Recent Submissions

  • The International Council for Adult Education and Adult Learning Policy: Addressing the Gap between Rhetoric and Practice

    Tuckett, Alan (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015)
    The first decade of the twenty-first century began with high hopes for improved opportunities for adult learners. In 1996 a UNESCO committee produced Learning: The Treasure Within (Delors, 1996), and in the same year the finance ministers of OECD countries agreed to give new impetus to lifelong learning policies since human capital was of central importance to the prosperity of industrialized economies (OECD, 1996; Rubenson, 2009; Schuller, 2009). These initiatives were followed by two key global events at which governments signed agreements to improve opportunities for the education of adults. CONFINTEA V, which was held in Hamburg in 1997, had established a broad developmental agenda for adult education (Nesbit and Welton, 2013) which recognized its distinctive role, both as a key part of the structured educational system and as a catalyst in achieving improvements to health and wellbeing, in industrial development, and in securing vibrant democracies through their active and engaged citizens (UNESCO, 1997). In 2000 the education agenda that had been agreed a decade earlier at Jomtien, Thailand, was reviewed and strengthened at the World Education Forum (UNESCO, 2000), which was held in Dakar, Senegal. Six global goals were agreed upon, including halving the rate of illiteracy by 2015; securing gender equality in access to education for girls and women; and, more vaguely, meeting the learning needs of all young people and adults through equitable access to appropriate learning and life-skills programmes (UNESCO, 2000).
  • Reading Reader Identities: Stories about Young Adults Reading.

    Kendall, Alex (Lancaster: Lancaster University, RaPAL / Stevenage: Avantibooks, 2007)
    Alex Kendall is Associate Dean for Education at the University of Wolverhampton. Whilst this role involves her in a broad range of educational work, her focus as a teacher educator and research lies in the areas of initial teacher education and continuing professional development programmes for adult literacy specialists. Background In 2002 The Times Higher Education supplement ran a report which challenged and reoriented my thinking about reading and readers and had a profound impact on the theorising I then was immersed in as part of the PhD research process. The report sought to re-present a selection of the findings from a reading habits survey I had (tentatively) presented to the British Educational Research conference a few weeks previously. The report entitled 'Books lose out to tabloids' read, "Half of the FE students taking English courses in a deprived part of the Midlands rarely or never read for pleasure, according to a survey of students aged sixteen to nineteen at seven colleges in the Black Country. Their most popular reading matter is tabloid newspapers and magazines. Four out of five of the 340 students surveyed were studying for A-levels and three-quarters were female, yet 15 per cent said they never read for pleasure and 34 per cent did not do so regularly. The rest read for pleasure at least once or twice a week but only 3 per cent did so every day. Most preferred to socialise and watch TV. The findings were presented to last week's British Educational Research Association conference by Alex Kendall of the University of Wolverhampton. They supported views of college teachers who told her many A-level students had "poor reading skills and weak vocabulary" and few read beyond their coursework." (Passmore, 2002: 32) Some months later the press office at my University was contacted by a BBC Radio researcher who had come across the BERA abstract via the TES article and wanted to invite me to contribute to a late night BBC radio discussion programme addressed to the BBC' Big Read' campaign. The "students don't read novels" quote in the TES article had caught the researcher's eye and I was invited to share my knowledge about the 'illiteracy’ of young people and also to identify a high consuming or idiosyncratic reader who might also join the discussion. The research seemed 'instinctively’ to be making a connection between students choices about not to read novels and the degree to which they were or weren't 'literate'. And indeed it was not implied that the 'interesting' reader might be found amongst the student participants.
  • Giving up reading: re-imagining reading with young adult readers.

    Kendall, Alex (Lancaster: Lancaster University / Stevenage: Avantibooks, 2008)
    Alex is associate dean at the University of Wolverhampton with responsibility for undergraduate awards, post-compulsory teacher education and the Black Country Skills for Life professional development centre, BLEND. Alex also teaches [less than she would like] on the literacy & language CPD programmes at Wolverhampton. Background: In this article I explore the thoughts and reflections of young adults from the Black Country in the West Midlands about what it means to read and to be a reader. Beginning with discussions of newspaper reading I suggest that whilst the participants in this study were likely to feel comfortable with their 'technical skills' as readers they were not always so confident in their abilities to 'grasp', as they saw it, the 'correct' meanings of the texts they read, most Especially those they encountered in the course of their studies at college. Drawing on data collected in relation to 'reading for pleasure' begin to consider the ways in which new media textualities, in this case gaming, may offer young adults new ways of being as readers that although both pleasurable and motivating find little legitimate expression within educational spaces. I make use of Gee's notions of active and critical learning to suggest that if the reading subject identities constructed through schooled literacy are to be meaningful (valued) and useful (permit learners to exercise power as readers perhaps even in ways that are not predictable, or we I dare to say, desirable) to young adult readers then a broader range of theoretical understandings must be brought to bear on practice. These seem pertinent in the environment of Web 2.0 (O'Reilly, 2007) and Media 2 .0 (McDougall, 2007; Gauntlett 2008) which seems at once to offer both exciting new possibilities for young people to enact reading (and writing) and to further trouble the possibility of a proximal relationship between educational and cultural life world literacy identities. I go on to consider what might usefully be learnt about reading by beginning to theorise the enjoyment young adults find in out of college textual experience. The findings of this article may be of interest to those involved in the teaching of reading as they illustrate compellingly the need for pedagogical approaches to reading and literacy that not only take serious account of the social practices through which readers experience text but which rigorously theorise the making and taking of meaning and in so doing teach learners to "really read" ( Gee, 2003: 16).
  • CPD for Teachers in Post-compulsory Education.

    Hafiz, Rania; Jones, liff; Kendall, Alex; Lea, John; Rogers, James (London: UCET (Universities Council for the Education of Teachers), 2008)
    The last few years have seen an unprecedented level of activity in regards the education, training and development of teachers in the post-compulsory sector. These stem, to an extent, from the Government's reform programme outlined in the 2004 "Equipping our Teachers for the Future" white paper. But it also comes from the professionalism that exists within the teaching force, its professional associations and in the organisations and institutions that oversee and deliver training programmes for prospective and serving teachers. The purpose of this position paper is fourfold: Firstly, it seeks to provide a summary and critical analysis of the complex and inter-related changes that have taken place in recent years. Secondly, it identifies some examples of good practice in regards CPD and how the "impact" of such practice might be assessed. Thirdly, it proposes the adoption of an entitlement statement that sets out the support teachers in the sector should expect to receive in respect of their continuing professional development. And, finally, it lists some firm recommendations that we would like government agencies, professional associations, universities and others to take on board.
  • Space, Resistance and Identities: University-based Teacher Educators Developing a Community of Practice.

    Herrington, Margaret; Kendall, Alex; Hughes, Julie; Lacey, Cathie; Smith, Rob; Dye, Vanessa; Baig, Rachel; O’Leary, Matt (Charlotte, VA: Information Age Publishing, 2008)
    This series: The aim of this set of books is to combine the best of current academic research into the use of Communities of Practice in education with "hands on" practitioner experience in order to provide teachers and academics with a convenient source of guidance and an incentive to work with and develop in their own Communities of Practice. Volume 1 deals principally with the issues found in co-located Communities of Practice, while Volume 2 deal principally with distributed Communities of Practice.
  • The Bar is Slightly Higher: the Perception of Racism in Teacher Education.

    Basit, Tehmina N.; McNamara, Olwen; Roberts, Lorna; Carrington, Bruce; Maguire, Meg; Woodrow, Derek (London: Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2007)
    The education and training of teachers is an issue of national concern. In this paper we analyse the findings of an in-depth investigation, undertaken by means of semi structured interviews, of a group of minority ethnic teacher trainees who withdrew from Initial Teacher Training courses in England, and a smaller group of those who completed these courses. We focus, in particular, on trainees' perception of the manifestation of racism during their training. Though none of the minority ethnic withdrawers perceive racism as the determining factor for their withdrawal, some mention instances of covert and even overt racism, while others note subtle forms of discriminatory obstacles to successful completion of the course, which they are reluctant to label as racism. The paper concludes by pointing to the complexity of categorizing phenomena as racism. It also draws attention, on the one hand, to the vulnerability of those who view themselves as being racially abused, and, on the other, to those who are disinclined to dwell on barriers to success as forms of racism and are more predisposed to regarding them as failures of the system.
  • Playing and resisting: rethinking young people’s reading cultures.

    Kendall, Alex (Wiley InterScience, 2008)
    In this paper I will argue that while young adult readers may often be represented through 'othering' discourses that see them as 'passive', 'uncritical' consumers of 'low-brow', 'throw-away' texts, the realities of their reading lives are in fact more subtle, complex and dynamic. The paper explores the discourses about reading, identity and gender that emerged through discussions with groups of young adults, aged between 16 and 19, about their reading habits and practices. These discussions took place as part of a PhD research study of reading and reader identity in the context of further education in the Black Country in the West Midlands. Through these discussions the young adults offered insights into their reading cultures and the 'functionality' of their reading practices that contest the kinds of 'distinction[s]' that tend to situate them as the defining other to more 'worthy' or 'valuable' reading cultures and practices. While I will resist the urge to claim that this paper represents the cultures of young adult readers in any real or totalising sense I challenge the kinds of dominant, reductive representations that serve to fix and demonise this group and begin to draw a space within which playfulness and resistance are alternatively offered as ways of being for these readers.
  • Conundrums of our own making: critical pedagogy and trainee further education teachers

    Avis, James; Bathmaker, Ann-marie; Kendall, Alex; Parsons, John (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2003)
    This article examines the experiences and understandings of a group of fulltime further education (FE) trainee teachers in a university in the English Midlands. The article places the research within its socio-economic and discursive context as well as drawing out parallels with earlier work on FE trainee teachers. The main thrust of the article is concerned with constructions of critical pedagogy and learning and examines the relation of trainees to such constructions. It compares a model of critical practice with trainee teachers' accounts of their practice. It concludes by arguing that it is not enough to hold to an ethic of care or even a concern to engage students, and that there is a wider politics inscribed within pedagogic practice. A critical pedagogy would seek to question the wider social structure that generates systematic inequality.
  • Co-leaders and middle leaders: the dynamic between leaders and followers in networks of schools

    Hadfield, Mark (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2007)
    This paper sets out to explore the nature of leadership within networks of schools. The research is based on a large-scale funded initiative in the UK of over a 100 school networks. The empirical data are drawn from a series of programme-wide research and enquiry activities that took place over the first two years of the initiative. Drawing on school leadership and social movement theory it analyses the practices of strategic network leaders and the overall growth of leadership capacity within school networks. This analysis explores the interaction between groups of leaders and the dynamics of their relationship. In doing so it raises the question of whether the leadership of school networks is qualitatively different from that of leading a school. The issue of leadership shearing, where the differential developments in the agency of groups of leaders in a network can lead to increasing tensions and fragmentation of effort, is used to exemplify the emergent leadership challenges offered by an education system that is increasingly becoming networked.
  • Healthcare reforms: implications for the education and training of acute and critical care nurses

    Glen, Sally (BMJ Publishing Group, 2004)
    This paper offers a wide ranging analysis of the drivers that resulted in scrutiny of medical, nursing, and healthcare professional roles. It suggests that what is needed is a coherent vision of the future shape of the health workforce. This requires moving beyond the presumption that reforming working practices primarily involves "delegating doctors" responsibilities to nurses. The paper argues that it is self evident that the implications of changes in healthcare roles and the ability of existing professionals to function effectively in the future will require education, training, and human resource investment supportive of the changes. It suggests a clear definition of competence and a national standard to practice is essential for nurses working in acute and acute critical settings. There should therefore be a correlation between levels of practice, levels of education, and remuneration. Furthermore, education programmes for senior nurses should sit coherently alongside the education programmes required by Modernising Medical Careers. Finally, the realisation of the government’s service and modernisation agenda will require a culture change within higher education institutions, postgraduate deaneries, professional organisations, workforce development confederations, and NHS trusts.
  • Crossing the boundaries: expectations and experience of newcomers to higher and further education

    Avis, James; Kendall, Alex; Parsons, John (Routledge, 2003)
    This article examines the expectations and experiences of staff new to the FE/HE sector. The research involved the use of focus group interviews supported by a questionnaire. Key findings of the research indicate the pervasiveness of managerialism and the intensification of labour across sectors. Findings also suggest that there is a blurring of the division between labour processes within the new University and FE sectors, and a shared discourse about learners and their expectations of learning. Orientations to research were differentiated within and across the sectors, and those new to FE were largely unaware of the thrust towards the development of practicebased/evidence-based research.
  • Shaping up? Three acts of education studies as textual critique

    McDougall, Julian; Walker, Stephen; Kendall, Alex (Routledge, 2006)
    This paper presents a study of dominant educational discourses through textual critique and argues that such an approach enables education studies to preserve an important distinction from teacher training. The texts deconstructed here are specific to English education, but the discourses at work have international relevance as the rhetorics of accountability, performance and measurement (which we call cells of discourse) have global reach. Ward described a national picture in England whereby the great majority, if not all, of education studies undergraduate courses appear to be taught alongside, or within (through shared modules) teacher training programmes. But from a sociological position, these are two increasingly conflicting arenas—the study of education and the training of teachers. In response, Ward called for the subject to radicalize teacher education. The implications of this are significant if education studies is to retain a status as agent of critique. In this paper we return to the theme of education studies as a discrete practice from teacher training and suggest that any acceptance of a proximal relation to teacher education is counter-productive. In so doing we offer three contemporary examples of the subject at deconstructive work, scrutinizing the published standards for teacher training in England, employer discourse and the Tomlinson report (commissioned by the English government to offer proposals for the reworking of vocational education) and the new curriculum for adult literacy in England. Particular attention is given to analysing the ways in which such texts speak the currently powerful discourse of standards.
  • Teachers' perspectives on effective school leadership

    Harris, Alma; Day, Christopher; Hadfield, Mark (Routledge, 2003)
    This paper considers teachers' perspectives on effective school leadership. It draws upon the findings from a study of effective leadership conducted by a research team from the University of Nottingham [1]. This research study considered effective leadership from the perspectives of different stakeholders within the English schooling system. This provided an opportunity to analyse leadership in a holistic way and to consider leadership from a variety of different perspectives.
  • 'Voice', young people and action research

    Hadfield, Mark; Haw, Kaye (Routledge, 2001)
    This article moves from an overview of what is meant by the term 'voice' to discussing the significance of its links with action research. It does this through using a simple typology of three types of voice: Authoritative, Critical and Therapeutic. Each type of voice represents a different process of articulation and intended outcome. It then moves on to consider 'voice' and the collaboration of young people in educational action research by unpicking a series of four assumptions which delineate major theoretical and practical possibilities and limitations. These assumptions provide a critique of the underpinning ideologies held by professionals when supporting and listening to young people
  • Learning through networks: trust, partnerships and the power of action research

    Hadfield, Mark; Day, Christopher (Routledge, 2004)
    In England school teachers and head teachers are faced with a myriad of challenges in coping with the pressures of managing the dynamic and diverse institution which is their school within an imposed, centralized, standards-driven change agenda. It could be argued that many of the national policies and initiatives over the last 15 years have directly or indirectly, consciously or unconsciously undermined the traditional autonomy of teachers. As a consequence, many feel little ownership of a curriculum that is regularly policed through national pupil assessment at ages 7, 11, 14, 16, 17 and 18, school inspections and competency frameworks related to role specification, and are consequently insecure in making decisions about pedagogy. As part of governments' drive to ensure the effective and efficient implementation, they have been inundated also with demands to attend professional development courses dealing with imposed initiatives, but have little time or energy for reflection on their practice and reflection on the impact that imposed change is making on pupils, motivation, learning and achievement. It was in this context that the Primary Schools Learning Network was formed through negotiated partnerships between a group of self-selecting schools, the local education authority (district), and the Centre for Research on Teacher and School Development at the University of Nottingham. Its aim was to give ownership for development back to teachers through collaborative action research with a view to improving schools and raising pupil attainment.
  • Diversity in nursing education: do we really want it?

    Glen, Sally (Elsevier, 2002)
    This paper explores the concept of diversity at the level of the system and organisation, in essence, at the level of Faculty, School or Department of Nursing. As a major educational concept, it has a strong ethical and policy component. The idea of diversity can also provoke debate. Issues that are debated include: Why is diversity important? How can it be measured? Is it increasing or decreasing? What policies can enhance or restrict it?
  • Did they jump or were they pushed? Reasons why minority ethnic trainees withdraw from initial teacher training courses

    Basit, Tehmina N.; Roberts, Lorna; McNamara, Olwen; Carrington, Bruce; Maguire, Meg; Woodrow, Derek (Routledge, 2006)
    This article reports the findings of a research project which examines the reasons why minority ethnic trainees withdraw from teacher training courses. It highlights a number of issues, the most significant of which is that withdrawal is a process not an event. The most common causes of withdrawal were 'personal' and 'family' reasons. However, the combination of these two factors with various issues to do with the initial teacher training (ITT) institution and the placement school made it impossible for most trainees to stay on the course. With the exception of perceptions of racism by some minority ethnic trainees, the reasons for withdrawal given by majority ethnic and minority ethnic trainees were by and large the same. The article concludes by suggesting a number of strategies for ITT institutions and placement schools to improve the retention of trainees. It emphasises the need for better support from ITT institutions, more structured mentoring during school placements, continuous and effective communication between the ITT institutions and placement schools, flexibility in course structure, improved funding, availability of affordable childcare, and the tackling of discrimination. It also stresses that withdrawal is not necessarily final, and these trainees should be encouraged to return to teaching as many enjoyed the course and would make good teachers.
  • Equal opportunities or affirmative action? The induction of minority ethnic teachers

    Basit, Tehmina N.; McNamara, Olwen (Routledge, 2004)
    Currently in the UK there is much pressure to increase the recruitment and retention of ethnic minority teachers, not only to respond to the continuing shortage, but to develop a teaching force that reflects the diversity in the UK population and provides role models for ethnic minority students. There is, however, little research on how ethnic minority teachers cope with the demands of the profession, especially in their first year. The introduction by the Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) of an induction period for Newly Qualified Teachers (NQTs) in 1999 was an attempt to create a programme of individual support and monitoring to provide NQTs with a bridge from Initial Teacher Training (ITT) to becoming established in their chosen profession. We believe it is now timely and important to examine how ethnic minority beginning teachers experience these new arrangements. In this paper we, therefore, explore the induction experiences of British teachers of Asian and African Caribbean origin in three Local Education Authorities (LEAs) in the North West of England. We conclude that the NQTs are being provided with equal opportunities by their employers and that affirmative action may have been undertaken by a few of these employers during the recruitment and selection process, although some anecdotal evidence is also presented of discrimination. Further, the paper suggests that the majority of the NQTs find their schools and LEAs supportive and the induction process valuable, although it highlights the need for additional support in some individual cases.
  • Manual or electronic? The role of coding in qualitative data analysis

    Basit, Tehmina N. (Routledge, 2003)
    Data analysis is the most difficult and most crucial aspect of qualitative research. Coding is one of the significant steps taken during analysis to organize and make sense of textual data. This paper examines the use of manual and electronic methods to code data in two rather different projects in which the data were collected mainly by in-depth interviewing. The author looks at both the methods in the light of her own experience and concludes that the choice will be dependent on the size of the project, the funds and time available, and the inclination and expertise of the researcher.
  • Changing practice through policy: trainee teachers and the National Numeracy Strategy

    Basit, Tehmina N. (Routledge, 2003)
    Externally imposed educational change is generally perceived with trepidation by teachers, as it can alter their practice to a greater or lesser extent, involve learning new skills and spending more time on routine tasks. This paper explores the effects of the top-down initiative of the National Numeracy Strategy (NNS) on a group of primary trainee teachers in England, and is based on the findings of an empirical study in which the data were gathered through in-depth interviewing. It is suggested that the student teachers see the NNS as a helpful framework for developing their professional expertise in an area where they often have experienced some anxiety. The ways in which the NNS has impacted on the trainees' understanding of their task as teachers of mathematics in a primary school are also examined.

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