Now showing items 1-20 of 1629

    • Brexpiprazole in the acute management of schizophrenia

      Begum, Aisha; Mishriky, Raafat; Antoun Reyad, Ayman (IJCMPR, 2020-12-28)
      Brexpiprazole is a new atypical antipsychotic used for the management of psychiatric conditions including schizophrenia and is associated with fewer extrapyramidal side effects compared to traditional antipsychotics due to its additional serotonergic effect, which may improve cognitive symptoms associated with social function decline in schizophrenia. We searched for randomized controlled-trials (RCT) to review the efficacy and tolerability of brexpiprazole in acute management of schizophrenia using different resources including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled-Trials. Data were extracted for adverse effects, positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP), PANSS Excited Component (PEC) and Response Rate >30%. 5 RCT were identified and showed that brexpiprazole was favorable compared to placebo in improving PANSS with a mean difference (MD) -5.40 [confidence interval (CI) -6.98, -3.82] and PSP 3.2 [CI 2.09, 4.32] (P<0.00001). Improvement in PANSS positive, PANSS negative subscales and response rate were significant (P<0.00001). Brexpiprazole led to reduced treatment discontinuation due to adverse effects (risk ratio (RR) 0.58), however an increased risk of akathisia was observed (RR= 1.31) especially at higher doses but did not reach statistical significance. In summary, brexpiprazole improved significantly the symptoms of schizophrenia and is well-tolerated, while long-term research is still required to establish its role, particularly in patients with co-morbidities. These findings will guide clinical teams in supporting patients suffering from schizophrenia.
    • Distributed Ledger Technologies in Supply Chain Security Management: A Comprehensive Survey

      Asante, Mary; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Bottarelli, Mirko; Ghafoor, Kayhan (IEEE, 2021-12-31)
      Supply-chains (SC) present performance bottlenecks that contribute to a high level of costs, infltration of product quality, and impact productivity. Examples of such inhibitors include the bullwhip effect, new product lines, high inventory, and restrictive data fows. These bottlenecks can force manufacturers to source more raw materials and increase production signifcantly. Also, restrictive data fow in a complex global SC network generally slows down the movement of goods and services. The use of Distributed LedgerTechnologies (DLT) in supply chain management (SCM) demonstrates the potentials to to reduce these bottlenecks through transparency, decentralization, and optimizations in data management. These technologies promise to enhance the trustworthiness of entities within the supply chain, ensure the accuracy of data-driven operations, and enable existing SCM processes to migrate from a linear to a fully circular economy. This paper presents a comprehensive review of 111 articles published in the public domain in the use and effcacyofDLTin SC.It acts asaroadmapfor current and futureresearchers whofocus onSC Security Management to better understand the integration of digital technologies such as DLT. We clustered these articles using standard descriptors linked to trustworthiness, namely, immutability, transparency, traceability, and integrity.
    • Cleaning the molecular machinery of cells via proteostasis, proteolysis and endocytosis selectively, effectively, and precisely: intracellular self-defense and cellular perturbations

      Kumar, Rajiv; Chhikara, Bhupender S; Gulia, Kiran; Chhillar, Mitrabasu; NIET, National Institute of Medical Science, India. (Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2020-11-02)
      Network coordinates of cellular processes (proteostasis, proteolysis, and endocytosis), and molecular chaperones are the key complements in the cell machinery and processes. Specifically, cellular pathways are responsible for the conformational maintenance, cellular concentration, interactions, protein synthesis, disposal of misfolded proteins, localization, folding, and degradation. The failure of cellular processes and pathways disturbs structural proteins and the nucleation of amyloids. These mishaps further initiate amyloid polymorphism, transmissibility, co-aggregation of pathogenic proteins in tissues and cells, prion strains, and mechanisms and pathways for toxicity. Consequently, these conditions favor and lead to the formation of elongated amyloid fibrils consisting of many-stranded β-sheets (N,N-terminus and C,C-terminus), and abnormal fibrous, extracellular, proteinaceous deposits. Finally, these β-sheets deposit, and cells fail to degrade them effectively. The essential torsion angles (φ, ψ, and ω) define the conformation of proteins and their architecture. Cells initiate several transformations and pathways during the regulation of protein homeostasis based on the requirements for the functioning of the cell, which are governed by ATP-dependent proteases. In this process, the kinetics of the molding/folding phenomenon is disturbed, and subsequently, it is dominated by cross-domain misfolding intermediates; however, simultaneously, it is opposed by small stretching forces, which naturally exist in the cell. The ubiquitin/proteasome system deals with damaged proteins, which are not refolded by the chaperone-type machinery. Ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3-Ub) participate in all the cellular activity initiated and governed by molecular chaperones to stabilize the cellular proteome and participate in the degradation phenomenon implemented for damaged proteins. Optical tweezers, a single-resolution based technique, disclose the folding pathway of linear chain proteins, which is how they convert themselves into a three-dimensional architecture. Further, DNA-protein conjugation analysis is performed to obtain folding energies as single-molecule kinetic and thermodynamic data.
    • An extended finite element model for fracture mechanical response of tomato fruit

      Li, Dongdong; Li, Zhiguo; Tchuenbou-Magaia, Fideline (Elsevier, 2021-01-16)
      Fresh fruit micro-rupture generally occurs during mechanical handling, which severely affects the product’s postharvest quality along the supply chain. An extended finite element (XFEM) model was developed for investigating the fracture mechanical response of tomato fruit under postharvest mechanical compression. A 1/4 tomato fruit was modeled using three parts: exocarp, mesocarp and septa frame, and pre-crack. An amplitude curve-based uniformly distributed pressure load was applied over the internal surface of the locule for replacing the pressure change of the liquid in the fruit locule during compression simulation. The XFEM-based cohesive segments method in conjunction with Phantom nodes was used to simulate the initiation and propagation of the pre-crack in the fruit model. It was assumed that the fruit tissues were linear elastic and ideally brittle solid materials before fracture, the tissue fracture energy was independent of the size and geometry of the cracked tissue specimen, the tissue fracture response met a linear elastic traction-separation behavior, the crack initiation followed the maximum principal stress criterion and the crack evolution followed a linear softening law and a mode-independent and energy-based fracture criterion. The peak force applying over the locule surface was predicted as 0.02 MPa when the crack of the fruit virtually started to propagate. The XFEM model was found to be capable of reproducing the compression force-percentage deformation behavior as well as crack propagation of a tomato fruit in compression up to 28 % deformation with an average relative error was about 8 %. Both XFEM simulation and experiment data showed a rapid pre-crack propagation the percentage deformation was more than 20 %. Furthermore, the propagation length of the crack in the fruit model was sensitive to the peak pressure in the locule and the fracture mechanics (e.g., elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio, failure stress, fracture energy) of the exocarp and mesocarp. This study demonstrates the application of XFEM as a novel tool to understand how fruit rupture under mechanical loading when the fruit mechanics varies at different conditions (e.g., ripeness), and the extent of crack propagation which are important for improving or developing new mechanical handling technologies.
    • MultiModal route planning in mobility as a service

      Georgakis, P; Almohammad, A; Bothos, E; Magoutas, B; Arnaoutaki, K; Mentzas, G; Barnaghi, Payam M; Gottlob, Georg; Katsaros, Dimitrios; Manolopoulos, Yannis; et al. (ACM, 2019-10-31)
      Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a new approach for multimodal transportation in smart cities which refers to the seamless integration of various forms of transport services accessible through one single digital platform. In a MaaS environment there can be a multitude of multi modal options to reach a destination which are derived from combinations of available transport services. Terefore, route planning functionalities in the MaaS era need to be able to generate multi-modal routes using constraints related to a user's modal allowances, service provision and limited user preferences (e.g. mode exclusions) and suggest to the traveller the routes that are relevant for specific trips as well as aligned to her/his preferences. In this paper, we describe an architecture for a MaaS multi-modal route planner which integrates i) a dynamic journey planner that aggregates unimodal routes from existing route planners (e.g. Google directions or Here routing), enriches them with innovative mobility services typically found in MaaS schemes, and converts them to multimodal options, while considering aspects of transport network supply and ii) a route recommender that filters and ranks the available routes in an optimal manner, while trying to satisfy travellers' preferences as well as requirements set by the MaaS operator (e.g. environmental friendliness of the routes or promotion of specific modes of transport).
    • Heuristic-based journey planner for mobility as a service (Maas)

      Georgakis, P; Almohammad, A; Bothos, E; Magoutas, B; Arnaoutaki, K; Mentzas, G (MDPI, 2020-12-04)
      The continuing growth of urbanisation poses a real threat to the operation of transportation services in large metropolitan areas around the world. As a response, several initiatives that promote public transport and active travelling have emerged in the last few years. Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is one such initiative with the main goal being the provision of a holistic urban mobility solution through a single interface, the MaaS operator. The successful implementation of MaaS requires the support of a technology platform for travellers to fully benefit from the offered transport services. A central component of such a platform is a journey planner with the ability to provide trip options that efficiently integrate the different modes included in a MaaS scheme. This paper presents a heuristic that implements a scenario-based journey planner for users of MaaS. The proposed heuristic provides routes composed of different modes including private cars, public transport, bike-sharing, car-sharing and ride-hailing. The methodological approach for the generation of journeys is explained and its implementation using a microservices architecture is presented. The implemented system was trialled in two European cities and the analysis of user satisfaction results reveal good overall performance.
    • Total interpretive structural modelling of graduate employability skills for the built environment sector

      Obi, L; Hampton, P; Awuzie, B (MDPI, 2020-12-08)
      Contemporary practices and future projections in the Built Environment (BE) sector highlight an increasing demand on Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to produce graduates possessing relevant skills aligned to meet workplace demands. This study aims to analyse the key skills influencing BE graduate employability in the United Kingdom (UK) for the benefit of HEIs. This investigation leverages on a critical review of extant literature and an elicitation of the perceptions of targeted macro, meso, and micro level key stakeholders in the BE sector to identify key employability skills. The Total Interpretive Structural Modelling (TISM) technique was used to analyse the contextual interrelationships among the identified skills to develop a hierarchical model that provides HEI with insight for BE curriculum development. Six key employability skillsets hierarchically modelled into four levels were identified as crucial for potential graduates to successfully attract and adapt to contemporary practices in the Built Environment sector. Findings reveal communication and team-working skills as critical, independent skills driving the successful development of the remaining four skillsets. This research extends the literature on employability skills by investigating the interactions of various skills that predominantly predicts graduate employability in the Built Environment sector. The resulting TISM skills model provides hierarchical and logical interdependencies beneficial to assist HEIs to strategically design BE curricular to enhance graduate employability.
    • Neonatal ethics and the ANNP: Providing high quality practical support for neonatal intensive care teams

      Pillay, Thillagavathie; Kent, Sarah; McMahon, Robin (Elsevier, 2020-11-10)
    • Design of stainless steel cross-sections with outstand elements under stress gradients

      Gkantou, Michaela; Bock, Marina; Theofanous, Marios (Elsevier, 2021-01-09)
      A significant amount of research has been reported on stainless steel tubular sections, while studies on I- and C-sections remain relatively limited. This paper presents a comprehensive numerical study on the response of stainless steel I- and C-sections subjected to minor axis bending, with outstand flanges subjected to stress gradients. Numerical models are developed and validated against reported test data on austenitic stainless steel sections under minor axis bending. Subsequently, parametric studies using standardised material properties on austenitic, duplex and ferritic stainless steel grades, covering a wide variety of cross-section slendernesses, are carried out to expand the structural performance data. The results are used to assess the applicability of the Eurocode slenderness limits, revealing that the Class limit 3 for outstand flanges under stress gradient is overly conservative. Moreover, Eurocode underestimates the predicted bending strengths, whereas the level of accuracy and consistency improves for stocky sections, when the Continuous Strength Method is used. Aiming to address the lack of accuracy and consistency in the design predictions of slender sections, particular focus is placed on their performance. It is demonstrated that outstand elements under stress gradients exhibit significant inelastic behaviour after the compression flanges have locally buckled. Inelastic buckling behaviour is not considered in current design guidance, thus resulting in overly conservative and fundamentally incorrect strength predictions. An alternative design method based on the plastic effective width concept is proposed for slender stainless steel I- and C-sections in minor axis bending, which leads to more favourable and less scattered strength predictions.
    • Crashworthiness analysis and optimization of standard and windowed multi-cell hexagonal tubes

      Tran, TN; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Estrada, Quirino; Arjunan, Arun; Le, HuuSon; Thien, NP (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-01-07)
      Recently, multi-cell structures have received increased attention for crashworthiness applications due to their superior energy absorption capability. However, such structures were featured with high peak collapsing force (PCL) forming a serious safety concern, and this limited their application for vehicle structures. Accordingly, this paper proposes windowed shaped cuttings as a mechanism to reduce the high PCL of the multi-cell hexagonal tubes and systemically investigates the axial crushing of different windowed multi-cell tubes and also seeks for their optimal crashworthiness design. Three different multi-cell configurations were constructed using wall-to-wall (WTW) and corner-to-corner (CTC) connection webs. Validated finite element models were generated using explicit finite element code, LS-DYNA, and were used to run crush simulations on the studied structures. The crashworthiness responses of the multi-cell standard tubes (STs), i.e., without windows, and multi-cell windowed tubes (WTs) were determined and compared. The WTW connection type was found to be more effective for STs and less favorable for WTs. Design of experiments (DoE), response surface methodology (RSM), and multiple objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) tools were employed to find the optimal designs of the different STs and WTs. Furthermore, parametric analysis was conducted to uncover the effects of key geometrical parameters on the main crashworthiness responses of all studied structures. The windowed cuttings were found to be able to slightly reduce the PCL of the multi-cell tubes, but this reduction was associated with a major negative implication on their energy absorption capability. This work provides useful insights on designing effective multi-cell structures suitable for vehicle crashworthiness applications.
    • Nanocrystalline Mg2Ni for hydrogen storage

      Baroutaji, Ahmad; Arjunan, Arun; Ramadan, Mohamad; Alaswad, Abed; Achour, Hussam; Abdelkareem, Mohammad A; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani (Elsevier, 2020-12-14)
      Hydrogen continues to receive increased attention as the most promising energy carrier enabling sustainable and eco-friendly energy systems. Despite the various advantages of hydrogen fuel, storing hydrogen in a light-weight and compact form is the barrier towards the commercialization of the hydrogen technologies. Thus, the availability of a reliable, inexpensive, safe and efficient hydrogen storage technology is crucial to support and foster the transition to a hydrogen-powered world. Among the possible hydrogen storage solutions, storing hydrogen in the solid-state, such as metal hydrides, is the safest and most attractive method for on-board hydrogen storage. The metal hydrides can release highly pure hydrogen, via a low-pressure endothermic process, suitable to be used directly in the hydrogen fuel cell devices. This article presents an overview of using Mg and Mg2Ni-based alloys for solid-state hydrogen storage. A review of the hydrogen storage technologies is presented first and then the most recent developments on Mg and Mg2Ni-based hydrogen storage materials are highlighted.
    • Measuring community resilience using Q method: physical resilience perspective

      Tariq, Hisham; Pathirage, Chaminda; Fernando, Terrence (Emerald, 2021-12-31)
      Purpose Decision makers, practitioners and community members have a need to assess the disaster resilience of their communities and to understand their own capacities in disaster situations. There is a lack of consensus among researchers as to what resilience means and how it can be measured. This paper proposes a novel technique to achieve consensus among stakeholders on the definitions, objectives and indicators for measuring a key dimension of community disaster resilience, namely Physical Infrastructure (PI). Method This study uses a 5-step approach utilizing Q-methods to contextualize a resilience index for Physical Infrastructure. Interviews, focus groups and Q-sorting workshops were conducted to develop a tool that ranked measures according to stakeholder preference. A total of 84 participants took part in the workshops across four countries (UK, Malaysia, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). Findings The initial set of 317 measures was reduced to 128 and divided into the three community capacities of Anticipatory, Absorptive and Restorative. The Physical Infrastructure Capacity Assessment Tool (PI-CAT) was then finalized to encompass 38 indicators that were also ranked in order of importance by the participants. Practical implications The PI-CAT can be useful for local governments and communities to measure their own resilience. The tool allows stakeholders to be confident that the metrics being used are ones that are relevant, important and will meet their requirements. Originality The Q-method approach helps stakeholders to develop and use a community capacity assessment tool that is appropriate for their context. The PI-CAT can be used to identify effective investments that will enhance community disaster resilience.
    • Emerging evidence on the association between COVID-19and Type 2 Diabetes

      Morrissey, Hana; Wara, Bahta; Bibi, Nasreem; Ball, Patrick (Romanian Society of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, 2020-12-30)
      Objective: Published studies demonstrate that diagnosis with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) places patients at risk of severe symptoms and increased mortality from COVID-19. The literature was reviewed to understand emerging evidence. Method: A review of published studies on COVID-19 in patients with diabetes was conducted to identify the needs and optimal practice for the local population diagnosed with diabetes at risk of COVID-19. Key Findings: The combined sample was n=18746 where all patients were diagnosed with T2DM and COVID-19. The severity of symptoms was reported in n=7646. Most reported were fever, (32%) cough (26%), and chest tightness (8%). The causes of death were reported in n=3260. The main causes of death were: COVID-19 (76%), acute respiratory distress (5%). Other comorbidities were reported in n= 6968. The most reported comorbidities were hypertension (38%), cardiovascular (10%), and pulmonary disease (3%). Other risk factors were reported in n= 6968. Those most reported were diabetes, (80%) cardiovascular abnormalities (10%), hyperglycemia not previously diagnosed as diabetes (9%). The reported effects of antidiabetic medications on COVID-19 disease were reviewed for emerging evidence. Conclusions: Published studies underline the importance of maintaining weight, glycemic control, good hydration, and exercising as much as possible. Patients need to be informed to present to hospital promptly if developing COVID-19 symptoms. Normal T2DM therapy can be maintained in patients with no, or mild, symptoms. On presentation to hospital with severe COVID-19 disease, diabetes control maybe maintained with insulin, concurrent with hydration and metabolic parameters maintenance until the patient is recovered.
    • Synthesis and evaluation of selected benzimidazole derivatives as potential antimicrobial agents

      Alasmary, FAS; Snelling, AM; Zain, ME; Alafeefy, AM; Awaad, AS; Karodia, N; Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11362, Saudi Arabia. (MDPI, 2015-08-20)
      © 2015 by the authors. A library of 53 benzimidazole derivatives, with substituents at positions 1, 2 and 5, were synthesized and screened against a series of reference strains of bacteria and fungi of medical relevance. The SAR analyses of the most promising results showed that the antimicrobial activity of the compounds depended on the substituents attached to the bicyclic heterocycle. In particular, some compounds displayed antibacterial activity against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) comparable to the widely-used drug ciprofloxacin. The compounds have some common features; three possess 5-halo substituents; two are derivatives of (S)-2-ethanaminebenzimidazole; and the others are derivatives of one 2-(chloromethyl)-1Hbenzo[ d]imidazole and (1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methanethiol. The results from the antifungal screening were also very interesting: 23 compounds exhibited potent fungicidal activity against the selected fungal strains. They displayed equivalent or greater potency in their MIC values than amphotericin B. The 5-halobenzimidazole derivatives could be considered promising broad-spectrum antimicrobial candidates that deserve further study for potential therapeutic applications.
    • Infant survival among free-living bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) in South India

      Arlet, Małgorzata E; Balasubramaniam, Krishna N; Saha, Rajarshi; Beisner, Brianne; Marty, Pascal R; Kaburu, Stefano; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Kaasik, Ants; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa; McCowan, Brenda (Springer Nature, 2021-12-31)
      Female reproductive success depends to a large extent on infants’ ability to survive to maturity. While most studies of female reproductive success have focused on the effects of individuals’ sociodemographic factors (e.g. age/parity, dominance rank) on offspring survival among wild primates living in less disturbed habitats, little research has focused on offspring survival in urban or peri-urban animals. Here we investigated sociodemographic and anthropogenic determinants of infant survival (up to 1-yr of age) in free-ranging bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) living in a peri-urban environment in Southern India. We conducted the study from November 2016 to May 2018, on two groups of bonnet macaques at the Thenmala tourist site in the state of Kerala. Fifty infants were born across two birth seasons. 29.2% of infants died or disappeared in 2017 and 26.9% died or disappeared in 2018. We found that infant survival was strongly influenced by the mother’s parity: infants of experienced mothers had a better chance of survival than those of first-time mothers. We also found that male infants were more likely to die than female infants. However, we found no effects of mothers’ dominance rank, or of frequency of mothers’ interactions with humans and time spent foraging on anthropogenic food, on infant survival. Our results, consistent with findings from other wild primate species, show that even in challenging human-impacted environments, experienced bonnet macaque mothers have greater success than inexperienced ones.
    • Barriers for Implementing solar energy initiatives in Nigeria: an empirical study

      Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Abdullahi, Dahiru; Oloke, David (Emerald, 2021-01-26)
      Purpose Despite the abundant renewable energy potential in the Nigeria, power sector stakeholders have not paid attention to the prospect of natural resources that can be utilised when it is properly harnessed. Although, a very negligible fraction of the population has invested in solar photovoltaic (PVs) for home solution, the initiative was only made public commercialised under the public private partnership (PPP) and the objectives of the Power Sector Reform Act. 2005. It is, therefore, aimed to investigate the causes and insight of the barriers that are responsible for the slow implementation of the solar energy initiative in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach An empirical study was performed in Nigeria. The study was conducted qualitatively, through semi-structured face-to face interviews of 25 participants. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, interpreted, coded, categorised into themes, and analysed by content analysis. Findings The study reveals technological, financial, political, and social barriers have been the reason for slowing down solar energy development in Nigeria. While the technical barrier is a challenge to the solar energy implementation, socio-cultural issues have also been an obstacle to the implementation process. It is suggested that the stakeholders of the initiatives, to proffer sustainable policies to enable public and private promoters to be able to generate, and distribute electricity through solar PV, to complement the inadequate conventional electricity sources from the grids. Originality/value The paper provides a richer insight into the understanding and awareness of barriers for implementing solar energy strategies in Nigeria.
    • Guest editorial

      Arif, Mohammed; Goulding, Jack; Rankin, Jeff; Pour Rahimian, Farzad (Emerald, 2021-01-04)
    • Blockchain and IoMT against physical abuse: bullying in schools as a case study

      Ersotelos, Nikolaos; Bottarelli, Mirko; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Alhaboby, Zhraa; Pillai, Prashant; Aggoun, Amar (MDPI AG, 2020-12-29)
      By law, schools are required to protect the well-being of students against problems such as on-campus bullying and physical abuse. In the UK, a report by the Office for Education (OfE) showed 17% of young people had been bullied during 2017–2018. This problem continues to prevail with consequences including depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, and eating disorders. Additionally, recent evidence suggests this type of victimisation could intensify existing health complications. This study investigates the opportunities provided by Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) data towards next-generation safeguarding. A new model is developed based on blockchain technology to enable real-time intervention triggered by IoMT data that can be used to detect stressful events, e.g., when bullying takes place. The model utilises private permissioned blockchain to manage IoMT data to achieve quicker and better decision-making while revolutionising aspects related to compliance, double-entry, confidentiality, and privacy. The feasibility of the model and the interaction between the sensors and the blockchain was simulated. To facilitate a close approximation of an actual IoMT environment, we clustered and decomposed existing medical sensors to their attributes, including their function, for a variety of scenarios. Then, we demonstrated the performance and capabilities of the emulator under different loads of sensor-generated data. We argue to the suitability of this emulator for schools and medical centres to conduct feasibility studies to address sensor data with disruptive data processing and management technologies.
    • Factors influencing adoption model of continuous glucose monitoring devices for internet of things healthcare

      Md Ismail, Hossain; Ahmad Fadhil, Yusof; Ab Razak, Che Hussin; Noorminshah, A lahad; Sadiq, Ali Safaa (Elsevier, 2021-12-31)
      Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems (CGMs) device is the most developed technology, which has reshaped manual diabetes management with smart features having sensor, transmitter and monitor. However, the number of users for CGMs device is still very low compared to existing manual systems although this device provides a smart landmark in blood glucose monitoring for diabetes management. Consequently, the aspire of the assessment is to explore the factors that influence users’ intention to adopt CGMs device on the Internet of Things (IoT) based healthcare. This paper provides an adoption model for CGMs device by integrating some factors from different theories in existing studies of wearable healthcare devices. The proposed adoption model also examines current factors as a guideline for the users to adopt the CGMs device. We have collected data from 97 actual CGMs device users. Partial least square and structural equation modelling were involved for measurement and structural model assessment of this study. The experiential study specifies that interpersonal influence and trustworthiness are the strong predictors of attitude toward a wearable device, which shows significant relationships to use for CGMs device’s adoption. Personal innovativeness shows no significant relationship with attitude toward a wearable device. Besides, self-efficacy has no direct influence on a person’s health interest where heath interest directly influences users’ intention to use CGMs device. Moreover, perceived value is not found to be significant for measuring intention to use CGMs devices. The results from this research provide suggestions for the developers to ensure users’ intention to adopt CGMs device.
    • Influence of instability modes on cooling performance in hypersonic boundary layer with slot injection

      Cerminara, Adriano; Hermann, Tobias; Ifti, Hassan Saad; Deiterding, Ralf; Sandham, Neil; McGilvray, Matthew (Elsevier, 2020-12-14)
      A combined numerical-experimental investigation is presented with focus on the effects of boundary-layer instabilities and transition on the wall cooling performance in a Mach 5 low-enthalpy flow over a flat plate, with coolant injection achieved through a row of slots. The numerical study has been performed through direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, and is supported by results from linear stability analysis (LST) for the considered boundary layer. The experiments have been conducted in the High Density Tunnel (HDT) of the Oxford Thermofluids Institute, and include several blowing ratio conditions of injected air for the same freestream conditions. Surface heat transfer and pressure measurements, film effectiveness measurements, and Schlieren images are presented. The analysis links the wall cooling performance to the growth of imposed unstable boundary layer modes. Results indicate that 2D and 3D unstable modes, pertaining to the class of first instability modes, exist in the laminar boundary layer, and that imposition of these modes at different amplitudes leads to different states of the boundary layer, which we refer to as a perturbed state and a transitional state for medium and high amplitude respectively. As confirmed by comparison with experimental data, the perturbed and transitional states of the boundary layer significantly affect the wall cooling performance, providing an increase of the wall heat flux that results in a reduction of the beneficial effects of cooling.