• Coatings for dental applications

      Praveen, Ayyappan S; Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad (Elsevier, 2021-07-15)
      Dental implants have become a reliable treatment option in oral rehabilitation of partially or fully edentulous patients to secure various kinds of prostheses. Established standard procedures exist for tooth replacement in various zones with varying degrees of success and challenges. Overall, the long-term success of dental implants largely depends on their surface characteristics and osseointegration. Although, the success rate of dental implants is high in comparison to orthopedic implants, insufficient integration, local tissue inflammation, and infection are still persistent issues. Accordingly, various types of biomaterial coatings using a range of techniques are commonly used to improve the overall performance of dental implants and to overcome some of the persistent issues. The function of the implant coated material includes enhancing the cellular changes which in turn accelerate the healing process through improved osseointegration and antibacterial properties. Consequently, coatings for dental applications are gaining significant attention and interest among researchers across the globe. This article, therefore, aims to introduce coating materials and associated techniques used in the context of dental application for improved biocompatibility and biofunctionality.
    • Construction supply chain resilience in catastrophic events

      Oduoza, Chike; Sandanayake, Yasangika Gayani; Dissanayake, Tharaka Bandara; Oduoza, Chike (INTECH OPEN, 2018-11-27)
      In the wake of a number of catastrophic events, construction supply chain (CSC) vulnerability has become a major issue in the industry. Construction organisations today focus on strategies to minimise the impact of catastrophic events and manage risk by creating more resilient supply chains. However, there is lack of a mechanism to minimise the impact of catastrophic event on CSC. Therefore, this chapter focuses on the impact of catastrophic events on CSC and proposes a strategic framework to minimise their ultimate impact on the construction organisations. This aim is achieved through a comprehensive literature review, preliminary investigation and structured questionnaire survey. According to findings, most likely catastrophes that disrupt CSC are non-terrorist events and in fact are not always the most severe catastrophes. The aggregate effect of likelihood and severity revealed that disruption to transportation has the extreme risk level on CSC, while the most significant impact of catastrophic events is business failure and least significant impact is loss of focus to work. Thus, the catastrophic event risk minimisation strategic framework presented in this chapter will assist construction organisations to identify most suitable strategic actions to minimise the impact of catastrophic events on CSC in order to create resilient construction industry.
    • Counting on numbers - squaring the numeracy divide?

      Watts, Adam; Shiner, R.; O'Gara, Elizabeth A.; Warrender, Tom (Centre of Excellence in Learning and Teaching, 2005)
    • Creating Time and Responsive Dimensions in Science with Mobile Technology

      Khechara, Marin; Smith, S; Crompton, Helen; Traxler, John (Routledge, 2017-12-06)
      Mobile learning (mlearning) is now used extensively in higher education (HE) (El-Hussain & Cronje, 2010). The use of this technology, most commonly represented by smartphones (Ofcom, 2015), allows approaches such as the flipped classroom or ‘flipping’ to be facilitated (Bishop & Verleger, 2013). Content is recorded and made available online before class through a mobile device (Bergman & Sams, 2012), leaving face-to-face sessions free for other activities that support learning. The use of the flipped approach has been shown to have a range of positive impacts on students (Smith, Brown, Purnell & Martin, 2015; Witton, 2016).
    • Cross modular tracking, academic counselling and retention of students on traditional delivery, technology supported learning, flexible access and other awards

      Oliver, Ken; Musgrove, Nick; Smith, John (University of Wolverhampton, 2002)
      The increasing emphasis in recruitment of ‘non traditional’ student cohorts (Year 0, part- time evening only, Flexible Access, additional needs etc) combined with multi-staffed modules and technology supported learning (TSL) delivery is mitigating against the traditional tutor overview of cross-modular student performance and may be hiding student problems until a point of no return when formal summative evidence of failure is validated. In addition the trend towards minimising formal assessment loading can be seen as reducing the numbers of performance benchmarks available to establish learner profiles. The project aims to implement a continuous cross-modular tracking and assessment structure, initially for first year Environmental Science (ES) students, in order to provide such ‘early warning’ of student difficulties as will permit viable counselling and remedial support. It is anticipated that such a strategy will reduce the incidence of ‘under performance’, ‘drop outs’ and ‘resits’ by making support available at the point problems arise and not when formal failure is established.
    • Developing a key skills profile for first year computing undergraduates

      Davies, Jenny; Hunt, Rose; Wrighton, Naomi; Holland, Lynda (University of Wolverhampton, 2003)
    • Development of a formalised skills-based tutorial system in support of student learning

      Norton, Ken; Reynolds, Steve (University of Wolverhampton, 2001)
      A formalised skills-based tutorial system in support of student learning has been devised, stitched into core Level 1 modules, and requiring student self study and individual student inputs in small group (maximum 5) compulsory tutorials. The aim has been to co-ordinate the development of the six (Foundation Degree) key transferable skills and to underpin career management activities by fostering, in first year students, a feeling of ‘belonging’ through the strengthening of personal progress planning. The outcome has been a series of skills-related tutorial topics providing training in relevant study techniques (involving all staff irrespective of discipline) with student guidance notes on task completion, a mechanism for encouraging students to use assessment feedback from all sources in a constructive and reflective manner and a means for monitoring student attendance and performance which, it is envisaged, should lead to improvements in Year 1 retention rates. Our system has recently been evaluated at a full Biosciences divisional meeting. Unanimous acceptance by all 20+ staff with some discussion on, and modification to, the proposed mode of assessment for the subject-specific extended essay and the nature of the numerical exercise on statistics and use of calculators. Potential rooming problems were voiced. The project is now virtually completed and is ready for an October start, apart from final agreements on the format of the skills diaries/recording systems which will form the basis of a Science student’s Progress File.
    • Development of an interactive on-line alternative to a laboratory-based demonstration in the module: Food Microbiology

      Gibson, Hazel; Walton, Julie; Hammerton, Matthew; Dyer, Ros (University of Wolverhampton, 2005)
      Discusses the development of an interactive on-line alternative to a laboratory-based demonstration for a course module on Food Microbiology at the University of Wolverhampton. The programme was designed to provide a stimulating learning experience to promote a deep approach to learning and also to provide the opportunity for distance and self-paced learning.
    • Development of ICT provisions for additional needs science students

      Musgrove, Nick; Homfray, Richard P.; Addison, Ken (University of Wolverhampton, 2001)
      The School of Applied Sciences (SAS) has one of the largest incidences of ‘additional needs’ students in the University, with the potential for this to increase through recruitment from linked organisations (e.g. Rodbaston College), through School initiatives (e.g. Flexible Learning) or University initiatives such as Widening Participation. The increased emphasis placed on the use of ICT as a means of producing assignments (word-processing, spreadsheets, specialist packages etc.), coupled with an expansion in TSL (i.e. use of the SAS intranet, WOLF, and ‘Subject Centre’ and other specialist teaching packages) in the delivery of courseware within our standard IT provision, was considered to be exacerbating the difficulties encountered by some of our students with additional needs. The principal objective of the project is to increase accessibility to the University standard software suites in use in SAS in addition to the specialist packages used in the school. The basic strategy falls within two areas: use of appropriate additional hardware and software to enhance the display options available to students and use of appropriate additional hardware and software to provide alternate means of inputting information into, and receiving output from, standard software packages.
    • Distance learning and the empowerment of students: applied statistical analysis for students of the Built Environment.

      Nicholas, John; Edwards, David (University of Wolverhampton, 2002)
      Built Environment students (including construction management, quantity surveying and so forth) generally exhibit limited understanding of mathematics and statistics, both from a theoretical and practical perspective (cf. Johnson, 1998; Llewellyn, 1999; Mtenga and Spainhour, 2000). This statement is supported by the fact that over half of the first year students (2001/2 intake) who completed an Individual Learner Profile (ILP) admitted to exhibiting poor mathematical skill. In addition, fewer than one in forty students have gained a mathematical qualification higher than a GCSE. Hence, undergraduate students are faced with a huge task when initially conceptualising the analytical component of a dissertation. Consequently, students elect to avoid robust and rigorous analysis in preference for elementary and somewhat naïve statistical methods to interpret any gathered data. This problem is further exacerbated by the reference to many ‘introductory’ statistical texts that are written for persons who have an ‘above average’ mathematical knowledge. Due to their background, Built Environment students struggle in transferring their data into a format that can be analysed and interpreted by statistical software. To do so requires time and commitment of staff combined with student initiative and drive. The problem here is that over 50% of students in the School of Engineering and the Built Environment (SEBE) attend University on a part time basis. Hence, physical restrictions limit these students’ ability to access the library and search for an appropriate textbook. Therefore, an easily accessible (internet) reference tool would provide an ideal opportunity with which to overcome this potential stumbling block. The aim of the proposed project was to develop an internet-based tool to assist undergraduate students learn ‘applied’ statistical analysis of data (relevant to typical construction problems) not just statistics per se. Such a tool would facilitate students, who actively seek to enhance their general mathematical and statistical knowledge as well as gain an insight into using commercially available statistical software simulation packages.
    • The DNA methylation machinery

      Morris, Mark; Hesson, Luke; Pritchard, Antonia (Springer Nature Singapore, 2019-09-01)
      Cytosine methylation is an important epigenetic signalling mechanism that regulates gene expression. The presence of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) at promoters is associated with gene silencing. In this chapter, we will describe our current understanding of 1. The mechanisms and molecules involved in the addition, and maintenance, of methyl groups to cytosine bases (5-mC writers) 2. The mechanism by which these 5-mC modifications are read resulting in changes in gene expression 3. The molecules and mechanisms involved in removing methyl groups from cytosine bases (5-mC erasers)
    • Do "Top Up" students on computing courses think deeply?

      Davies, Jenny; Goda, David (University of Wolverhampton, 2002)
      For the last four years the School of Computing and Information Technology (SCIT) has offered a degree conversion programme from HND to degree, which is becoming increasingly popular, especially with students from local FE colleges. In addition about 15% of the students are recruited from overseas. However, the students on the ‘Top Up’ programme have demonstrated difficulty with the more academic aspects of their course, especially the individual project, which is taken in semester 2. Although the students rarely failed the project, the marks achieved were substantially lower than those they obtained for other modules, in particular modules that were more practically focussed. This was to be expected given the vocational nature of these students’ previous studies. In their first semester of the degree conversion programme, the students take a core module in Professional Aspects of Computing (PAC). As well as introducing them to professional issues associated with work in an IT environment, this module was designed to improve their key and intellectual skills, especially those required to complete the project successfully such as literature search, referencing and critical evaluation. An improvement in the project marks had been recorded in each of the three previous years through increasing emphasis on those skills in the PAC module. Consideration of current educational research about learning styles led the award team to reflect on whether the students’ learning styles could be an underlying issue in their struggling with the more academic aspects of the course. Marton and Saljo (1976) identified two contrasting approaches to learning: deep and surface, subsequently extended to include a third, strategic, approach (Entwistle, 1987). It is accepted, however, that strategic learners may also be either deep or surface learners. A deep approach to learning is believed to correlate with increased academic success. Entwistle (2000) defined a successful student as one who adopts a deep, strategic approach with no surface, apathetic elements. Initially, in this field of research, assessment of student learning style was by means of interview but that was superseded by inventory, ‘Approaches to Studying Inventory, ASI’ (Entwistle and Ramsden, 1983). Refinement of ASI led to the development of ‘ASSIST, Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students’ (Tait et al. 1998).
    • Effects of Palm-mat Geotextiles on the Conservation of Loamy Sand Soils in East Shropshire, UK

      Bhattacharyya, Ranjan; Davies, Kathleen; Fullen, Michael A.; Booth, Colin A. (Catena Verlag, Reiskirchen, Germany, 2008)
      Some 30% of world arable land has become unproductive, largely due to soil erosion. Considerable efforts have been devoted to studying and controlling water erosion. However, there remains the need for efficient, environmentallyfriendly and economically-viable options. An innovative approach has used geotextiles constructed from Borassus aethiopum (Black Rhun Palm of West Africa) leaves to decrease soil erosion. The effectiveness of employing palmmats to reduce soil erosion have been investigated by measuring runoff, soil loss and soil splash on humid temperate soils. Twelve experimental soil plots (each measuring 1.0 x 1.0 m) were established at Hilton, east Shropshire, UK, to study the effects of geotextiles on splash erosion (six plots completely covered with Borassus mats and six non-protected bare soil plots). Soil splash was measured (10/06/02-09/02/04; total precipitation = 1038 mm) by collecting splashed particles in a centrally positioned trap in each plot. An additional field study (25/03/02-10/05/04; total precipitation = 1320 mm) of eight experimental runoff plots (10 x 1 m on a 15o slope) were used at the same site, with duplicate treatments: (i) bare soil; (ii) grassed, (iii) bare soil with 1 m palm-mat buffer zones at the lower end of the plots and (iv) completely covered with palm-mats. Runoff volume and sediment yield were measured after each substantial storm. Results indicate that total splash erosion in bare plots was 34.2 g m-2 and mean splash height was 20.5 cm. The use of Borassus mats on bare soil significantly (P<0.05) reduced soil splash height by ~31% and splash erosion by ~50%. Total runoff from bare plots was 3.58 L m-2 and total sediment yield was 8.58 g m-2. Thus, application of geotextiles as 1 m protective buffer strips on bare soil reduced runoff by ~36% and soil erosion by ~57%. Although total soil loss from the completely covered geotextile plots was ~16% less than the buffer zone plots, total runoff volume from the completely covered plots was ~94% more than the buffer zone plots. Thus, palm-mat (buffer strips) cover on vulnerable segments of the landscape is highly effective for soil and water conservation on temperate loamy sand soils.
    • Effects of tobacco waste tipping on the Sefton coastal dunes (North-West England)

      Millington, J. A.; Booth, Colin A.; Fullen, Michael A.; Trueman, Ian C.; Worsley, Annie T.; Richardson, Nigel; Newton, M.; Lymbery, G.; Wisse, P.; Brockbank, A. (CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, 2010)
      Between 1956-1974, the British Nicotine Company Ltd tipped some 22,000 tonnes per year of wet tobacco waste onto the Sefton coastal sand dunes, at Formby, North-West England. The effect on the natural dune vegetation is evident by a dense coverage of non-native stinging nettles (Uritica dioica), displacing native flora species, such as sand sedge (Carex arenaria) and marram grass (Ammophilia arenaria), on this internationally-recognized calcareous dune system. In turn, this is affecting current coastal processes, as dune building has been interrupted by the presence of vegetation less capable of trapping sand than native dune species. Resultant dune deflation has caused the shoreline to migrate landwards, exposing the tobacco waste, thus creating eroding cliffs (up to 3 m high) of waste and depositing it on the beach. The National Trust advocates the wide understanding of the importance of such natural coastal processes and therefore accepts dune rollback as a positive process in tobacco waste management, rather than the costly total removal strategy.
    • Engineered Nanomaterials in the Environment, their Potential Fate and Behaviour and Emerging Techniques to Measure Them

      Pouran, Hamid; Hussain, Chaudhery (Springer, 2019-03-29)
      “There is plenty of room at the bottom” – this was title of Richard Feynman’s famous talk to the American Physical Society more than half a century ago. The Nobel Laureate, in his historic lecture, discussed the possibility of the direct manipulation of materials on the atomic and molecular level to unleash novel functions. Now, after decades of research, nanoscience faces a historic moment: moving from fundamental research towards a publically available technology, a turning point towards commercialization.
    • Environmental pollution, neurodevelopment and cognitive impairment

      Chen, Ruoling; Roberts, Nicholas. (Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2014-04)
    • Evaluation of biological geotextiles for reduction of runoff and soil loss

      Smets, T.; Poesen, Jean; Bhattacharyya, Ranjan; Fullen, Michael A.; Booth, Colin A.; Subedi, Madhu; Kertész, Á.; Szalai, Z.; Toth, A.; Jankauskas, Benediktas; et al. (CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, 2010)
      The objective of the work reported is to evaluate the effectiveness of selected types of biological geotextile in reducing runoff and soil lossin continental, temperate and tropical environments. Laboratory simulations used various rainfall intensities, flow shear stresses and slope gradient and field plot data were collected from seven countries. The laboratory experiments indicate that all tested biological geotextiles are effective in reducing interrill runoff (32-73% of the value for bare soil) and interrill erosion rates (5-27 % of the value for bare soil). Since simulated concentrated flow discharge sometimes flows below the geotextiles, their effectiveness in reducing concentrated flow erosion is significantly less (25-153% of the value for bare soil). On field plots, where both interrill and rill erosion occur, all tested geotextiles reduced runoff depth on average to 17-63 % of the control value for bare soil and in some cases, runoff depth increased compared to bare soil surfaces, which can be attributed to the impermeable and hydrophobic characteristics of some biological geotextiles. In the field, soil loss rates due to interrill and rill erosion were reduced on average to 5-20 % of the value of bare soil by the biological geotextiles. For all environmental conditions, the relative reduction of both runoff and soil loss by geotextiles compared to bare soil, increased with increasing rainfall depth. Runoff depths are significantly more reduced by Buriti and Rice straw geotextiles on the longer field plots (6-10 m) compared to the short interrill laboratory plots (0.9 m). Only the Rice straw geotextiles are significantly more effective in reducing soil loss on the longer field plots compared to the short interrill laboratory plot.
    • ‘Flipping’ the Postgraduate Classroom: supporting the student experience

      Smith, Sara; Brown, Donna; Purnell, Emma; Martin, Jan (Springer Publishing, 2014-11)
      An enquiry was undertaken to evaluate whether the concept of ‘flipping the classroom’ to support the delivery of more specialised modules could be utilised at a postgraduate level. The fundamental idea behind this approach is that more time is dedicated to active learning with tutor support and feedback being provided for the students. A set of lectures was developed for the post-graduate module in Diagnostic Cellular Pathology using a lecture capture system. Evaluation of the ‘flipped classroom’ and traditional lecture sessions was undertaken, looking at their perceptions of each mode of delivery within the module; in particular focusing upon whether ‘flipping’ enabled students from a range of backgrounds and abilities to take a more active part within lecture sessions.. Using tutor contact time to support their application of knowledge to problems and case studies within the workshops allowed them to develop a greater depth of understanding of each topic covered and address any areas of concern. Further in-depth analysis shed light upon student engagement within the module and motivation to undertake further reading to ‘deepen’ knowledge within specific topics, and overall performance of the module.
    • Foreign Aid, Urbanization and Green Cities

      Li, Jun (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018)
    • Foreword: Wallacea - a hotspot of snake diversity

      O'Shea, Mark; Telnov, Dmitry; Barclay, Maxwell VL; Pauwels, Olivier SG; University of Wolverhampton (The Entomological Society of Latvia, 2021)