Recent Submissions

  • The Effects of Coping Interventions on Ability to Perform Under Pressure

    Kent, S; Lane, A M; Devonport, Tracey; Nicholls, W; Friesen, A P (Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2018-06)
    The ability to perform under pressure is necessary to achieve goals in various domains of life. We conducted a systematic review to synthesise findings from applied studies that focus on interventions developed to enhance an individual's ability to cope under performance pressure. Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a comprehensive search of five electronic databases was conducted. This yielded 66,618 records, of which 23 peer review papers met inclusion criteria of containing an intervention that targeted coping skills for performing under pressure. Using the Standard Quality Assessment for evaluation of primary research papers (Kmet et al., 2004) to assess quality, included studies performed well on reporting research objectives, research design, and statistical procedures. Sixteen studies showed poor quality in controlling for potentially confounding factors and small sample sizes. A narrative aggregate synthesis identified intervention studies that provided an educational focus (n = 9), consultancy sessions (n = 6), simulation training (n = 5) and emotion regulation strategies (n = 3). Findings highlight a need to; 1) establish a contextualized pressure task which will generate high levels of ecological validity for participants. Having established a suitable pressure task, 2) research should assess the effects of pressure by evaluating conscious and nonconscious effects and associated coping mechanisms, which should inform the subsequent development of interventions, and 3) assess interventions to enhance understanding of the ways in which they improve coping with pressure, or may fail, and the mechanisms which may explain these outcomes.
  • Current issues in contemporary sport development

    Biscomb, Kay; Medcalf, Richard; Griggs, Gerald. (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2016-01)
  • Untitled

    Thomas, E. and Upton, D. (Elsevier, 2014)
    Objectives The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) is a validated self-report questionnaire designed to assess moderate to vigorous physical activity in children. Currently however, there are no data supporting the use of the PAQ-C in British samples. Design Two studies using independent samples assessed the psychometric properties of the PAQ-C in children aged 9–11 from the UK. Method Study one (N = 336) examined general test score characteristics, internal reliability, factor structure and construct validity of the PAQ-C with the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI). Study two (N = 131) re-examined the factor structure and assessed convergent validity with BMI and cardiovascular fitness (CVF). Results The PAQ-C had acceptable item distribution, item total correlations (>.30) and internal reliability (α = .82 & .84). Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) identified two factors which appear to be sensitive to the context in which the activity is performed ‘in school’ and ‘out of school’. The PAQ-C was related to the SRHI (r = .30) and inversely related to CVF (r = −.38) but not with BMI. Conclusions With the exception of one problematic item; physical activity during PE, several analyses suggested that the PAQ-C had acceptable measurement properties in this group. Pragmatically, the ease of use and efficient format of the PAQ-C makes it a feasible option for large studies and/or when time, money and manpower are limited. That said, further development of the PAQ-C may be required for younger samples and its usefulness for intervention research has yet to be established.
  • Inconsistency of decision-making, the Achilles heel of referees

    Nevill, Alan M.; Hemingway, Alex; Greaves, Rupert; Dallaway, Alex; Devonport, Tracey J. (Taylor & Francis, 2016-12-12)
    This study assessed whether decisions made by six qualified referees were consistent when watching the live 2016 televised Champions League Final. Referees were paired off into three separate rooms. Two referees watched the game with no supporters present. Two watched the game surrounded by Real Madrid supporters, and the remaining two watched the game surrounded by Athletic Madrid supporters. Referees were asked to decide whether each decision made by the on-field referee was either correct or incorrect. Results identified two types of refereeing inconsistency. The first type was a systematic tendency of the supporting crowds (both rooms) to influence the adjudicating referees to make fewer incorrect (disagree with the on-field referee) decisions (8 and 5) than referees in the “no supporters” room (19) (χ2 = 11.22 [df = 2], P = 0.004). The second type of inconsistency was the home advantage “bias”, where the surrounding crowd influenced the adjudicating referees to favour their team, by disagreeing with the decision made by the on-field referee (χ2 = 6.0 [df = 2], P = 0.0498). One explanation for these inconsistencies is that referees adopt a coping strategy of “avoidance”, i.e., when faced with difficult decisions, referees simply avoid making unpopular decisions by waving “play on”.
  • Online mood profiling and self-regulation of affective responses

    Lane, Andrew M.; Terry, P. C. (Routledge, 2016-02)
    The link between affective responses and performance in sports is well established (Beedie, Terry, & Lane, 2000; Hanin, 1997, 2010) and it is not uncommon for athletes to attribute poor performance to an inability to get into the right mood or to keep their emotions in check. Such reflections suggest that individuals are able to identify an optimal mindset for performance and that self-regulation of psychological states is a feature of preparation for competition. The present chapter explores strategies that athletes might use to generate their optimal mindset, including an online method of mood profiling that enables athletes to monitor how they feel, to consider whether that is how they want to feel, and offers suggested self-regulation strategies.
  • Using emotion to generate energy

    Lane, Andrew M. (YouTube, 2016-08)
  • Interpersonal emotion regulation in team sport: mechanisms and reasons to regulate teammates' emotions examined

    Lane, Andrew M; Campo,M; Sanchez, X; Ferrand, C; Rosnet, E; Friesen, A (Taylor & Francis, 2016-01)
    The interpersonal dimension of emotion regulation in the field of sport has lately received a burgeoning interest. Nevertheless, how and why athletes regulate their teammates' emotions in competitive setting remains unclear. Across two studies within a team sport context, we uncovered athletes' mechanisms for, and reasons to regulate teammates' emotions during competition. In Study 1, we investigated how rugby (N = 22 males) players' emotions were self- and interpersonally regulated during games. Findings revealed the emergence of a continuum of self-involvement in the regulatory processes, wherein two forms of emotion regulation co-existed: self-regulation (total self-involvement) and interpersonal regulation, which included co-regulation (partial self-involvement; regulation with others) and extrinsic regulation (no self-involvement; regulation by/of others). In Study 2, we examined the motives that lead rugby (n = 30 males) players to use interpersonal extrinsic regulation strategies during games. Interview data indicated that players regulated teammates' emotions for altruistic reasons (to help a teammate), egoistic reasons (for one's own benefits), or both. Overall, our findings further knowledge to better understand interpersonal emotion regulation within competitive team sport contexts. From an applied perspective, findings highlight the role that both individual goals and ego involvement may play in optimising efficient interpersonal regulation during competition at team level.
  • Brief Online Training Enhances Competitive Performance: Findings of the BBC Lab UK Psychological Skills Intervention Study.

    Lane, Andrew M; Totterdell, Peter; MacDonald, Ian; Devonport, Tracey J; Friesen, Andrew P; Beedie, Christopher J; Stanley, Damian; Nevill, Alan (, 2016-03)
    In conjunction with BBC Lab UK, the present study developed 12 brief psychological skill interventions for online delivery. A protocol was designed that captured data via self-report measures, used video recordings to deliver interventions, involved a competitive concentration task against an individually matched computer opponent, and provided feedback on the effects of the interventions. Three psychological skills were used; imagery, self-talk, and if-then planning, with each skill directed to one of four different foci: outcome goal, process goal, instruction, or arousal-control. This resulted in 12 different intervention participant groups (randomly assigned) with a 13th group acting as a control. Participants (n = 44,742) completed a competitive task four times-practice, baseline, following an intervention, and again after repeating the intervention. Results revealed performance improved following practice with incremental effects for imagery-outcome, imagery-process, and self-talk-outcome and self-talk-process over the control group, with the same interventions increasing the intensity of effort invested, arousal and pleasant emotion. Arousal-control interventions associated with pleasant emotions, low arousal, and low effort invested in performance. Instructional interventions were not effective. Results offer support for the utility of online interventions in teaching psychological skills and suggest brief interventions that focus on increasing motivation, increased arousal, effort invested, and pleasant emotions were the most effective.
  • Misuse of "Power" and Other Mechanical Terms in Sport and Exercise Science Research.

    Winter, Edward M; Abt, Grant; Brookes, F B Carl; Challis, John H; Fowler, Neil E; Knudson, Duane V; Knuttgen, Howard G; Kraemer, William J; Lane, Andrew M; van Mechelen, Willem; Morton, R Hugh; Newton, Robert U; Williams, Clyde; Yeadon, M R (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016-10)
    Despite the Système International d'Unitès (SI) that was published in 1960, there continues to be widespread misuse of the terms and nomenclature of mechanics in descriptions of exercise performance. Misuse applies principally to failure to distinguish between mass and weight, velocity and speed, and especially the terms "work" and "power." These terms are incorrectly applied across the spectrum from high-intensity short-duration to long-duration endurance exercise. This review identifies these misapplications and proposes solutions. Solutions include adoption of the term "intensity" in descriptions and categorizations of challenge imposed on an individual as they perform exercise, followed by correct use of SI terms and units appropriate to the specific kind of exercise performed. Such adoption must occur by authors and reviewers of sport and exercise research reports to satisfy the principles and practices of science and for the field to advance.
  • Environmental Influences on Elite Sport Athletes Well Being: From Gold, Silver, and Bronze to Blue Green and Gold.

    Donnelly, Aoife A; MacIntyre, Tadhg E; O'Sullivan, Nollaig; Warrington, Giles; Harrison, Andrew J; Igou, Eric R; Jones, Marc; Gidlow, Chris; Brick, Noel; Lahart, Ian; Cloak, Ross; Lane, Andrew M (Frontiers, 2016)
    This paper considers the environmental impact on well-being and performance in elite athletes during Olympic competition. The benefits of exercising in natural environments are recognized, but less is known about the effects on performance and health in elite athletes. Although some Olympic events take place in natural environments, the majority occur in the host city, usually a large densely populated area where low exposure to natural environments is compounded by exposure to high levels of air, water, and noise pollution in the ambient environment. By combining methods and expertise from diverse but inter-related disciplines including environmental psychology, exercise physiology, biomechanics, environmental science, and epidemiology, a transdisciplinary approach will facilitate a greater understanding of the effects of the environment on Olympic athletes.
  • Emotions and performance in rugby

    Lane, A. M.; Campo, M.; Champely, S.; Rosnet, E; Ferrand C (Elsevier, 2016-05)
    Purpose: This study investigated emotion-performance relationships in rugby union. We identified which emotions rugby players experienced and the extent to which these emotions were associated with performance, considering how emotions unfold over the course of a game, and whether the game was played at home or away. Methods: Data were gathered from 22 professional male rugby union players using auto-confrontation interviews to help identify situations within games when players experienced intense emotions. We assessed the intensity of emotions experienced before each discrete performance and therefore could assess emotion-performance relationships within competition. Results: Players identified experiencing intense emotions at 189 time-points. Experts in rugby union rated the quality of each performance at these 189 time-points on a visual analog scale. A Linear Mixed Effects model to investigate emotion-performance relationships found additive effects of game location, game time, and emotions on individual performance. Conclusion: Results showed 7 different pre-performance emotions, with high anxiety and anger associating with poor performance. Future research should continue to investigate emotion-performance relationships during performance using video-assisted recall and use a measure of performance that has face validity for players and coaches alike.
  • The influence of motivation and attentional style on affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes of an exercise class

    Jones, L.; Karageorghis, C. I.; Lane, A. M.; Bishop, D. T.; Academy of Sport and Physical Activity; Sheffield Hallam University; Sheffield UK; Department of Life Sciences; Brunel University London; Uxbridge UK; Institute of Sport; University of Wolverhampton; Wolverhampton UK; Department of Life Sciences; Brunel University London; Uxbridge UK (Wiley, 2015-11)
    Exercise classes are a popular form of physical activity. A greater understanding of the individual difference factors that might influence the outcomes of such classes could help to minimize the high dropout rates associated with exercise. The study explored the effects of dominant attentional style and degree of self-determination on affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes following structured exercise classes. Data from 417 female participants revealed that those with a dominant attentional style for association (Associators) reported significantly (P < 0.05) more positive affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes than did Dissociators, and were more self-determined. Highly self-determined individuals reported the most positive outcomes. Almost 29% of the variance in participants' affective valence could be explained by Dissociators' behavioral regulations. Results lend support to the notion that attentional style is associated with motivation. The combination of attentional style and degree of self-determination appear to be noteworthy individual difference factors that influence responses to exercise classes and could thus have a bearing on long-term exercise adherence.
  • “You really could be something quite special”: A qualitative exploration of athletes' experiences of being inspired in sport

    Figgins, Sean G.; Smith, Matthew J.; Greenlees, Iain A.; Knight, Camilla J.; Sellars, Christopher (Elsevier, 2016-05)
    Objectives: The purpose of this research was to provide an explicit examination of inspiration in sport. In Study 1, we explored (a) what inspires athletes in sport, and (b) the consequences of being inspired. The aims of Study 2 were to explore (a) the contexts in which leaders inspired athletes, (b) leader behaviours and actions that inspire athletes, and (c) the consequences of being inspired by leaders. Design: Two qualitative descriptive studies were conducted in order to explore athletes' experiences of being inspired. Method: In Study 1, 95 athletes wrote about an experience of being inspired in sport. Study 2 utilised semi-structured interviews to explore 17 athletes' experiences of being inspired by leadership. Data were analysed via inductive thematic analysis. Results: In Study 1, athletes' responses revealed three sources of inspiration: personal performance, accomplishments, and thoughts; role models; and leadership. Findings from Study 2 indicated that athletes were inspired by a range of leadership behaviours (e.g., demonstrations of belief) in a variety of, mainly negative, situations (e.g., following poor performance). Broadly, findings from both studies revealed inspiration to impact on athletes' awareness of their capabilities, confidence, motivation, and behaviour. Conclusions: Overall, the findings indicate that an experience of inspiration can be evoked by a range of sources (most prominently leadership) and can have a powerful effect on athletes and their performance. Further research is required to understand how and why leaders can exert an inspirational impact on athletes.
  • Professional Soccer Player Neuromuscular Responses and Perceptions to Acute Whole Body Vibration Differ from Amateur Counterparts.

    Cloak, Ross; Lane, Andrew; Wyon, Matthew (2016-03)
    Acute whole body vibration (WBV) is an increasingly popular training technique amongst athletes immediately prior to performance and during scheduled breaks in play. Despite its growing popularity, evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness on acute neuromuscular responses is unclear, and suggestions that athlete ability impacts effectiveness warrant further investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular effects of acute WBV and perceptions of whether WBV is an effective intervention between amateur and professional soccer players. Participants were 44 male soccer players (22 professional and 22 amateur; age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body mass: 75.6 ± 8.8 kg and height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m). Participants in each group were randomly assigned to either an intervention of 3 x 60 s of WBV at 40 Hz (8mm peak-to-peak displacement) or control group. Peak knee isometric force, muscle activation and post activation potentiation (PAP) of the knee extensors along with self-report questionnaire of the perceived benefits of using the intervention were collected. A three-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed professional players demonstrated a significant 10.6% increase (p < 0.01, Partial Eta(2) = 0.22) in peak knee isometric force following acute WBV with no significant differences among amateur players. A significant difference (p < 0.01, Partial Eta(2) = 0.16) in PAP amongst professional players following acute WBVT was also reported. No significant differences amongst amateur players were reported across measurements. Results also indicated professional players reported significantly stronger positive beliefs in the effectiveness of the WBV intervention (p < 0.01, Partial Eta(2) = 0.27) compared to amateur players. Acute WBV elicited a positive neuromuscular response amongst professional players identified by PAP and improvements in knee isometric peak force as well as perceived benefits of the intervention, benefits not found among amateur players. Key pointsAcute WBV improves knee extensor peak isometric force output and PAP amongst professional and not amateur soccer playersProfessional players perceived acute WBV as more beneficial to performance than amateur playersIsometric strength,vibration intensity and duration appear to influence results amongst players of different playing levels.
  • Acute Effects of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Muscle Strength in Judoka Athletes: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial.

    Wyon, Matthew; Wolman, Roger; Nevill, Alan M; Cloak, Ross; Metsios, George S; Gould, Douglas; Ingham, Andrew; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Wolters Kluwer Health, 2015-11-02)
    Objective: Indoor athletes have been shown to be prone to vitamin D3 deficiency. The aim of the study was to examine the acute effects of vitamin D supplementation on muscle function using isokinetic dynamometry. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Setting: Institutional. Participants: Adult male white national level judoka athletes (n = 22) who were involved in full-time training. Exclusion criteria were vitamin supplementation, overseas travel to sunny climes, and/or an injury incurred during the last 3 months before testing. Interventions: Subjects were randomly allocated to the treatment (150 000IU vitamin D3) or placebo and given blinded supplements by an independent researcher. Participants were tested twice, 8 days apart, on a Monday morning before the start of judo training and after 2 days of rest. A 5 to 7 mL of blood sample was collected followed by isokinetic concentric quadriceps and hamstring muscle function assessments on the right leg at 30 and 200°·s. Main outcome measures: Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze isokinetic muscle force and serum 25(OH)D3. Regression to the mean was used to examine changes in 25(OH)D3 levels over the study period. Results: The treatment group demonstrated a significant increase in serum 25(OH)D levels (34%, P ≤ 0.001) and muscle strength (13%, P = 0.01) between days 1 and 8. No significant differences were found for the placebo group for the same period. Conclusions: A single bolus of 150 000IU vitamin D3 had a significant positive effect on serum 25(OH)D levels and muscle function in vitamin D insufficient elite indoor athletes. Clinical relevance: Serum 25(OH)D3 levels of indoor athletes should be monitored throughout the year and especially during winter months. Beneficial responses, in muscle strength and serum 25(OH)D3, to 1 dose of vitamin D3 supplementation can be observed within 1 week of ingestion. Muscle strength is linked to serum 25(OH)D levels. Acute Effects of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Muscle Strength in Judoka Athletes: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial (PDF Download Available). Available from: [accessed May 10, 2016].
  • Acute inflammation response to stretching: a randomised trial

    Wyon, Matthew; Apostolopoulos, N; Metsios, G; Tauton, J;; Koutedakis, Y (Società Scientifica di Riabilitazione e Posturologia dello Sport, 2015-09)
    Background: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of an intense stretch on selected serum-based muscle inflammation biomarkers. Methods: A randomised within-subject crossover trial was conducted with 12 healthy recreationally active males (age: 29±4.33yrs, mass: 79.3±8.78kg, height: 1.76±0.06m) participating in both an intense stretching and control intervention. During the stretch intervention the hamstrings, gluteals and quadriceps were exposed to an intense stretch by the same therapist, in order to standardise the stretch intensity for all participants. The stretch was maintained at a level rated as discomfort and/or mild pain with use of a numerical rating scale (NRS). Each muscle group was stretched for 3 x 60 seconds for both sides of the body equating to a total of 18 minutes. During the control intervention, participants rested for an equivalent amount of time. A 5ml blood sample was collected pre-, immediately post, and at 24h post for both conditions to assess the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Participants provided information about their level of muscle soreness 24, 48, and 72h post treatment, using a numeric rating scale. Results: hsCRP increased significantly at 24h compared to control and immediate post stretch intervention, for time (p=0.005), and time x condition (p=0.006). No significance was observed for IL-6, IL-1β or TNF-α (p>0.05). Conclusion: It is observed that intense stretching may lead to an acute inflammatory response supported by the significant increase in hsCRP. Acute Inflammation Response to Stretching : a Randomised Trial (PDF Download Available). Available from: [accessed May 10, 2016].
  • The relevance of stretch intensity and position-a systematic review.

    Apostolopoulos, Nikos; Metsios, George S; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew (Frontiers, 2015)
    Stretching exercises to increase the range of motion (ROM) of joints have been used by sports coaches and medical professionals for improving performance and rehabilitation. The ability of connective and muscular tissues to change their architecture in response to stretching is important for their proper function, repair, and performance. Given the dearth of relevant data in the literature, this review examined two key elements of stretching: stretch intensity and stretch position; and their significance to ROM, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and inflammation in different populations. A search of three databases, Pub-Med, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Reviews, identified 152 articles, which were subsequently categorized into four groups: athletes (24), clinical (29), elderly (12), and general population (87). The use of different populations facilitated a wider examination of the stretching components and their effects. All 152 articles incorporated information regarding duration, frequency and stretch position, whereas only 79 referred to the intensity of stretching and 22 of these 79 studies were deemed high quality. It appears that the intensity of stretching is relatively under-researched, and the importance of body position and its influence on stretch intensity, is largely unknown. In conclusion, this review has highlighted areas for future research, including stretch intensity and position and their effect on musculo-tendinous tissue, in relation to the sensation of pain, delayed onset muscle soreness, inflammation, as well as muscle health and performance.
  • The acute effects of vibration stimulus following FIFA 11+ on agility and reactive strength in collegiate soccer players

    Cloak, R.; Nevill, A M; Smith, J; Wyon, Matthew (Elsevier, 2014-12)
    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the effects of combining the FIFA 11+ and acute vibration training on reactive strength index (RSI) and 505 agility. Methods Seventy-four male collegiate soccer players took part in the study and were randomly assigned to FIFA 11+ with acute vibration group (FIFA + WBV), FIFA 11+ with isometric squat group (FIFA + IS) or a control group consisting of the FIFA 11+ alone (Con). The warm-up consisted of the FIFA 11+ and was administered to all participants. The participants in the acute vibration group were exposed to 30 s whole body vibration in squat position immediately post warm-up. The isometric group completed an isometric squat for 30 s immediately post warm-up. Results RSI significantly improved pre- to post-intervention amongst FIFA + WBV (p < 0.001) due to a decrease in contact time (p < 0.001) in comparison to FIFA + IS and Con, but 505 agility was not affected. Conclusion The results of this study suggest the inclusion of an acute bout of WBV post FIFA 11+ warm-up produces a neuromuscular response leading to an improvement in RSI. Future research is required to examine the exact mechanisms behind these improvements amongst other populations and over time course of the performance.
  • The acute effects of vibration training on balance and stability amongst soccer players.

    Cloak, Ross; Nevill, A M; Wyon, Matthew; Day, S (Taylor & Francis, 2016)
    Acute whole body vibration training (WBVT) is a tool used amongst coaches to improve performance prior to activity. Its effects on other fitness components, such as balance and stability, along with how different populations respond are less well understood. The aim of the current research is to determine the effect of acute WBVT on balance and stability amongst elite and amateur soccer players. Forty-four healthy male soccer players (22 elite and 22 amateur) were assigned to a treatment or control group. The intervention group then performed 3 × 60 seconds static squat on vibration platform at 40 Hz (±4 mm) with Y balance test (YBT) scores and dynamic postural stability index (DPSI) measured pre and post. DPSI was significantly lower in the elite players in the acute WBVT compared to amateur players (F1, 40= 6.80; P = 0.013). YBT anterior reach distance showed a significant improvement in both amateur and elite players in the acute WBVT group (F1, 40= 32.36; P < 0.001). The improvement in DPSI amongst the elite players indicates a difference in responses to acute high frequency vibration between elite and amateur players during a landing stability task. The results indicate that acute WBVT improves anterior YBT reach distances through a possible improvement in flexibility amongst both elite and amateur players. In conclusion, acute WBVT training appears to improve stability amongst elite soccer players in comparison to amateur players, the exact reasoning behind this difference requires further investigation.
  • Six-week combined vibration and wobble board training on balance and stability in footballers with functional ankle instability.

    Cloak, Ross; Nevill, Alan; Day, Stephen; Wyon, Matthew (Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2013-09)
    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of a combination of vibration and wobble board training against wobble board training alone in footballers suffering from functional ankle instability (FAI). Design: A 2 · 3 prefactorial–postfactorial design. Setting: University research laboratory. Participants: Thirty-three male semiprofessional footballers with self-reported unilateral FAI were randomly assigned in 3 groups: vibration and wobble board (mean age 22.2 years), wobble board (mean age 22.7 years), and control (mean age 23.1 years). Interventions: Participants in each intervention group performed a 6-week progressive rehabilitation program using a wobble board, either with or without the addition of vibration stimulus. Main Outcome Measures: Absolute center of mass (COM) distribution during single-leg stance, modified star excursion balance test (SEBT) reach distances, and single-leg triple hop for distance (SLTHD) were measured before and after 6-week intervention. Results: Combined vibration and wobble board training resulted in AU3 reduced COM distribution [P # 0.001, effect size (ES) = 0.66], increased SEBT reach distances (P # 0.01 and P # 0.002, ES = 0.19 and 0.29, respectively), and increased SLTHD (P # 0.001, ES = 0.33) compared with wobble board training alone during the course of the 6-week training intervention. Conclusions: Combined vibration and wobble board training improves COM distribution, modified SEBT scores and SLTHD among footballers suffering FAI, compared with wobble board training alone.

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