Now showing items 21-40 of 1121

    • In vitro insulinotropic actions of various extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves

      Ojo, Opeolu (Biotechnology Society of Nigeria, 2014-07-31)
      This study investigated the in vitro insulin-releasing and cytotoxic effects of various extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves. Pulverized Moringa oleifera leaves were sequentially extracted with dichloromethane, acetone, ethylacetate and water. Clonal pancreatic beta cells, BRIN-BD11, were grown in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 95% air in RPMI-1640. Insulin and LDH assays were carried out using Krebs Ringers Bicarbonate buffer. Insulin concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay and LDH release was assessed using a commercially available non-radioactive assay kit (Promega, UK). Aqueous extraction produced the best yield (361 mg/20kg powder). Acute incubation of BRIN-BD11 cells with different extracts of M. Oleifera produced a concentration-dependent stimulation of insulin-release at concentrations ≥10 μg/ml. The aqueous extract produced the best insulinotropic effect, with a maximum stimulation of 347% (P<0.001) of basal rate at 100μg/ml and the lowest stimulating concentration of 0.1 μg/ml. Dichloromethane and acetone extracts produced similar stimulatory effects (130% of basal rate, 100μg/ml, P<0.01). Insulin-releasing effects of the four extract were not associated with beta cell cytotoxicity. These results showed that extracts of M. oleifera possess insulinotropic effects and encourage further studies to uncover the physiological mechanism involved.
    • Aqueous bark extracts of terminalia arjuna stimulates insulin release, enhances insulin action and inhibits starch digestion and protein glycation in vitro

      Thompson, HAJ; Ojo, Opeolu; Flatt, PR; Abdel-Wahab, YHA (Austin Publishing Group, 2014-01-20)
      Scientific evidence for the effects of Terminalia arjuna on diabetes mellitus is lacking. This study investigated the anti-diabetic efficacy and mode of action of the bark extract of Terminalia arjuna. Insulin-release from BRIN-BD11 cells was assessed in the absence or presence of T. arjuna extracts and modulators of insulin-secretion. Insulin concentration and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) were measured by radioimmunoassay and FLEXstationTM respectively. Adipocyte glucose-uptake with 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, starch digestion with α–amylase and protein glycation were assessed in vitro. Terminalia arjuna extract stimulated insulin-release alone (p<0.001), in combination with known modulators but not without extracellular Ca2+. It increased intracellular calcium but had no effects on depolarised cells. Glucose-uptake was enhanced in the presence of T. arjuna (P< 0.001). At higher concentrations, the extract decreased starch digestion and inhibited protein glycation (p<0.001). Terminalia arjuna extract possesses antidiabetic potential and may provide new opportunities for the treatment of diabetes.
    • Antidiabetic actions of aqueous bark extract of Swertia chirayita on insulin secretion, cellular glucose uptake and protein glycation

      Thomson, HeatherAnne; Ojo, Opeolu; Flatt, Peter; AbdelWahab, Yasser (ScopeMed International Medical Journal Management and Indexing System, 2014-12-07)
      Objective: There is renewed scientific interest in the potential of plant-derived agents for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the antidiabetic actions of Swertia chirayita, a plant used traditionally in the management of diabetes. Methods: Insulin secretion from BRIN-DB11 cells was assessed in the absence or presence of plant extract and modulators of beta cell function. Glucose uptake was assessed using 3T3-L1 cells while effects of the plant extract on protein glycation was assessed using model peptide. Insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay and intracellular calcium by FLEXstationTM. Results: Swertia chirayita stimulated concentration-dependent insulin secretion from BRIN-BD11 cells (P<0.001). Its insulinotropic effects were abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or by diazoxide (P<0.001, n=8) and were significantly decreased by verapamil and in beta cell depolarization by with KCl. Swertia chirayita extracts evoked a 28 – 59% increase in basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by 3T3-L1 cells. Protein glycation was significantly (P<0.05 – P<0.001) inhibited by S. chirayita in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: This study reveals that the antidiabetic actions of S. chirayita aqueous bark extracts involves the stimulation of insulin secretion and enhancement of insulin action. Inhibition of protein glycation may also help counter diabetic complications. These actions of S. chirayita may provide new opportunities for the treatment of diabetes.
    • Actions underlying antidiabetic effects of ocimum sanctum leaf extracts in animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes

      Hannan, J; Ojo, O; Rokeya, L; Khaleque, J; Akhter, M; Flatt, P; Abdel-Wahab, Y (Sciencedomain International, 2014-09-06)
      Aim: This study investigated mechanisms by which O. sanctum leaf extracts ameliorate hyperglycaemia using animal and cellular models of diabetes. Place and Duration of Study: Diabetes Research Laboratory, University of Ulster, Coleraine, United Kingdom and Research Division, BIRDEM, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 8 months. Methodology: Acute anti-diabetic effects of ethanolic extracts of O. sanctum were examined in normal and chemically-induced type 1 and 2 diabetic rats. Effects of extracts on glucose absorption, intestinal disaccharidase activity and gastrointestinal motility in type 2 diabetic rats and on glucose uptake and insulin action in 3T3-L1 cells were assessed. Results: Treatment with the extract (1.25 g/kg bw) significantly improved oral glucose tolerance in normal and type 2 diabetic rats and suppressed blood glucose elevation after oral sucrose (2.5 g/kg bw) administration. The extract significantly reduced glucose absorption, gastrointestinal motility and disaccharidase activity. A 28-day treatment with O. sanctum decreased serum glucose, increased liver glycogen and enhanced circulating insulin and total oxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats. Glucose transport and insulin action in 3T3-L1 were increased by extract. Conclusion: O. sanctum represents a useful as a source for discovery of novel antidiabetic compounds and as a dietary adjunct for the management of type 2 diabetes and its complications.
    • Insulinotropic actions of Moringa oleifera involves the induction of membrane depolarization and enhancement of intracellular calcium concentration

      Ojo, Opeolu; Ojo, Constance (ScopeMed International Medical Journal Management and Indexing System, 2015-03-09)
      Objective: Moringa oleifera extracts have been widely reported for insulinotropic and other antidiabetic effects. However, mechanisms behind these actions of M.oleifera extracts are not well understood. This study investigated a possible mechanism underlying the insulinotropic actions of acetone extract of M. oleifera Methods: Phytochemical composition of M.oleifera extract was determined using standard procedures. Total flavonoid and total phenolic compounds in the extract were also quantified. Effects of the extracts on glucose stimulated insulin secretion, membrane depolarization and intracellular calcium concentration were investigated using BRIN-BD11 clonal pancreatic beta cells. Results: Results obtained showed the preponderance of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins and tannins in the extract. The glucose dependent insulinotropic effects of the extract were significantly inhibited in the presence of diazoxide (48%) or verapamil (35%) and in the absence of extracellular calcium (47%). Co-incubation of cells with the extract and IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine) or tolbutamide increased insulin secretion by 2-fold while a 1.2-fold increase was observed in cells depolarized with 30 mM KCl in the presence of the plant extract. The extract significantly induced membrane depolarization (7.1-fold) and enhanced intracellular calcium concentration (2.6-fold) in BRIN-BD11 cells. Conclusion: These observations suggest that the insulinotropic actions of acetone extract of M.oleifera may be mediated via the KATP-dependent pathway of insulin release.
    • Short day photoperiod protects against acetaminophen-induced heptotoxicity in rats

      Olayaki, LA; Abduraheem, TA; Mbukanma, OE; Agbede, OO; Salman, TM; Ojo, OO (African Journals Online (AJOL), 2015-08-12)
      This study investigated the effect of different photoperiods on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Twenty four adult male rats (average weight = 160±7g) were conditioned to different photoperiod regimens for 6 weeks. At the end of the 6-week period, rats exposed to normal, short and long photoperiods received oral acetaminophen (2g/kg body weight) while in the control group, exposed to normal photoperiod, received oral saline. Rats were sacrificed 24 h after acetaminophen administration by cervical dislocation and blood was collected by cardiac puncture for the estimation of liver enzymes activities. Liver tissues were excised and homogenized for estimation of liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Elevation of serum levels of alanine and aspartate transaminases and alkaline phosphatase caused by acetaminophen intoxication were not affected in rats subjected to long photoperiod while these parameters were significantly (P<0.05) reduced in rats subjected to short photoperiod. However, alteration of photoperiod resulted in significantly (P<0.05) lower serum gamma glutamate transpeptidase and total protein in acetaminophentreated rats. All groups of rats had similar serum albumin while serum malondialdehyde concentration was significantly lower in rats subjected to short photoperiod. This study revealed the protective effects of short photoperiod against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in rats.
    • In vitro evaluation of the inhibitory effect of topical ophthalmic agents on acanthamoeba viability

      Heaselgrave, Wayne; Hamad, Anas; Coles, Steven; Hau, Scott (ARVO Journals, 2019-09-25)
      Purpose: To compare the antimicrobial effect of topical anesthetics, antivirals, antibiotics, and biocides on the viability of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites in vitro. Methods: Amoebicidal and cysticidal assays were performed against both trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba castellanii (ATCC 50370) and Acanthamoeba polyphaga (ATCC 30461). Test agents included topical ophthalmic preparations of common anesthetics, antivirals, antibiotics, and biocides. Organisms were exposed to serial two-fold dilutions of the test compounds in the wells of a microtiter plate to examine the effect on Acanthamoeba spp. In addition, the toxicity of each of the test compounds was determined against a mammalian cell line. Results: Proxymetacaine, oxybuprocaine, and especially tetracaine were all toxic to the trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba spp., but lidocaine was well tolerated. The presence of the benzalkonium chloride (BAC) preservative in levofloxacin caused a high level of toxicity to trophozoites and cysts. With the diamidines, the presence of BAC in the propamidine drops was responsible for the activity against Acanthamoeba spp. Hexamidine drops without BAC showed good activity against trophozoites, and the biguanides polyhexamethylene biguanide, chlorhexidine, alexidine, and octenidine all showed excellent activity against trophozoites and cysts of both species. Conclusions: The antiamoebic effects of BAC, povidone iodine, and tetracaine are superior to the current diamidines and slightly inferior to the biguanides used in the treatment for Acanthamoeba keratitis. Translational Relevance: Ophthalmologists should be aware that certain topical anesthetics and ophthalmic preparations containing BAC prior to specimen sampling may affect the viability of Acanthamoeba spp. in vivo, resulting in false-negative results in diagnostic tests.
    • Detection of genetically modified DNA in processed maize and soybean products in Nigeria

      Andrew, Chibuzor Iloh; Paul, Chidozie Onyenekwe; Opeolu, Oyejide Ojo (Academic Journals, 2018-08-29)
      Cultivation and commercial utilization of genetically modified (GM) crops has significantly increased in many parts of the world and particularly in developing countries where food security is a challenge. Despite stringent regulations requiring that food made from GM foods should be properly labelled, evidence of unlabelled foods made from GM crops sold in local markets in many of these countries is increasing. This challenge provides the justification for the development of a reliable, accurate and effective screening method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for detection of specific genes in GM crops is a common method used in many parts of the world. This study adapted a PCR-based technique to screen for the presence of specific DNA markers of genetic modification in finished maize and soya products collected from selected supermarkets and local markets across Nigeria. Results obtained indicated that 26.7% of samples tested contain GM specific genes. GM specific genes were also detected in some made-in-Nigeria processed food samples. The findings indicate that products made with GMO materials have entered the food chain in Nigeria at a modest scale and identifies the need for capacity building in techniques for GMO detection for regulatory agencies in Nigeria.
    • Relationship between Type 2 Diabetes and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency and Their Effect on Oxidative Stress

      Engwa, Godwill Azeh; Nwalo, Friday Nweke; Chibuzor, Gregory Eze; Ejiagha, Endaline Chiamaka; Abonyi, Micheal Chinweuba; Ugwu, Theophilus Ejiofor; Ikechukwu Obiudu, Kenneth; Agbafor, Kingsley Nwonu; Oyejide Ojo, Opeolu; Ewa Ubi, Benjamin (OMICS Publishing Group, 2018-08-20)
      Objective: Though the relationship between glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been reported, their interaction to influence oxidative stress is not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between T2D and G6PD deficiency and assessed their effect on oxidative stress. Methodology: A total of 73 T2D and 75 non-diabetic (ND) out-patients at Enugu State University Teaching Hospital (ESUTH) in Enugu, Nigeria were recruited. They were screened for G6PD deficiency, oxidative stress markers; lipid peroxidation, protein peroxidation and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were assayed. Results: Oxidative stress was influenced by T2D as malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl and HbA1c levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in T2D patients compared to ND patients. Significantly (p<0.05) decreased SOD and catalase activity were also observed in T2D patients. G6PD deficiency and T2D showed a significant relationship (p<0.05) in male patients (χ 2=5.070; p=0.024). Moreover, there was no significant (p>0.05) interaction between G6PD deficiency and T2D to influence oxidative stress in patients. Conclusion: The interaction between G6PD deficiency and T2D did not influence oxidative stress though there was a possible relationship between G6PD deficiency and T2D in male patients.
    • Strategies for knowledge management in the UK construction industry: Benefits and challenges

      Suresh, Subashini; Jallow, Haddy; Renukappa, Suresh; Alneyadi, Ahmed (Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2019-08-21)
    • Knowledge management in the UK water industry

      Kamunda, Andrew; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini (Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2019-08-21)
      The UK government has set ambitious targets for the construction industry to maintain global competitiveness. It aims to remove barriers, increase productivity, improve competition, at the same time benefiting the customers by lowering water bills. Through the water industry regulators, Ofwat, Defra and DWI, the privatised water industry saw competition opened for business and non-household water customers in 2017. Knowledge has become known as the major resource organisations must have to maintain a competitive advantage. Management of this organisational knowledge, commonly referred to as Knowledge Management (KM), creates business value generating competitive advantage, enabling creation, communication and application of various knowledge to achieve business goals. Although the UK water industry is information and knowledge rich, there is limited research in the KM subject within this industry. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore, examine and understand how knowledge is being managed in the UK water industry. A qualitative case study was used for the collection and analysis of data with the results obtained through review of water company supply chain processes, documents, observations and semi structured interviews. Organisational culture and the need to maintain and retain business competitiveness was the major drive for implementation of KM, as found in this study. The water industry and its supply chain are changing their goals and objectives to align them with KM practices, identifying needed knowledge, creating KM resources, sharing and fostering knowledge through information technology tools. The study concludes that the knowledge rich water industry has put in place measures and processes fundamental to KM and will eventually take the next step for its full implementation. Organisational leadership and management were the initiating and driving positive KM cultures, placing knowledge as the major project resource. The current drive to create, foster and provide resources for KM through organisational culture changes and making use of information technology should continue to be invested in. This will allow organisations to maintain, sustain and increase competitiveness, improve productivity whilst meeting business goals. The advancement of information technology should also be taken advantage of as an enabler for implementing of KM strategies.
    • Do we see through their eyes? Testing a bilingual questionnaire in education research using cognitive interviews

      Sopromadze, N; Moorosi, P (Informa UK Limited, 2016-05-06)
      © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. The paper aims to demonstrate the value of cognitive interviewing (CI) as a survey pretesting method in comparative education research. Although rarely used by education researchers, CI has been successfully applied in different disciplines to evaluate and improve question performance. The method assumes that observing people’s thought processes when they answer survey questions can detect response problems and point to possible solutions. To illustrate the merits of CI, we present the findings from eight cognitive interviews, which informed the development of a bilingual English/Georgian online questionnaire. The main objectives of our CI study were to (a) examine cognitive validity of survey questions, (b) determine semantic equivalence of the source (English) and translated (Georgian) versions of the questionnaire and (c) establish conceptual equivalence of survey measures across two cultures. We conducted two rounds of cognitive interviews, one in each language, using a combination of think-aloud and verbal probing techniques. Our analysis suggests that CI can help to identify causes of response difficulties and develop more accurate and comparable survey measures for cross-cultural education research.
    • A novel real-time, lightweight chaotic-encryption scheme to enable next-generation audio-visual hearing-aids

      Adeel, Ahsan; Ahmad, Jawad; Larijani, Hadi; Hussain, Amir (Springer Nature, 2019-12-31)
      Objective: Next-generation audiovisual (AV) hearing-aids stand as a major enabler to realise more intelligible audio. However, high data rate, low latency, low computational complexity, and privacy are some of the major bottlenecks to the successful deployment of such advanced hearing-aids. To address these challenges, we propose a novel framework based on an integration of 5G Cloud-Radio Access Network (C-RAN), Internet of Things (IoT), and strong privacy algorithms to fully benefit from the possibilities these technologies have to offer. Background: Existing audio-only hearing-aids are known to perform poorly in noisy situations where overwhelming noise is present. Current devices make the signal more audible but remains deficient to restore intelligibility. Thus, we need hearing aids that can selectively amplify the attended talker or filter out acoustic clutter Methods: 1 The proposed 5G IoT enabled AV hearing-aid framework transmits the encrypted compressed AV information and receives encrypted enhanced reconstructed speech in real-time to address cybersecurity attacks such as location privacy and eavesdropping. For security implementation, a real-time lightweight AV encryption is proposed, based on a piece-wise linear chaotic map (PWLSM), Chebyshev map, and a secure hash and S-Box algorithm. For speech enhancement, the received secure AV (including lip-reading) information in the cloud is used to filter noisy audio using both deep learning and analytical acoustic modelling. To offload the computational complexity and real-time optimization issues, the framework runs deep learning and big data optimization processes in the background on the cloud. Results: The effectiveness and security of our proposed 5G-IoT-enabled AV hearing-aid framework are extensively evaluated using widely known security metrics. Our newly reported, deep learning-driven lip-reading approach for speech enhancement is evaluated under four different dynamic real-world scenarios (cafe, street, public transport, pedestrian area) using benchmark Grid and ChiME3 corpora. Comparative critical analysis in terms of both speech enhancement and AV encryption demonstrate the potential of our envisioned technology to deliver high quality speech reconstruction and secure mobile AV hearing aid communication. Conclusion: We believe that the proposed 5G IoT enabled AV hearing aid is an effective and feasible solution and represents a step change in the development of next generation multimodal digital hearing aids. The ongoing and future work includes more extensive evaluation and comparison with benchmark lightweight encryption algorithms and hardware prototype implementation.
    • Internal current collection in microtubular SOFCs: Minimisation of contact resistance via brazing and plating

      Hodjati-Pugh, Oujen; Dhir, Aman; Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert (The Electrochemical Society, 2019-07-10)
      Microtubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (µ-SOFC) are aptly suited for powering devices with demands ranging from the order of mW to few kW. The rapid start-up time, high thermo-mechanical stability, and excellent power density by volume lend them favour over alternate configurations, particularly for portable applications (1). Interconnecting the micro-tubes, though, is a persistent issue and minimisation of conduction pathway lengths and their contribution to stack ohmic resistance is a key parameter for maximising overall performance from a tubular cell stack (2). Contacting of each electrode is most simply and typically achieved from the cell exterior at the expense of available active electrode area. Exposing the cell support, interior electrode (anode or cathode, depending on cell configuration) from the exterior can lead to fuel crossover, decreasing fuel utilisation and giving rise to accelerated degradation from local thermal ‘hot spots’ as a result of hydrogen combustion (3). In this paper a novel method of internal current collection is proposed to collect current from multiple points along the inner wall of an anode-supported tubular cell. The current collector will also act as a flow turbuliser, enhancing the flow and reducing thermal gradients within the fuel cell. Ensuring an intimate contact of the many current collection nodes to the anode and hence minimisation of contact resistance is achieved by use of brazing, depositing braze material via electroless plating. Interconnection proficiency has been studied using electrochemical performance testing, impedance spectroscopy, optical microscopy and mechanical testing.
    • Factors Affecting Community Empowerment During Disaster Recovery

      Van Krieken, Tony; Pathirage, Chaminda (IGI Global, 2019-01)
      The purpose of this study is to explore and identify the factors for empowering the community during the Disaster Recovery phase. It is very important to recognize the community (decision makers) as being empowered of their fate but not to inform, consult and having others to decide their fate. The study investigates the important role of the project manager who coordinates and communicates with the community members in order to empower them to achieve a long-term sustainability. The findings obtained from the literature review and the case studies allow identifying the factors for empowering the community during Disaster Recovery, such as: participation in decision-making; use of social capital within the community; thinking and doing SMART; recognizing community power; building capacity; and helping your neighbors. The results of this study provide guidelines for Project Managers to empower the community as decisions makers in the disaster recovery phase.
    • Optimizing turbo codes for secret key generation in vehicular ad hoc networks

      Kbaier, Dhouha; Karadimas, Petros; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Al-Khateeb, Haider (Springer, Cham, 2019-01-09)
      We present an algorithm that allows two users to establish a symmetric cryptographic key by incorporating the most important features of the wireless channel in vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. Non-reciprocity compensation is combined with turbo codes (TCs) for error reconciliation purposes. For fair comparisons, the indexing technique is applied in conjunction with the non-reciprocity compensation technique. A series of simulations are run to calculate key performance indicators (KPIs). High entropy values are obtained throughout all rounds of simulation during the key extraction process. Furthermore, simulation results indicate a significant improvement in bit mismatch rate (BMR) and key generation rate (KGR) when TCs are used. Increasing the number of iterations in the TC can significantly improve the Bit Error Rate (BER), thus generating more symmetric keys. The key generation rate was reported high ranging from 17 to 19 for the 256-bit symmetric keys per minute with TCs, while it is ranging from 2 to 5 when compared with a sample indexing technique published in the public domain. Finally, simulations proved also improvements for different key lengths as part of the error reconciliation process when TCs are used with an almost regular permutation (ARP) instead of a random permutation.
    • Tendon and ligament injuries in elite rugby: the potential genetic influence

      Brazier, Jon; Antrobus, Mark; Stebbings, Georgina K; Day, Stephen H; Heffernan, Shane M; Cross, Matthew J; Williams, Alun G (MDPI AG, 2019-06-04)
      This article reviews tendon and ligament injury incidence and severity within elite rugby union and rugby league. Furthermore, it discusses the biological makeup of tendons and ligaments and how genetic variation may influence this and predisposition to injury. Elite rugby has one of the highest reported injury incidences of any professional sport. This is likely due to a combination of well-established injury surveillance systems and the characteristics of the game, whereby high-impact body contact frequently occurs, in addition to the high intensity, multispeed and multidirectional nature of play. Some of the most severe of all these injuries are tendon and ligament/joint (non-bone), and therefore, potentially the most debilitating to a player and playing squad across a season or World Cup competition. The aetiology of these injuries is highly multi-factorial, with a growing body of evidence suggesting that some of the inter-individual variability in injury susceptibility may be due to genetic variation. However, little effort has been devoted to the study of genetic injury traits within rugby athletes. Due to a growing understanding of the molecular characteristics underpinning the aetiology of injury, investigating genetic variation within elite rugby is a viable and worthy proposition. Therefore, we propose several single nucleotide polymorphisms within candidate genes of interest; COL1A1, COL3A1, COL5A1, MIR608, MMP3, TIMP2, VEGFA, NID1 and COLGALT1 warrant further study within elite rugby and other invasion sports.
    • Literature Explorer: effective retrieval of scientific documents through nonparametric thematic topic detection

      Wu, Shaopeng; Zhao, Youbing; Parvinzamir, Farzad; Ersotelos, Nikolaos Th; Wei, Hui; Dong, Feng (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-08-02)
      Scientific researchers are facing a rapidly growing volume of literatures nowadays. While these publications offer rich and valuable information, the scale of the datasets makes it difficult for the researchers to manage and search for desired information efficiently. Literature Explorer is a new interactive visual analytics suite that facilitates the access to desired scientific literatures through mining and interactive visualisation. We propose a novel topic mining method that is able to uncover “thematic topics” from a scientific corpus. These thematic topics have an explicit semantic association to the research themes that are commonly used by human researchers in scientific fields, and hence are human interpretable. They also contribute to effective document retrieval. The visual analytics suite consists of a set of visual components that are closely coupled with the underlying thematic topic detection to support interactive document retrieval. The visual components are adequately integrated under the design rationale and goals. Evaluation results are given in both objective measurements and subjective terms through expert assessments. Comparisons are also made against the outcomes from the traditional topic modelling methods.
    • Exploring university students perception of stress and stress management during a university health promotion day

      MOUSSE, FATHIA; Morrissey, Hana; BALL, PATRICK ANTHONY (Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd, 2019-09-16)
      <jats:p>Objective: Stress, depression and anxiety are common, estimated at 19.7% people showing symptoms of these diseases. Although, effective treatment for depression and anxiety is available, they are still under diagnosed and treated to avoid stigma.&#x0D; The study aims to explore the impact of pharmacist-led health promotion to increase the university local population awareness about stress, the causes and management.&#x0D; Methods: A questionnaire-based study which included 50 participants aged 18 and over from the University of Wolverhampton.&#x0D; Results: The findings revealed that stress has an impact on the individuals’ lives, but they understood the effects of stress. The results informed the different factors that cause stress amongst the participants of multiple demographics.&#x0D; Conclusion: Change is required to improve the mental well-being of the public. This study improved the University of Wolverhampton’s student’s knowledge and awareness of mental health. It provides in-depth knowledge for a future pharmacist to learn about stress management to help patients with more advanced services given in community pharmacies. Expanding knowledge within this area could assist millions of affected people to seek help.</jats:p>