Pharmacological and Molecular Characterisation of P2Y Receptors in Endothelial and Epithelial Cells
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AuthorsD’Souza, Vijay Kenneth
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AbstractIn light of the significant modulation of receptor activity previously shown by a peptide (designated L247), designed to mimic the third extracellular loop of the human P2Y2 receptor, the aim of this study was to use this peptide as an immunogen to generate and fully characterise polyclonal rabbit antibodies to the P2Y2 receptor. Other aims of this study were to characterise epithelial and endothelial cells for a thorough expression profile of P2Y receptor mRNA transcripts in order to provide a rapid screen for the molecular determinants of these receptors in these cells. These studies also aimed to confirm previously published pharmacology, thus, to set the basis for western blot studies using P2Y receptor antibodies. Bovine aortic endothelial cells that co-express P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors; EAhy926, a human endothelial fusion cell line, that express P2Y2 receptors; and ECV304 human bladder cancer cell line, known to express P2Y2-like and P2Y11-like receptors were used in this study. The dose dependent accumulation of inositol phosphates and cAMP response to potent P2Y11 agonists and RT-PCR studies confirmed the functional expression of both P2Y2 and P2Y11 receptors in ECV304 cells. Likewise, the dose dependent accumulation of inositol phosphates in response to potent P2Y2 and P2Y6 agonists and the presence of mRNA transcripts confirmed the expression of functional P2Y2/4- like and P2Y6- like receptors in EAhy926 cells. Polyclonal antiserum raised against L247 peptide was affinity purified and the purified fractions showed strong immunoreactivity with immobilised immunogenic antigen in ELISA. In western blot analysis L247 rabbit polyclonal anti-P2Y2 antibody detected strong bands in ECV304 and EAhy926 cells. On pre-absorption with the immunogenic peptide these responses were abolished suggesting that this antibody is antigen specific. Agonist induced P2Y2 receptor desentisation studies in ECV304 cells showed that prolonged agonist incubation caused the receptor sequestration. The loss of bands caused by P2Y2 receptor desensitisation and sequestration in membrane enriched fractions of agonist incubated ECV304 cells confirmed the specificity of L247 antibody. This antibody also showed no immunoreactivity in 1321N1 human brain astrocytoma cells devoid of any P2Y receptor subtypes cells. Deglycosylation studies revealed that the P2Y2 receptors are glycosylated in ECV304 cells. The polyclonal rabbit anti-P2Y2 receptor antibodies obtained from commercial sources produced completely different immunoreactive profiles with multiple bands even in 1321N1 cells. Furthermore, in comparison to L247 anti-P2Y2 antibody the commercial antibody showed no difference between normal and agonist incubated cells suggesting that this antibody may not be recognising the P2Y2 receptors in ECV304 cells. Likewise polyclonal rabbit antibodies to other P2Y receptors either showed no response or showed strong immunoreactive profile with multiple bands even in 1321N1 cells suggesting that these antibodies may not have been extensively characterized. Furthermore, immunofluorescence studies with commercial anti-P2Y2 antibodies showed that they may be only recognising non-denatured receptors. These studies suggest that the L247 anti-P2Y2 antibody raised against peptide designed to mimic specific region in the third extracellular loop of human P2Y2 receptor is highly specific and sensitive and provides an important tool to study endogenously expressed P2Y2 receptors in both non-denatured and denatured state. These studies indicate that this strategy of generating antibodies may be used to generate highly specific antibodies to other P2Y receptor subtypes.
PublisherUniversity of Wolverhampton
DescriptionSubmitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the University of Wolverhampton for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy