Recent Submissions

  • The effects of low-volume, high-intensity training on performance parameters in competitive youth swimmers

    Nugent, Frank; Comyns, Thomas; Nevill, Alan; Warrington, Giles D. (Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc, 2018)
    Purpose: To assess the effects of a 7 week low-volume, high-intensity training (HIT) intervention on performance parameters in national level youth swimmers. Methods: Sixteen swimmers (age 15.8 ± 1.0 years, age at peak height velocity 12.9 ± 0.6 years, 100-m freestyle 61.4 ± 4.1 s) were randomly assigned to a HIT group or low-intensity, high-volume training (HVT) group which acted as a control. The HIT group reduced their weekly training volume of zone 1 (low-intensity) training by 50% but increased zone 3 (high-intensity) training by 200%. The HVT group performed training as normal. Pre to post-test measures of physiological performance (velocity at 2.5-mM and 4-mM blood lactate [velocity2.5mM and velocity4mM] and peak blood lactate), biomechanical performance (stroke rate [SR], stroke length [SL] and stroke index [SI] over a 50 and 400-m freestyle) and swimming performance (50-m, 200-m and 400-m freestyle) were assessed. Results: There was no significant three-way interactions between time, group and sex for all performance parameters (P >.05). There was a significant two-way interaction between time and group for velocity4mM (P = .02, ηp2 = .40), SL50 (P = .03, ηp2 = .37) and SI50 (P = .03, ηp2 = .39). Velocity4mM decreased in the HIT group but increased in the HVT group while SL50 and SI50 decreased in the HVT group. Conclusions: A 7 week HIT intervention was neither beneficial nor detrimental to performance parameters however the HIT group completed 6 hours (17.0-km) swimming per week compared to 12 hours (33.4-km) per week for the HVT group.
  • Cardiorespiratory Profile and Performance Demands of Elite Hip-Hop Dancers: Breaking and New Style.

    Wyon, Matthew A; Harris, Julie; Adams, Faye; Cloak, Ross; Clarke, Francis A; Bryant, Janine (Scandmed, 2018-09-01)
    Dancers need to constantly maintain and develop their physiological capabilities to support their performances. Previously these physiological demands have been investigated only in traditional dance styles such as ballet and modern. The aim of this study was to examine the physiological demands of two types of hip-hop: new style and break dance. Nine female new style dancers (age 20±6 yrs, height 163.5±1.4 cm, mass 55.8±22 kg) and 9 male break dancers (age 23±4.2 yrs, height 178.2±5.7 cm, mass 62.1±7.7 kg) volunteered for the study. Each subject completed a maximal graded treadmill test and a dance performance routine, either new style (approx 1:45-2:30 min) or breaking (2 min). Breathe-by-breathe gas analysis and heart rate (HR) were collected by a portable gas analyser, and blood lactate (BLa) was measured at the end of the treadmill test and each routine. The male breaker dancers had significantly higher VO2 peak than other equivalent dancers in other genres, whilst the female new style dancers were similar to that previously reported for female dancers. Performance data showed significant differences between the two styles for VO2, HR, and BLa (p<0.001) and for VO2 and HR relative to individual maximal treadmill data (p<0.05). New style is more comparable to other theatrical dance genres, with a lower relative mean VO2 demand, whilst break dance is shorter in duration, allowing a higher cardiorespiratory demand and generating significant levels of blood lactate. This difference is also reflected in the dancers' cardiorespiratory profiles.
  • Changes in Energy Demand of Dance Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness During One Year of Vocational Contemporary Dance Training

    Beck, Sarah; Wyon, Matthew A; Redding, Emma (Wolters Kluwer, 2017-11)
    Previous literature has demonstrated that the intensity of dance class, as well as its discontinuous nature, is not sufficient to elicit an aerobic training response and that the aerobic capacity of dancers is relatively low. These findings have raised questions of the suitability of training, through class and rehearsal, as adequate preparation for the physical demands of performance and a sustained, successful career in dance. The aim of this study was to describe changes in aerobic fitness and energy cost of dance movement occurring throughout one year of training. Subjects were thirteen female dance students; seven first year undergraduate students (UG), and six postgraduate students (PG). At three time-points (TP1, TP2, TP3) during one academic year each subject completed a treadmill test, to determine VO2peak ( and lactate threshold (LT) ( and %VO2peak), and a standardised four-minute dance sequence, where mean demand was expressed as VO2 (, heart rate (b.min-1), %VO2peak, and %LT. Both groups displayed an overall decrease in mean VO2peak throughout the year, despite a peak in fitness at TP2 in the PG students. No significant changes in LT were noted over time for either group. A significant reduction in the relative intensity of the dance sequence, particularly in relation to mean VO2 ( and %LT data, was observed over time in both groups although the degree of change was less in the UG group than the PG group. Apparent adaptations during a rehearsal period in the PG group are presented in contrast to previous research findings. Recommendations for future research include further investigation into the energy demand of rehearsal and cardiorespiratory adaptation during rehearsal periods as well as further reporting of measures related to LT and movement economy.
  • Self-reported symptoms of eating disorders amongst university dance students

    van Staden, A; Lane, A M; Wyon, Matthew (AFAHPER-SD, 2017)
    Eating disturbances are common amongst female athletes, especially those participating in dance. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of eating disorder risk symptoms amongst female student dancers. Fifty-eight female university dancers completed a self-report measure of eating disorders and eating disorder correlates, along with factors hypothesised to be associated with the concept, including perfectionism and anxiety. Height and body mass were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Results indicated that psychological variables correlated positively with eating disorder risk, and that BMI and ineffectiveness were correlates best associated with eating disorder risk for these dancers. Results indicated that the screening of dancers using a self-report measure can help to identify dancers suffering from poor psychological health of which one characteristic is disordered eating. Given the implications of well-being and performance, we suggest that future research should investigate factors associated with eating disorders and that course administrators and health practitioners consider these factors when facilitating and optimising the mental health and performance of dancers.
  • Bone mass of female dance students prior to professional dance training: A cross-sectional study

    Amorim, Tânia; Metsios, George S.; Wyon, Matthew; Nevill, Alan M.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Maia, José; Teixeira, Eduardo; Machado, José Carlos; Marques, Franklim; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Plos, 2017-07-05)
    Summary According to existing literature, bone health in ballet dancers is controversial. We have verified that, compared to controls, young female and male vocational ballet dancers have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at both impact and non-impact sites, whereas female professional ballet dancers have lower BMD only at non-impact sites. Introduction The aims of this study were to (a) assess bone mineral density (BMD) in vocational (VBD) and professional (PBD) ballet dancers and (b) investigate its association with body mass (BM), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), maturation and menarche. Methods The total of 152 VBD (13 ± 2.3 years; 112 girls, 40 boys) and 96 controls (14 ± 2.1 years; 56 girls, 40 boys) and 184 PBD (28 ± 8.5 years; 129 females, 55 males) and 160 controls (27 ± 9.5 years; 110 female, 50 males) were assessed at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), forearm and total body by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Maturation and menarche were assessed via questionnaires. Results VBD revealed lower unadjusted BMD at all anatomical sites compared to controls (p < 0.001); following adjustments for Tanner stage and gynaecological age, female VBD showed similar BMD values at impact sites. However, no factors were found to explain the lower adjusted BMD values in VBD (female and male) at the forearm (non-impact site), nor for the lower adjusted BMD values in male VBD at the FN. Compared to controls, female PBD showed higher unadjusted and adjusted BMDfor potential associated factors at the FN (impact site) (p < 0.001) and lower adjusted at the forearm (p < 0.001). Male PBD did not reveal lower BMD than controls at any site. Conclusions Both females and males VBD have lower BMDat impact and non-impact sites compared to control, whereas this is only the case at non-impact site in female PBD. Maturation seems to explain the lower BMDat impact sites in female VBD.
  • The Effects of Coping Interventions on Ability to Perform Under Pressure

    Kent, S; Lane, A M; Devonport, Tracey; Nicholls, W; Friesen, A P (Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2018-06)
    The ability to perform under pressure is necessary to achieve goals in various domains of life. We conducted a systematic review to synthesise findings from applied studies that focus on interventions developed to enhance an individual's ability to cope under performance pressure. Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a comprehensive search of five electronic databases was conducted. This yielded 66,618 records, of which 23 peer review papers met inclusion criteria of containing an intervention that targeted coping skills for performing under pressure. Using the Standard Quality Assessment for evaluation of primary research papers (Kmet et al., 2004) to assess quality, included studies performed well on reporting research objectives, research design, and statistical procedures. Sixteen studies showed poor quality in controlling for potentially confounding factors and small sample sizes. A narrative aggregate synthesis identified intervention studies that provided an educational focus (n = 9), consultancy sessions (n = 6), simulation training (n = 5) and emotion regulation strategies (n = 3). Findings highlight a need to; 1) establish a contextualized pressure task which will generate high levels of ecological validity for participants. Having established a suitable pressure task, 2) research should assess the effects of pressure by evaluating conscious and nonconscious effects and associated coping mechanisms, which should inform the subsequent development of interventions, and 3) assess interventions to enhance understanding of the ways in which they improve coping with pressure, or may fail, and the mechanisms which may explain these outcomes.
  • Current issues in contemporary sport development

    Biscomb, Kay; Medcalf, Richard; Griggs, Gerald. (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2016-01)
  • Opportunity through Sport

    Medcalf, Richard,; Biscomb, Kay. (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015-10)
  • Leg-Length in Relation to Selected Ballet Performance Indicators

    Karpodini, C.C.; Wyon, M.A.; Comoutos, N.; Koutedakis, Y. (Science & Medicine, Inc, 2017-09-08)
    It is unclear whether the modern ballet body stereotype of long limbs is advantageous in dance performance. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between leg-length and selected dance movements representative of power, dexterity, and range of motion in ballet dancers at different competence levels. METHODS: The total of 10 recreational, 24 vocational, and 10 professional ballerinas volunteered. They were subjected to: a) lower limb-length measurements, b) power tests (vertical jump-sautés and unilateral countermovement jump-temps levé), c) dexterity tests (tendus and double battement frappes), and d) flexibility tests (lateral active and passive-développé à la seconde). RESULTS: For power, regression analyses revealed negative leg-length relationships in recreational dancers (p<0.05) and positive leg-length relationships in vocational dancers (p<0.05). We also found negative relationships between leg-length and dexterity in the vocational group (p=0.01). No significant predictions of leg-length on power, dexterity, and range of motion were found in professional dancers. Multiple comparisons revealed significant differences between groups only for dexterity (p<0.01) and range of motion (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Based on selected movements representative of power, dexterity, and range of motion, the present exploratory data indicate that lower limb length is not a determinative criterion for ballet success. Further studies should investigate whether body stereotypes, such as long limbs, are linked to dance injuries
  • The effects of a home-based physical activity intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness in breast cancer survivors; a randomised controlled trial

    Lahart, Ian M.; Carmichael, Amtul R.; Nevill, Alan M.; Kitas, George D.; Metsios, George S.; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, Institute of Sport, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall, UK; Life & Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, Institute of Sport, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall, UK; Department of Research and Development, Dudley Group NHS Foundation Trust, Russells Hall Hospital, Dudley, UK; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, Institute of Sport, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall, UK (Routeledge, 2017-07-26)
    The aim of this current randomised controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a home-based physical activity (PA) intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness in breast cancer survivors. Thirty-two post-adjuvant therapy breast cancer survivors (age = 52 ± 10 years; BMI = 27.2 ± 4.4 kg∙m2) were randomised to a six-month home-based PA intervention with face-to-face and telephone PA counselling or usual care. Cardiorespiratory fitness and self-reported PA were assessed at baseline and at six-months. Participants had a mean relative V̇O2max of 25.3 ± 4.7 ml∙kg−1∙min−1, which is categorised as “poor” according to age and gender matched normative values. Magnitude-based inference analyses revealed likely at least small beneficial effects (effect sizes ≥.20) on absolute and relative V̇O2 max (d = .44 and .40, respectively), and total and moderate PA (d = .73 and .59, respectively) in the intervention compared to the usual care group. We found no likely beneficial improvements in any other outcome. Our home-based PA intervention led to likely beneficial, albeit modest, increases in cardiorespiratory fitness and self-reported PA in breast cancer survivors. This intervention has the potential for widespread implementation and adoption, which could considerably impact on post-treatment recovery in this population.
  • Bone mass of female dance students prior to professional dance training: A cross-sectional study

    Amorim, Tânia; Metsios, Giorgos S.; Nevill, Alan M.; Wyon, Matthew; Flouris, Andreas D.; Maia, José; Teixeira, E; Machado, José Carlos; Marques, Franklim; Koutedakis, Yiannis (PLOS one, 2017-07)
    Article Authors Metrics Comments Related Content Abstract Introduction Methods Results Discussion Conclusions Acknowledgments References Reader Comments (0) Media Coverage (0) Figures Abstract Background Professional dancers are at risk of developing low bone mineral density (BMD). However, whether low BMD phenotypes already exist in pre-vocational dance students is relatively unknown. Aim To cross-sectionally assess bone mass parameters in female dance students selected for professional dance training (first year vocational dance students) in relation to aged- and sex-matched controls. Methods 34 female selected for professional dance training (10.9yrs ±0.7) and 30 controls (11.1yrs ±0.5) were examined. Anthropometry, pubertal development (Tanner) and dietary data (3-day food diary) were recorded. BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) at forearm, femur neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) were assessed using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. Volumetric densities were estimated by calculating bone mineral apparent density (BMAD). Results Dancers were mainly at Tanner pubertal stage I (vs. stage IV in controls, p<0.001), and demonstrated significantly lower body weight (p<0.001) and height (p<0.01) than controls. Calorie intake was not different between groups, but calcium intake was significantly greater in dancers (p<0.05). Dancers revealed a significantly lower BMC and BMD values at all anatomical sites (p<0.001), and significantly lower BMAD values at the LS and FN (p<0.001). When adjusted for covariates (body weight, height, pubertal development and calcium intake), dance students continued to display a significantly lower BMD and BMAD at the FN (p<0.05; p<0.001) at the forearm (p<0.01). Conclusion Before undergoing professional dance training, first year vocational dance students demonstrated inferior bone mass compared to controls. Longitudinal models are required to assess how bone health-status changes with time throughout professional training.
  • Physical Activity Levels of Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Physical Activity in T1D

    de Lima, Valderi Abreu; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; Decimo, Juliana Pereira; de Souza, William Cordeiro; Monteiro, Anna Louise Stellfeld; Lahart, Ian; França, Suzana Nesi; Leite, Neiva; Federal University of Paraná; Federal University of Paraná; Federal University of Paraná; University of Contestado; Universidade Federal do Parana; University of Wolverhampton; Universidade Federal do Parana; Federal University of Paraná (Human Kinetics, 2017-05)
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in comparison with healthy scholar participants. Total of 154 teenagers (T1D = 45 and CON = 109). Height, weight, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), and the level of physical activity by the Bouchard’s Physical Activity Record were measured, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in T1D. The VO2max was lower in the T1D (38.38 ± 7.54) in comparison with the CON (42.44 ± 4.65; p < .05). The VO2max had correlation with the amount of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (r = .63; p = .0001) and an inverse correlation with sedentary activities (r= -0.46; p = .006). In the T1D the levels of HbA1c had an inverse correlation with the amount of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (r= -0.34; p = .041) and correlation with the BMI z-score (r = .43; p = .017). Only 37,8% of the participants in the T1D reached the adequate amount of daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, in the CON 81,7% reached the WHO’s recommendation. Conclusion: T1D had less cardiorespiratory capacity then healthy controls, the teenagers of T1D with lower BMI z-score and that dedicated a greater time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity demonstrated a better glycemic control.
  • Scaling children's waist circumference for differences in body size

    Nevill, Alan M; Duncan, Michael J.; Lahart, Ian M; Davies, Paul; Ramirez-Velez, Robinson; Sandercock, Gavin; Faculty of Education; Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton; Walsall Campus Walsall United Kingdom; Faculty of Health and Life Sciences; Coventry University; Coventry United Kingdom; Faculty of Education; Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton; Walsall Campus Walsall United Kingdom; Faculty of Education; Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton; Walsall Campus Walsall United Kingdom; Centro de Estudios en Medición de la Actividad Física (CEMA), Universidad del Rosario; Bogotá Cundinamarca Colombia; School of Biological Sciences; University of Essex; Colchester United Kingdom (Wiley, 2017-07-12)
    Objectives Both waist circumference (WC) and body size (height) increase with age throughout childhood. Hence, there is a need to scale WC in children to detect differences in adiposity status (eg, between populations and different age groups), independent of body size/height. Methods Using two culturally different samples, 1 English (10–15.9 years n = 9471) and 2 Colombian (14–15 years, n = 37,948), for WC to be independent of height (HT), a body shape index was obtained using the allometric power law WC = a.HTb. The model was linearized using log-transformation, and multiple regression/ANCOVA to estimate the height exponents for WC controlling for age, sex, and any other categorical/population differences. Results In both samples, the power-law height exponent varied systematically with age. In younger children (age 10–11 years), the exponent was approximately unity, suggesting that pre-pubertal children might be geometrically similar. In older children, the height exponent declined monotonically to 0.5 (ie, HT0.5) in 15+ year-olds, similar to the exponent observed in adults. UK children's height-adjusted WC revealed a “u” shaped curve with age that appeared to reach a minimum at peak-height velocity, different for boys and girls. Comparing the WC of two populations (UK versus Colombian 14–15-year-old children) identified that the gap in WC between the countries narrowed considerably after scaling for height. Conclusions Scaling children's WC for differences in height using allometric modeling reveals new insights into the growth and development of children's WC, findings that might well have been be overlooked if body size/height had been ignored.
  • Effects of physical activity on the link between PGC-1a and FNDC5 in muscle, circulating Ιrisin and UCP1 of white adipocytes in humans: A systematic review

    Dinas, Petros C.; Lahart, Ian M.; Timmons, James A.; Svensson, Per-Arne; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Flouris, Andreas D.; Metsios, George S. (F1000, 2017-05-26)
    Background: Exercise may activate a brown adipose-like phenotype in white adipose tissue. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the effects of physical activity on the link between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1a) and fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) in muscle, circulating Irisin and uncoupling protein one (UCP1) of white adipocytes in humans. Methods: Two databases (PubMed 1966 to 08/2016 and EMBASE 1974 to 08/2016) were searched using an appropriate algorithm. We included articles that examined physical activity and/or exercise in humans that met the following criteria: a) PGC-1a in conjunction with FNDC5 measurements, and b) FNDC5 and/or circulating Irisin and/or UCP1 levels in white adipocytes. Results: We included 51 studies (12 randomised controlled trials) with 2474 participants. Out of the 51 studies, 16 examined PGC-1a and FNDC5 in response to exercise, and only four found increases in both PGC-1a and FNDC5 mRNA and one showed increased FNDC5 mRNA. In total, 22 out of 45 studies that examined circulating Irisin in response to exercise showed increased concentrations when ELISA techniques were used; two studies also revealed increased Irisin levels measured via mass spectrometry. Three studies showed a positive association of circulating Irisin with physical activity levels. One study found no exercise effects on UCP1 mRNA in white adipocytes. Conclusions: The effects of physical activity on the link between PGC-1a, FNDC5 mRNA in muscle and UCP1 in white human adipocytes has attracted little scientific attention. Current methods for Irisin identification lack precision and, therefore, the existing evidence does not allow for conclusions to be made regarding Irisin responses to physical activity. We found a contrast between standardised review methods and accuracy of the measurements used. This should be considered in future systematic reviews.
  • Untitled

    Thomas, E. and Upton, D. (Elsevier, 2014)
    Objectives The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) is a validated self-report questionnaire designed to assess moderate to vigorous physical activity in children. Currently however, there are no data supporting the use of the PAQ-C in British samples. Design Two studies using independent samples assessed the psychometric properties of the PAQ-C in children aged 9–11 from the UK. Method Study one (N = 336) examined general test score characteristics, internal reliability, factor structure and construct validity of the PAQ-C with the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI). Study two (N = 131) re-examined the factor structure and assessed convergent validity with BMI and cardiovascular fitness (CVF). Results The PAQ-C had acceptable item distribution, item total correlations (>.30) and internal reliability (α = .82 & .84). Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) identified two factors which appear to be sensitive to the context in which the activity is performed ‘in school’ and ‘out of school’. The PAQ-C was related to the SRHI (r = .30) and inversely related to CVF (r = −.38) but not with BMI. Conclusions With the exception of one problematic item; physical activity during PE, several analyses suggested that the PAQ-C had acceptable measurement properties in this group. Pragmatically, the ease of use and efficient format of the PAQ-C makes it a feasible option for large studies and/or when time, money and manpower are limited. That said, further development of the PAQ-C may be required for younger samples and its usefulness for intervention research has yet to be established.
  • Defining instances and limbs during performance of the standing turn

    Smith, Tina; Strike, Siobhan (Elsevier, 2017-07)
    Conventions have been reported to describe walking and turning gait. No such descriptions appear for the 180° standing turn and as such there are inconsistencies in the literature reporting on this movement. The complexity of explaining the standing turning motion, variation in number of steps when turning, and differing strategies used means conventions will make research reporting easier to comprehend and less likely for errors in interpretation. We propose definitions of the 180° standing turning motion and steps used to complete a turn for able-bodied and pathological populations to encourage consistency in reporting. It is recommended that the definitions be applied in future research on standing turns.
  • Inconsistency of decision-making, the Achilles heel of referees

    Nevill, Alan M.; Hemingway, Alex; Greaves, Rupert; Dallaway, Alex; Devonport, Tracey J. (Taylor & Francis, 2016-12-12)
    This study assessed whether decisions made by six qualified referees were consistent when watching the live 2016 televised Champions League Final. Referees were paired off into three separate rooms. Two referees watched the game with no supporters present. Two watched the game surrounded by Real Madrid supporters, and the remaining two watched the game surrounded by Athletic Madrid supporters. Referees were asked to decide whether each decision made by the on-field referee was either correct or incorrect. Results identified two types of refereeing inconsistency. The first type was a systematic tendency of the supporting crowds (both rooms) to influence the adjudicating referees to make fewer incorrect (disagree with the on-field referee) decisions (8 and 5) than referees in the “no supporters” room (19) (χ2 = 11.22 [df = 2], P = 0.004). The second type of inconsistency was the home advantage “bias”, where the surrounding crowd influenced the adjudicating referees to favour their team, by disagreeing with the decision made by the on-field referee (χ2 = 6.0 [df = 2], P = 0.0498). One explanation for these inconsistencies is that referees adopt a coping strategy of “avoidance”, i.e., when faced with difficult decisions, referees simply avoid making unpopular decisions by waving “play on”.
  • Online mood profiling and self-regulation of affective responses

    Lane, Andrew M.; Terry, P. C. (Routledge, 2016-02)
    The link between affective responses and performance in sports is well established (Beedie, Terry, & Lane, 2000; Hanin, 1997, 2010) and it is not uncommon for athletes to attribute poor performance to an inability to get into the right mood or to keep their emotions in check. Such reflections suggest that individuals are able to identify an optimal mindset for performance and that self-regulation of psychological states is a feature of preparation for competition. The present chapter explores strategies that athletes might use to generate their optimal mindset, including an online method of mood profiling that enables athletes to monitor how they feel, to consider whether that is how they want to feel, and offers suggested self-regulation strategies.
  • Using emotion to generate energy

    Lane, Andrew M. (YouTube, 2016-08)
  • The Use of Recovery Strategies Among Participants of the Bupa Great North Run: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Henderson, Sarah; Smith, Tina; Alexanders, Jenny; Shaw, Thomas; Smith, Lois; Nevill, Alan; Anderson, Anna (Human Kinetics, 2016-09-26)
    Objective: To investigate half marathon runners’ frequency of use of recovery strategies, perceptions regarding the most beneficial recovery strategy and reasons for using recovery strategies. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Participants: 186 participants of the 13.1 mile BUPA Great North Run 2013. Methods: A questionnaire was developed which required participants to indicate how frequently they used twelve different recovery strategies, identify which recovery strategy they believed to be most beneficial and rank six reasons for using recovery strategies in order of importance. Data was analysed using a Friedman non-parametric ANOVA and additional non-parametric tests. Results: All participants used recovery strategies. Stretching was the most commonly used recovery strategy (p < 0.001), whereas the use of nutritional supplements was the most commonly selected most beneficial recovery strategy. Over 50% of respondents indicated that they never used strategies such as kinesio tape (80%), hydrotherapy (78%) or ice baths (71%). A significant difference was observed between reasons for using recovery strategy (χ2 (5) = 292.29, p < 0.001). Reducing muscle tightness (rank 4.87) and reducing injury (rank 4.35), were the most frequently chosen most important reasons for using recovery strategies, minor sex and age differences in the responses were identified. Conclusion: Recovery strategy usage appears to be widespread among half marathon runners; however disparities exist between the frequency of use and perceived effectiveness of different recovery strategies. Further research in this area is needed to facilitate the development of recovery strategy guidelines which are both evidence-based and practically relevant.

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