• Are young adults encouraged to join the construction industry?

      Stride, Mark; Chung, Sammy; Subashini, Suresh (University of Wolverhampton, 2018-12-19)
      The construction industry is currently suffering from a lack of skilled workers, from builders and plumbers, to quantity surveyors and architects. Reasons for this include the recession and that the retiring workforce is not being replaced by younger generations. This is having a huge impact on the country’s ability to keep up with the demand for houses that need building; consequently meaning there is a shortage in homes in the country also. The research question addressed in the paper is: What can be done to encourage young adults (14-16 years old) to join the construction industry? The research question is answered through a critical literature review and analysis of questionnaire responses. The results show that there is little education on the construction industry to encourage young adults, and that it is perceived to be a dirty and low status industry to work in. On this basis, it is recommended that the Government and professional bodies need to do more to educate children in schools on what the construction industry truly is, and what opportunities it has for a good career. An initiative that was introduced in 2017 was the apprenticeship levy, which persuades companies to employ apprentices and up skill current employees subsequently encouraging school children to move directly into the construction industry. By schools, universities, colleges and businesses supporting each other it allows longevity and sustainability of the construction industry to be strengthened.
    • Athena SWAN in Higher Education Sector - a Built Environment Perspective

      Suresh, Subashini; Abdul-Aziz, Abdul-Rashid; Renukappa, Suresh (University of Wolverhampton, 2018-12-19)
      Higher education tends to recognise gender equality in terms of representation, progression and success for students and staff. Athena SWAN is a Charter which addresses gender equality. This paper is based on critical review of literature and secondary data analysis. A thorough literature review explores the best practices adopted by Universities in UK who were awarded Gold, Silver and Bronze. In doing so, 39 Universities were identified from the CHOBE members (Council of Heads of the Built Environment Heads of Department of Construction, Property and Surveying) in the year 2017 who have built environment students and staff. The results revealed that none of the Universities had gold award of Athena SWAN whereas 26 Universities had bronze awards. From the secondary data analysis of three years data from Equality in higher education, statistical reports on student and staff shows areas of concern for built environment where the female percent of student and staff are in the lower end of the spectrum. Therefore, initiatives and lessons learnt from other successful awarded Universities will be discussed in this paper so that awareness and adoption of the best practices by the built environment sector is encouraged.
    • Atmin modulates PKHD1 expression and through altered non-canonical wnt/planar cell polarity (pcp) signalling mediates ARPKD severity

      Goggolidou, Paraskevi; Richards, Taylor; Modarage, Kavindiya; Dean, Charlotte; Norman, Jill; Wilson, Patricia (Oxford Academic, 2018-05-18)
      INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: ARPKD is a genetic disorder with an incidence of ~1:20,000 that can lead to perinatal mortality. In the ~60% of ARPKD patients who survive the neonatal period, there is a range of disease severity, however, little is known about the genetic mechanisms that regulate ARPKD. ARPKD is caused by mutations in PKHD1 which encodes the large membrane protein, fibrocystin, required for normal branching morphogenesis of the ureteric bud during embryonic renal development. The range of disease severity observed in ARPKD suggests that besides PKHD1 that when mutated causes ARPKD, other genes might also play a role in ARPKD, acting as modifiers of disease severity.
    • Automated prediction of examinee proficiency from short-answer questions

      Ha, Le; Yaneva, Victoria; Harik, Polina; Pandian, Ravi; Morales, Amy; Clauser, Brian (International Committee on Computational Linguistics, 2020-12-10)
      This paper brings together approaches from the fields of NLP and psychometric measurement to address the problem of predicting examinee proficiency from responses to short-answer questions (SAQs). While previous approaches train on manually labeled data to predict the human ratings assigned to SAQ responses, the approach presented here models examinee proficiency directly and does not require manually labeled data to train on. We use data from a large medical exam where experimental SAQ items are embedded alongside 106 scored multiple-choice questions (MCQs). First, the latent trait of examinee proficiency is measured using the scored MCQs and then a model is trained on the experimental SAQ responses as input, aiming to predict proficiency as its target variable. The predicted value is then used as a “score” for the SAQ response and evaluated in terms of its contribution to the precision of proficiency estimation.
    • Awareness of big data concept in the Dominican Republic construction industry: an empirical study

      Reyes-Veras, Paola; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini (Teesside University, 2020-10-01)
      The construction industry, being one of the main characters in the ever-demanding need for technology developments, sometimes falls short of other industries in terms of implementation. The adoption of Big Data (BD) in industries like health and retail has had positive impacts in aspects such as decision-making processes and forecasting trends that allow planning some future business movements in advance. Hence, the question of whether these results can be recreated in construction industry. Therefore, this paper addresses the level of awareness identified as the first step towards implementation of the BD Concept within the construction industry of Dominican Republic (DR). Since little to no information exist on the subject the selected approach to perform this research was qualitative, twenty-one semi-structured interviews were studied using content analysis. Four levels of awareness is developed based on the Endsley situation awareness model. The results showed that nearly ninety-five percent of the interviewees had either no knowledge or a very basic awareness of the BD requirements or intermediate awareness but only five percent had actually applied BD in the construction industry. This paper provides the level of awareness of BD in the DR construction industry and provides evidence for the need to provide continuous professional development programmes for construction professionals and a need for an update of curriculum in construction-related education.
    • BDI for Intelligent Agents in Computer Games

      Davies, N.P.; Mehdi, Qasim (The University of Wolverhampton, School of Computing and Information Technology, 2006)
      With the emergence of complex computer games and advanced gaming hardware, possibilities for overcoming some of the deficiencies in traditional game AI are becoming feasible. These deficiencies include repetitive, predictable, and inhuman behaviour are caused by the reliance on simple reactive AI techniques. By using more sophisticated AI and agent techniques, we intend to overcome some of these problem areas. The aim of our research is to create new forms of intelligent characters (agents) that will exhibit human-like intelligence and provide more challenging and entertaining virtual opponents and team mates for computer games. We present here our prototype application that implements a BDI agent system within the 3D computer game Unreal Tournament via GameBots and JavaBots technology.
    • Bias estimation of p-values in analytic and simulated Cox Tests for non-nested models

      Wilson, Paul; Eilers, Paul H. C. (Statistical Modelling Society, 2008-07-07)
      In this paper we show that the estimation of p-values in both Cox’s test for non-nested models and its simulation based analogues is biased and that whilst simulation based Cox tests may be extended to nested models the consequent level of bias is so large as to render the test useless, but that this bias may be removed by adapting the null hypothesis to be simple.
    • BIM implementation in China: A case study approach

      Jiang, Bo; Khan, Rana Raheel Afzal; Vian, Ahmed; Cheng, Zhijun (Atlantis Press, 2015-10-31)
      The term of Building Information Modelling (BIM) has become ubiquitous in construction industry of China. The purpose of this study is to investigate implementation of BIM in construction industry in China, including the BIM strategy, the BIM standards, and the projects that utilized BIM and so on. The methodology for this paper is based on a literature review of the strategy, the standards in relation to BIM and a detailed case study of 30 BIM implementation projects in construction industry in China. A range of key factors that affected the BIM implementation and the initiatives to accelerate the BIM development in China were found in this paper, such as the BIM standards system, the BIM commercial model, BIM contribution to sustainability and so on. From the research findings, some conclusions and recommendations were drawn to explore effective ways to promote the BIM implementation in China.
    • BIM in the water industry: addressing challenges to improve the project delivery process

      Suresh, Subashini; Renukappa, Suresh; Kamunda, Andrew (University of Northumbria, 2019-09-18)
      The UK Government BIM implementation 2016 target for all public projects formed the major driver for the construction industry to upskill and learn new ways of working. The water industry is a private sector that has no mandate to implement BIM and would also benefit from its use. Research has identified that fragmentation and inefficiency still existed in the water industry project delivery processes. These issues can be addressed by harnessing the collaboration that BIM brings by using emerging information technology. The UK water industry has had little research in the use of BIM in the project delivery processes over the years. Therefore, the aim of the research is to explore and examine BIM use in the water construction industry, as well as understand the challenges faced and how they are being addressed to improve project delivery processes. The qualitative case study approach was adopted for the collection and analysis of data which was carried out by undertaking observations, document reviews and semi structured interviews. A water company and a design and build contractor on a framework formed the research sample. The design and build contractor was also part of other water industry frameworks. The research findings identified that there are similarities between the water industry and the other infrastructure sectors in the use of BIM realizing benefits of collaborative working. These benefits included improved information quality, cost reductions, shorter programme durations and greater collaboration. However, BIM was yet to be fully understood and used which led to challenges of overcoming and changing organizational cultures, developing levels of BIM expertise, data and information control, interoperability and data entry. The research also identified that the water company was lagging in BIM use despite noticeable benefits shown by its supply chain. The paper concludes by identifying that the water industry supply chain has taken positive steps and started to benefit from BIM use. However, more needs to be done as BIM is still in its infancy facing challenges associated with changing organizational cultures. The research recommends that the water industry and its supply chain should continue to invest more resources in implementing BIM to achieve the benefits realized by other sectors with NBS and CITB becoming more visible. This should include staff training, creating standardized approaches, processes to harness the collaborative nature of BIM.
    • Building Information Management (BIM) Education in the Dominican Republic: An Empirical Study

      Karin, Ana; Rodriguez, Silverio; Suresh, Subashini; Renukappa, Suresh; Heesom, David (Applied Science University, 2017-12)
      Building Information Management (BIM) education is par excellence the best solution to overcome the lack of BIM knowledge and BIM skilled professionals that affect the implementation of BIM in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry. Moreover, BIM education is vital to drive the implementation and evolution of BIM in the AEC industry. However, its provision can be a difficult task, more for BIM infant countries such as the Dominican Republic (DR). By adopting a qualitative approach, using semi‐structured interviews with nine professionals involved in BIM education, this study aims to explore the presence of BIM education in the DR. The data gathered was analysed with the method of content analysis. The findings mainly indicated: a shortage of BIM experts; lack of BIM education, as there is currently provided only BIM training based on software; and the dissemination of BIM knowledge through educational activities and BIM communities. However, the provision of BIM education is likely to expand. Most of the current training providers are eager to continue with their work and get into further areas, and there is also evidence of the first plan of inserting BIM in a university curriculum. These results infer that, for an infant country, BIM education seems to be heading in the right direction in the DR. The implementation of BIM is likely to increase, along with the provision and demand of BIM education in the country. This research may be beneficial to professional and policy makers interested in BIM education in BIM infant countries.
    • Building information modelling in the framework of knowledge management: a water industry case study

      Suresh, Subashini; Renukappa, Suresh; Kamunda, Andrew (ICISDM2019 Conference Proceedings, 2019-04-06)
      The UK private water industry has seen a lot of growth in expenditure since privatisation. Ofwat, Defra and DWI have set targets for the water companies to be customer focused, reducing bills, be innovative as well as encourage competition. The emergence of Building Information Modelling (BIM) has offered opportunities to the water industry to achieve cost and programme efficiencies as the rest of the construction industry. This, together with emerging information technology has allowed organisations to take steps in collaborative working, making information available at the right time to the right people, which is fundamental to Knowledge Management (KM). There is limited research in the subject of BIM being used in the context of and tool for KM within the UK water industry. Hence the aim of the study is to explore and understand how the UK water industry is using BIM for KM. A qualitative case study was used for the collection and analysis of data with the results obtained through review of water company supply chain processes, documents, observations and semi structured interviews. The key finding from the study is the significant impact of organisational culture influence on the implementation of BIM & KM in which the water industry supply chain has been aligning its business goals, identifying needed knowledge, creating KM resources and sharing knowledge through BIM as one of KM resources or tools. In conclusion, research identifies that the water industry is heading in the right direction, with leadership and management at the forefront of instilling a positive KM culture, though it is still developing. Ongoing training and provision of resources for KM should continue to be invested in to yield cost, programme, quality and knowledge capture benefits. The close definitions for Information and Knowledge should be taken advantage of for development and implementing of KM strategies using BIM as one of its key tool or resource.
    • Building intelligence in gaming and training simulations

      Jacobi, Dennis; Anderson, Don; von Borries, Vance; Elmaghraby, Adel; Kantardzic, Mehmed; Ragade, Rammohan; Mehdi, Qasim; Gough, Norman (University of Wolverhampton, School of Computing and Information Technology, 2004)
      Current war games and simulations are primarily attrition based, and are centered on the concept of “force on force.” They constitute what can be defined as “second generation” war games. So-called “first generation” war games were focused on strategy with the primary concept of “mind on mind.” We envision “third generation” war games and battle simulations as concentrating on effects with the primary concept being “system on system.” Thus, the third generation systems will incorporate each successive generation and take into account strategy, attrition and effects. This paper will describe the principal advantages and features that need to be implemented to create a true “third generation” battle simulation and the architectural issues faced when designing and building such a system. Areas of primary concern are doctrine, command and control, allied and coalition warfare, and cascading effects. Effectively addressing the interactive effects of these issues is of critical importance. In order to provide an adaptable and modular system that will accept future modifications and additions with relative ease, we are researching the use of a distributed Multi-Agent System (MAS) that incorporates various artificial intelligence methods. (Anderson 2002a, Anderson 2002b)
    • Can the impact of grey literature be assessed? An investigation of UK government publications cited by articles and books

      Bickley, Matthew; Kousha, Kayvan; Thelwall, Michael (International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, 2019-08-06)
      Grey literature encompasses a range of relatively informal textual outputs that are not indexed in citation databases. Although they are usually ignored in research evaluations, it is important to develop methods to assess their impact so that their contributions can be recognised, and successful types of grey literature can be encouraged. This article investigates the extent to which 97,150 UK government publications were cited by Scopus articles and Google Books during 2013-2017 in eleven broad subject areas. A method was used to semi-automatically extract citations to the UK government publications from articles and books with high recall and precision. The results showed that Scopus citations are more common than Google Books citations to UK government publications, especially for older documents, and for those in Healthcare, Education and Science. Since the difference is not huge, both may provide useful grey literature impact data.
    • Challenges for managing smart cities initiatives: An empirical study

      Abdalla, Wala; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Al-Janabi, Razan (IEEE, 2019-11-21)
      Extensive urbanisation is increasing on a global scale. The urban population is estimated to rise to 66 per cent by 2050. This significant urbanisation growth drives the consumption of resources causing resource shortages and posing significant environmental and social concerns. To manage these concerns municipal decision makers' attempt to leverage the smart city concept with collaboration between external actors as a means to maintain the prepossessed living standard in the city. The philosophy of smart cities is to see challenges as opportunities and take advantage of other trends such as digitalization. Smart cities may offer a major market opportunity that can be easily exploited by information and communication technologies providers and their telecom equipment partners. However, although the opportunity exits, capitalizing on it is not as straightforward as it seems. This paper investigates the predominant challenges in smart city initiatives from the municipal decision makers' perspective. The study is based on the findings of a survey conducted via 65 participants from various small and medium enterprises and large organisations. The results show that smart cities decision makers mainly perceive challenges with various technical and non-technical issues such as collaboration, economical, governance, social acceptance, and awareness of technology, as well as high technological risk, security and privacy of users and cyber-crimes issues.
    • Characterisation of CPO-27Ni Metal Organic Framework Material for Water Adsorption

      Elsayed, A.; Al-Dadah, R.; Mahmoud, S.; Shi, B.; Youessef, P.; Elshaer, A.; Kaialy, W. (Coventry University Open Collections, 2016-09)
    • Classification of colloquial Arabic tweets in real-time to detect high-risk floods

      Alabbas, Waleed; al-Khateeb, Haider M.; Mansour, Ali; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Frommholz, Ingo (IEEE, 2017-10-09)
      Twitter has eased real-time information flow for decision makers, it is also one of the key enablers for Open-source Intelligence (OSINT). Tweets mining has recently been used in the context of incident response to estimate the location and damage caused by hurricanes and earthquakes. We aim to research the detection of a specific type of high-risk natural disasters frequently occurring and causing casualties in the Arabian Peninsula, namely `floods'. Researching how we could achieve accurate classification suitable for short informal (colloquial) Arabic text (usually used on Twitter), which is highly inconsistent and received very little attention in this field. First, we provide a thorough technical demonstration consisting of the following stages: data collection (Twitter REST API), labelling, text pre-processing, data division and representation, and training models. This has been deployed using `R' in our experiment. We then evaluate classifiers' performance via four experiments conducted to measure the impact of different stemming techniques on the following classifiers SVM, J48, C5.0, NNET, NB and k-NN. The dataset used consisted of 1434 tweets in total. Our findings show that Support Vector Machine (SVM) was prominent in terms of accuracy (F1=0.933). Furthermore, applying McNemar's test shows that using SVM without stemming on Colloquial Arabic is significantly better than using stemming techniques.
    • Coloured graphlet profiles as a predictor of career length in scientific co-authorship networks

      Blanthorn, O; Navarro-Lopez, E (IEEE, 2019-12-12)
      Graphlets, or induced motifs, have long been used to find important medium-scale structures in directed networks. We present a method using the composition of coloured graphlets in ego-networks to characterise nodes. We give an example application using our technique to predict the numbers of years researchers are active from their collaboration networks, and compare our success with simpler metrics; particularly, we find that the use of coloured graphlets improves predictive performance compared to colour-blind graphlets; that 4-star graphlets centred on an author are predictors of a long career, and that this effect is not degenerate to centralities.
    • A Comparative Assessment of Embedded Energy Storage and Electric Vehicle Integration in a Community Virtual Power Plant

      Okpako, O; Rajamani, HS; Pillai, P; Anuebunwa, U; Shanti Swarup, K (Springer International Publishing, 2018-03-08)
      © 2018, ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Among the key objectives of the smart grid technology are to foster the grid integration of renewable energy as well as market participation of domestic energy consumers through demand response program. Energy storage remains a key component of the smart grid. Past works on integration of energy storage at the domestic side of the electricity grid has identified the electric vehicle technology (EV) and the embedded energy storage (EES) technology, etc. However, it was difficult to compare between these technologies in terms of business incentives and technical performance. This was investigated in this work, and the results are presented. It was propose to use percentage difference to compare between VPP with EES and VPP with EV. The results shows that the difference in prosumers incentives between VPP with EES and VPP with EV is very low. It is approximately 0.89%. However, the percentage difference in VPP operator profit between VPP with EES and VPP with EV is very high. It is approximately 85.3%. The VPP makes very high profit in the VPP EES case compared to VPP EV case. The same also applies to the VPP cumulative performance where the percentage difference in the VPP cumulative performance between VPP with EES and VPP with EV is approximately 10.9%. This has implication on the storage mechanism to be integrated in to a VPP at the domestic level as well the business model to be adopted.