationships in rugby union. We identified which emotions rugby players experienced and the extent to which these emotions were associated with performance, considering how emotions unfold over the course of a game, and whether the game was played at home or away. Methods: Data were gathered from 22 professional male rugby union players using auto-confrontation interviews to help identify situations within games when players experienced intense emotions. We assessed the intensity of emotions experienced before each discrete performance and therefore could assess emotion-performance relationships within competition. Results: Players identified experiencing intense emotions at 189 time-points. Experts in rugby union rated the quality of each performance at these 189 time-points on a visual analog scale. A Linear Mixed Effects model to investigate emotion-performance relationships found additive effects of game location, game time, and emotions on individual performance. Conclusion: Results showed 7 different pre-performance emotions, with high anxiety and anger associating with poor performance. Future research should continue to investigate emotion-performance relationships during performance using video-assisted recall and use a measure of performance that has face validity for players and coaches alike.
    • Environmental Influences on Elite Sport Athletes Well Being: From Gold, Silver, and Bronze to Blue Green and Gold.

      Donnelly, Aoife A; MacIntyre, Tadhg E; O'Sullivan, Nollaig; Warrington, Giles; Harrison, Andrew J; Igou, Eric R; Jones, Marc; Gidlow, Chris; Brick, Noel; Lahart, Ian; Cloak, Ross; Lane, Andrew M (Frontiers, 2016)
      This paper considers the environmental impact on well-being and performance in elite athletes during Olympic competition. The benefits of exercising in natural environments are recognized, but less is known about the effects on performance and health in elite athletes. Although some Olympic events take place in natural environments, the majority occur in the host city, usually a large densely populated area where low exposure to natural environments is compounded by exposure to high levels of air, water, and noise pollution in the ambient environment. By combining methods and expertise from diverse but inter-related disciplines including environmental psychology, exercise physiology, biomechanics, environmental science, and epidemiology, a transdisciplinary approach will facilitate a greater understanding of the effects of the environment on Olympic athletes.
    • Evaluation of peak power prediction equations in male basketball players

      Duncan, Michael; Lyons, Mark; Nevill, Alan M. (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins in association with National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2008)
      This study compared peak power estimated using 4 commonly used regression equations with actual peak power derived from force platform data in a group of adolescent basketball players. Twenty-five elite junior male basketball players (age, 16.5 +/- 0.5 years; mass, 74.2 +/- 11.8 kg; height, 181.8 +/- 8.1 cm) volunteered to participate in the study. Actual peak power was determined using a countermovement vertical jump on a force platform. Estimated peak power was determined using countermovement jump height and body mass. All 4 prediction equations were significantly related to actual peak power (all p < 0.01). Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated significant differences between actual peak power and estimate peak power from all 4 prediction equations (p < 0.001). Bonferroni post hoc tests indicated that estimated peak power was significantly lower than actual peak power for all 4 prediction equations. Ratio limits of agreement for actual peak power and estimated peak power were 8% for the Harman et al. and Sayers squat jump prediction equations, 12% for the Canavan and Vescovi equation, and 6% for the Sayers countermovement jump equation. In all cases peak power was underestimated.
    • Evidence of nationalistic bias in MuayThai

      Myers, Tony D.; Balmer, Nigel J.; Nevill, Alan M.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya (Asist Group, 2006)
      MuayThai is a combat sport with a growing international profile but limited research conducted into judging practices and processes. Problems with judging of other subjectively judged combat sports have caused controversy at major international tournaments that have resulted in changes to scoring methods. Nationalistic bias has been central to these problems and has been identified across a range of sports. The aim of this study was to examine nationalistic bias in MuayThai. Data were collected from the International Federation of MuayThai Amateur (IFMA) World Championships held in Almaty, Kazakhstan September 2003 and comprised of tournament results from 70 A-class MuayThai bouts each judged by between five and nine judges. Bouts examined featured 62 competitors from 21 countries and 25 judges from 11 countries. Results suggested that nationalistic bias was evident. The bias observed equated to approximately one round difference between opposing judges over the course of a bout (a mean of 1.09 (SE=0.50) points difference between judges with opposing affilations). The number of neutral judges used meant that this level of bias generally did not influence the outcome of bouts. Future research should explore other ingroup biases, such as nearest neighbour bias and political bias as well as investigating the feasibility adopting an electronic scoring system.
    • Examining relationships between emotional intelligence and coaching efficacy.

      Thelwell, Richard C.; Lane, Andrew M.; Weston, Neil J. V.; Greenlees, Iain A. (International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP), 2008)
      The study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and coaching efficacy. Ninety-nine coaches completed the Emotional Intelligence Scale and the Coaching Efficacy Scale with the results of the canonical correlation suggesting significant relationships between the two sets of variables. Regression analyses suggested motivation efficacy to be significantly associated with the regulation of emotions, and social skills, whereas character-building efficacy was associated with optimism. Teaching technique efficacy was significantly associated with appraisal of own emotions with no significant predictors for game strategy efficacy. When viewed collectively, results provide an insight to how emotional intelligence relates to coaching efficacy and gives an indication to where applied work with coaches may be directed. Future research suggestions are also provided in reference to coach-related psychology.
    • Home advantage in the Winter Olympics (1908-1998).

      Balmer, Nigel J.; Nevill, Alan M.; Williams, A. Mark (Taylor & Francis, 2001)
      We obtained indices of home advantage, based on the medals won by competing nations, for each event held at the Winter Olympics from 1908 to 1998. These indices were designed to assess home advantage while controlling for nation strength, changes in the number of medals on offer and the performance of 'non-hosting' nations. Some evidence of home advantage was found in figure skating, freestyle skiing, ski jumping, alpine skiing and short track speed skating. In contrast, little or no home advantage was observed in ice hockey, Nordic combined, Nordic skiing, bobsled, luge, biathlon or speed skating. When all events were combined, a significant home advantage was observed (P = 0.029), although no significant differences in the extent of home advantage were found between events (P > 0.05). When events were grouped according to whether they were subjectively assessed by judges, significantly greater home advantage was observed in the subjectively assessed events (P = 0.037). This was a reflection of better home performances, suggesting that judges were scoring home competitors disproportionately higher than away competitors. Familiarity with local conditions was shown to have some effect, particularly in alpine skiing, although the bobsled and luge showed little or no advantage over other events. Regression analysis showed that the number of time zones and direction of travel produced no discernible trends or differences in performance.