• Object manipulation and tool use in Nicobar long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis umbrosus)

      Mazumder, Jayashree; Kaburu, Stefano (Springer Nature, 2020-03-03)
      Object manipulation and tool use by non-human primates have received considerable attention from primatologists and anthropologists, because of their broad implications for understanding the evolution of tool use in humans. To date, however, most of the studies on this topic have focused on apes, given their close evolutionary relationship with humans. In contrast, fewer studies on tool use and object manipulation have been conducted on monkeys. Documenting and studying object manipulation and tool use in species that are more distantly related to humans can provide a broader perspective on the evolutionary origins of this behaviour. We present a detailed description of toolaided behaviours and object manipulation by Nicobar long-tailed macaques ( Macaca fascicularis umbrosus ) living along the coastlines of Great Nicobar Island. We made observations from December 2018 to March 2019, using ad libitum and focal sampling methods. We observed behaviours related to object manipulation and tool use in six different behavioural contexts (foraging, hygiene, communication, play, selfdirected and self-hygiene behaviour) involving eight different types of objects, namely resonance rod, play object, rolling platform, scraping tool, dental groom, pounding substrate, leaves as grip pads and wipers, and stimulation tool. We observed that males were involved in tool use and object manipulation more frequently than females. Our results add to existing records of object manipulation, tool-use behaviour and tool variants displayed by non-human primates, showing that Nicobar macaques perform multiple and diverse tool-aided behaviours.
    • Occupant productivity and indoor environment quality: A case of GSAS

      Al Horr, Y; Arif, M; Kaushik, A; Mazroei, A; Elsarrag, E; Mishra, S (Elsevier BV, 2017-12-16)
      © 2017 Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to establish links between Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ) factors that affect occupant productivity and Global Sustainability Assessment System (GSAS) building rating system. The paper analyses the current state of GSAS using a desktop study, survey and brainstorming session organised in a workshop with GSAS Certified Green Professionals (CGP). Methodology/design/approach: The study was conducted in three steps. First, a comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify IEQ factors that influence occupant productivity in offices. The second step was a desktop analysis of current GSAS building rating system to identify criteria and submittals that may help to increase occupant productivity. It was followed by a facilitated workshop of GSAS CGPs that included a survey and a brainstorming session to highlight the current state of GSAS rated building performances on occupant productivity. The workshop was attended by 41 CGPs in Doha, Qatar. Findings: The paper highlighted that GSAS needs to be updated to increase occupant productivity in GSAS rated buildings. A periodic post-occupancy survey in GSAS buildings should be mandated to ensure better occupant productivity. The paper also presented various methods to make GSAS rated buildings more occupant-friendly. Originality/value: This study is the first study to analyse green building guidelines in the context of occupant productivity, especially in Qatar.
    • Occupant productivity and office indoor environment quality: A review of the literature

      Al Horr, Yousef; Arif, Mohammed; Kaushik, Amit; Mazroei, Ahmed; Katafygiotou, Martha; Elsarrag, Esam (Elsevier, 2016-06-10)
      The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature to draw an understanding of the relationship between indoor environmental quality and occupant productivity in an office environment. The study reviews over 300 papers from 67 journals, conference articles and books focusing on indoor environment, occupant comfort, productivity and green buildings. It limits its focus to the physical aspects of an office environment. The literature outlines eight Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) factors that influence occupant productivity in an office environment. It also discusses different physical parameters under each of the IEQ factors. It proposes a conceptual model of different factors affecting occupant productivity. The study also presents a review of the data collection methods utilised by the research studies that aim to investigate the relationship between IEQ and occupant productivity. The study presents a comprehensive discussion and analysis of different IEQ factors that affect occupant productivity. The paper provides a concise starting point for future researchers interested in the area of indoor environmental quality.
    • Oculomotor deficits after chemotherapy in childhood

      Einarsson, Einar-Jón; Patel, Mitesh; Petersen, Hannes; Wiebe, Thomas; Magnusson, Måns; Moëll, Christian; Fransson, Per-Anders (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2016-01-27)
      Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric malignancies have substantially increased the number of childhood cancer survivors. However, reports suggest that some of the chemotherapy agents used for treatment can cross the blood brain barrier which may lead to a host of neurological symptoms including oculomotor dysfunction. Whether chemotherapy at young age causes oculomotor dysfunction later in life is unknown. Oculomotor performance was assessed with traditional and novel methods in 23 adults (mean age 25.3 years, treatment age 10.2 years) treated with chemotherapy for a solid malignant tumor not affecting the central nervous system. Their results were compared to those from 25 healthy, age-matched controls (mean age 25.1 years). Correlation analysis was performed between the subjective symptoms reported by the chemotherapy treated subjects (CTS) and oculomotor performance. In CTS, the temporal control of the smooth pursuit velocity (velocity accuracy) was markedly poorer (p<0.001) and the saccades had disproportionally shorter amplitude than normal for the associated saccade peak velocity (main sequence) (p = 0.004), whereas smooth pursuit and saccade onset times were shorter (p = 0.004) in CTS compared with controls. The CTS treated before 12 years of age manifested more severe oculomotor deficits. CTS frequently reported subjective symptoms of visual disturbances (70%), unsteadiness, light-headedness and that things around them were spinning or moving (87%). Several subjective symptoms were significantly related to deficits in oculomotor performance. To conclude, chemotherapy in childhood or adolescence can result in severe oculomotor dysfunctions in adulthood. The revealed oculomotor dysfunctions were significantly related to the subjects’ self-perception of visual disturbances, dizziness, light-headedness and sensing unsteadiness. Assessments of oculomotor function may, thus, offer an objective method to track and rate the level of neurological complications following chemotherapy.
    • An off-site construction readiness maturity model for the Indian construction sector

      Rana, Muhammad Qasim; Arif, Mohammed; Goulding, Jack; Sawhney, Anil; Bendi, Deepthi (Emerald, 2020-10-07)
      Purpose This paper presents an Off-Site Construction (OSC) readiness maturity model for assessing the readiness of off-site construction in the Indian construction sector. Design/Methodology/Approach The research was conducted in three stages. The first stage consisted of a detailed literature review to document 17 different variables affecting the OSC adoption in India. In stage two, 15 semi-structured interviews were carried out where the participants were asked to refine those variables for the Indian context and define what would be different levels of attainment. In the third stage, another set of 5 semi-structure interviews was performed to validate the maturity levels and definitions. Findings A three-level OSC readiness maturity model is presented for discussion. This describes 17 variables at different levels of maturity. Practical Implications The proposed OSC readiness maturity model guides construction practitioners in India through a structured process to enable them to assess their OSC readiness in the market. This assessment enables them to evaluate and benchmark their processes through the strategic and operational phases. The maturity model also identifies the areas of concern and the scope for further development or change to secure the optimal advantage of OSC methods. Originality/Value The research produced a model to assess the readiness of off-site construction adoption in the Indian construction sector. Although the model has been applied to the Indian construction sector, it can easily be modified to accommodate other OSM contexts.
    • Offsite manufacturing: Envisioning the future agenda

      Goulding, Jack; Pour Rahimian, Farzad (Routledge, 2019-06-19)
      Off-Site Manufacturing (OSM) as a concept/approach is certainly not new, the origins of which rest in literature under various incarnations and typologies. Earliest examples include provision where “… a panelized wood house was shipped from England to Cape Ann in 1624 to provide housing for a shipping fleet” (Arieff, and Burkhart, 2003), through to the importation of housing in Australia (circa 1837), the delivery of Crystal Palace for “The Great Exhibition” in the United Kingdom (UK) (circa 1851), and for mainstream housing in the United States (US) with initiatives such as the Sears Modern Home “kit house” (circa 1908) and Lustron Home (circa 1945). However, there are several different terminologies in current use which describe OSM (Gibb and Pendlebury, 2006; Taylor, 2010); including: modern methods of construction, pod technology, off-site construction/fabrication/production, industrialised building systems, modular construction, pre-cast panels/foundations, volumetric/hybrid construction etc.
    • Olfactory signals and fertility in olive baboons

      Vaglio, Stefano; Minicozzi, Pamela; Kessler, Sharon E; Walker, David; Setchell, Joanna M (Springer Nature, 2021-04-19)
      Female primates signal impending ovulation with a suite of sexual signals. Studies of these signals have focussed on visual, and to a lesser extent, acoustic signals, neglecting olfactory signals. We aimed to investigate the information content of female olfactory signals in captive olive baboons (Papio anubis) and relate these to the female fertile period. We studied eight adult females living in four groups at the CNRS Station de Primatologie, Rousset-sur-Arc, France. We used vaginal cytology to detect ovulation. We investigated the volatile component of odour signals using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found a total of 74 volatile compounds, of which we tentatively identified 25, including several ketones, alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, volatile fatty acids and hydrocarbons that have been identified in odour profiles of other primates. Our results show that vaginal odour intensity differs with sexual cycle stage suggesting that odour might play a role in signalling female baboon fertility. We found differences in vaginal odour between females living in all-female and in mixed sex groups but we could not distinguish the effects of group composition, female age and identity. This study of olfactory signalling improves our understanding of how female primates advertise their sexual receptivity.
    • The “ological-triad”: considerations for construction management research

      Holt, GD; Goulding, JS (Emerald, 2017-06-05)
      © 2017, © Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: This paper aims to consider an “-ological” (ontological, epistemological and methodological) triad in the context of construction management (CM) research, and to explore the triad in terms of ontological/epistemological viewpoints, paradigmatic approaches to CM research and, ultimately, CM methodological decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Derivation of critical narrative and graphical models using literature synthesis combined with experiential, methodological views of the authors. Findings: Conceptions of ontology, epistemology and methodology (the “ological-triad”) demonstrate high variability – resultantly, their use in CM research is equally inconsistent, sometimes questionable and, in the extreme, sometimes overlooked. Accordingly, this study concludes that greater recognition of the “ological-triad” is called for in CM research, especially at the design stage. A framework for doing this is proffered. Originality/value: Combined study of the “ologies” within CM research uniquely consolidates previous disparate knowledge into a single, cogent, subject-specific discourse that, inter-alia, both informs and illuminates CM research challenges. It also encourages critical debate on the issues highlighted.
    • On statistical testing and mean parameter estimation for zero–modification in count data regression

      Wilson, Paul; Einbeck, Jochen; Dupuys, Jean-François; Josse, Julie (Statistical Modelling Society, 2016-07-04)
      For the problem of testing for zero–modification in Poisson regression, a simple and intuitive test can be constructed by computing directly confidence intervals for the number of 0’s under the Poisson assumption. This requires the ability of estimating the mean function accurately even if the data are in fact zero–inflated or deflated. A novel hybrid estimator is introduced for this purpose, which is of interest beyond the scope of the motivating test problem.
    • On textual analysis and machine learning for cyberstalking detection

      Frommholz, Ingo; al-Khateeb, Haider M.; Potthast, Martin; Ghasem, Zinnar; Shukla, Mitul; Short, Emma (Springer, 2016-06-01)
      Cyber security has become a major concern for users and businesses alike. Cyberstalking and harassment have been identified as a growing anti-social problem. Besides detecting cyberstalking and harassment, there is the need to gather digital evidence, often by the victim. To this end, we provide an overview of and discuss relevant technological means, in particular coming from text analytics as well as machine learning, that are capable to address the above challenges. We present a framework for the detection of text-based cyberstalking and the role and challenges of some core techniques such as author identification, text classification and personalisation. We then discuss PAN, a network and evaluation initiative that focusses on digital text forensics, in particular author identification.
    • On the crashworthiness performance of thin-walled energy absorbers: Recent advances and future developments

      Baroutaji, Ahmad; Sajjia, Mustafa; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani (Elsevier, 2017-05-24)
      Over the past several decades, a noticeable amount of research efforts has been directed to minimising injuries and death to people inside a structure that is subjected to an impact loading. Thin-walled (TW) tubular components have been widely employed in energy absorbing structures to alleviate the detrimental effects of an impact loading during a collision event and thus enhance the crashworthiness performance of a structure. Comprehensive knowledge of the material properties and the structural behaviour of various TW components under various loading conditions is essential for designing an effective energy absorbing system. In this paper, based on a broad survey of the literature, a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in the area of crashworthiness performance of TW tubes is given with a special focus on the topics that emerged in the last ten years such as crashworthiness optimisation design and energy absorbing responses of unconventional TW components including multi-cells tubes, functionally graded thickness tubes and functionally graded foam filled tubes. Due to the huge number of studies that analysed and assessed the energy absorption behaviour of various TW components, this paper presents only a review of the crashworthiness behaviour of the components that can be used in vehicles structures including hollow and foam-filled TW tubes under lateral, axial, oblique and bending loading.
    • On the effects of blending, physicochemical properties, and their interactions on the performance of carrier-based dry powders for inhalation – a review

      Kaialy, Waseem (Elsevier, 2016-06-05)
      Blending drug and carrier powders to produce homogeneous drug–carrier adhesive mixtures is a key step in the production of dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. Although the blending conditions can result in different conclusions or probably change the outcome of a study entirely if being selected differently, there is a scarcity of data on the influence of blending processes on the physicochemical properties of bulk powder formulations and the follow-on effects on DPI performance. This paper provides an overview of the interactions between variables related to blending conditions (e.g. blending equipment, time, speed and sequence as well as environmental humidity) and powder physicochemical properties (e.g. size distribution, shape distribution, density, anomeric composition, electrostatic charge, surface, and bulk properties), and their effects on the performance of adhesive mixtures for inhalation in terms of drug content homogeneity, drug–carrier adhesion, and drug aerosolisation behaviour. The relevance of carrier payload, batch size and segregation were also discussed. Challenges and future directions were identified. This review therefore contributes towards a better understanding of the blending process, powder physicochemical properties, and their interlinked effects on the fundamental understanding of adhesive mixtures for inhalation. The knowledge gained is essential to ensure optimum blending and thereby controlled functionality of DPIs.
    • Once-per-week selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone versus twice-per-week bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with multiple myeloma (BOSTON): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial

      Grosicki, Sebastian; Simonova, Maryana; Spicka, Ivan; Pour, Ludek; Kriachok, Iryrna; Gavriatopoulou, Maria; Pylypenko, Halyna; Auner, Holger W.; Leleu, Xavier; Doronin, Vadim; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-11-14)
      Background Selinexor with dexamethasone has demonstrated activity in patients with heavily pretreated multiple myeloma (MM). In a phase 1b/2 study, the combination of oral selinexor with the proteasome inhibitor (PI) bortezomib, and dexamethasone (SVd) induced high response rates with low rates of peripheral neuropathy, the main dose-limiting toxicity of bortezomib. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the clinical benefit of weekly SVd versus standard bortezomib and dexamethasone (Vd) in patients with previously treated MM. Methods This phase 3, randomised, open label trial was conducted at 123 sites in 21 countries. Patients who were previously treated with one to three lines of therapy, including PIs were randomised (1:1) to selinexor (100 mg once-weekly) plus bortezomib (1·3 mg/m2 once-weekly) and dexamethasone (20 mg twice-weekly) [SVd] or bortezomib (1·3 mg/m2 twice-weekly) and dexamethasone (20 mg 4 times per week) [Vd]. Randomisation was done using interactive response technology and stratified by previous PI therapy, lines of treatment, and MM stage. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) in the intention-to-treat population. Patients who received at least one dose of study treatment were included in the safety population. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03110562. Findings Between June 2017 and February 2019, 402 patients were randomised: 195 to SVd and 207 to Vd. Median PFS was 13·93 (95% CI 11·73–NE) with SVd versus 9·46 months (8·11–10·78) with Vd; HR 0·70, [95% CI 0·53–0·93]; P=0.0075. Most frequent grade ≥3 adverse events (SVd vs Vd) were thrombocytopenia (77 [40%] vs 35 [17%]), fatigue (26 [13%] vs 2 [1%]), anaemia (31 [16%] vs 20 [10%]), and pneumonia (22 [11%] vs 22 [11%]). Peripheral neuropathy rates (overall, 32·3% vs 47·1%; OR 0·52, [95% CI 0·35-0·79]; P=0.0010 and grade ≥2, 21·0% vs 34·3%; OR 0·50, [95% CI 0·32-0·79]; P=0.0013) were lower with SVd. There were 47 (24%) deaths on SVd and 62 (30%) on Vd. Interpretation Once-weekly SVd is a novel, effective, and convenient treatment option for patients with MM who have received 1-3 prior therapies.
    • Online Learning From Observation For Interactive Computer Games

      Hartley, Thomas; Mehdi, Qasim; Gough, Norman (University of Wolverhampton, School of Computing and Information Technology, 2005)
      The research presented in this paper describes an architecture, which enables an agent to predict an observed entity’s actions (most likely a human’s) online. Case-based approaches have been utilised by a number of researchers for online action prediction in interactive applications. Our architecture builds on these works and provides a number of novel contributions. Specifically our architecture offers a more comprehensive state representation, behaviour prediction and a more robust case maintenance approach. The proposed architecture is fully described in terms of interactive simulations (specifically first person shooter (FPS) computer games); however it would be applicable to other interactive applications, such as intelligent tutoring and surveillance systems. We conclude the paper by evaluating our proposed architecture and discussing how the system will be implemented.
    • Online Pedagogy for Construction Law in UK Higher Education

      Charlson, Jennifer (RICS (Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors), 2012)
    • Operation and planning of distribution networks with integration of renewable distributed generators considering uncertainties: A review

      Zubo, RHA; Mokryani, G; Rajamani, HS; Aghaei, J; Niknam, T; Pillai, P (Elsevier BV, 2016-10-29)
      © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Distributed generators (DGs) are a reliable solution to supply economic and reliable electricity to customers. It is the last stage in delivery of electric power which can be defined as an electric power source connected directly to the distribution network or on the customer site. It is necessary to allocate DGs optimally (size, placement and the type) to obtain commercial, technical, environmental and regulatory advantages of power systems. In this context, a comprehensive literature review of uncertainty modeling methods used for modeling uncertain parameters related to renewable DGs as well as methodologies used for the planning and operation of DGs integration into distribution network. The authors strongly recommend this review to researchers, scientists and engineers who are working in this field of research work.
    • Optimal Datalink Selection for Future Aeronautical Telecommunication Networks

      Alam, AS; Hu, YF; Pillai, P; Xu, K; Baddoo, J (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017-05-08)
      © 2017 IEEE. Modern aeronautical telecommunication networks (ATN) make use of different simultaneous datalinks to deliver robust, secure, and efficient ATN services. This paper proposes a multiple attribute decision making based optimal datalink selection algorithm, which considers different attributes including safety, QoS, costs, and user/operator preferences. An intelligent TRigger-based aUtomatic Subjective weigh Ting (i-TRUST) method is also proposed for computing subjective weights necessary to provide user flexibility. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the performance of the ATN system.
    • Optimising driver profiling through behaviour modelling of in-car sensor and global positioning system data

      Ahmadi-Assalemi, Gabriela; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Maple, Carsten; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Hammoudeh, Mohammad; Jahankhani, Hamid; Pillai, Prashant (Elsevier, 2021-03-03)
      Connected cars have a massive impact on the automotive sector, and whilst this catalyst and disruptor technology introduce threats, it brings opportunities to address existing vehicle-related crimes such as carjacking. Connected cars are fitted with sensors, and capable of sophisticated computational processing which can be used to model and differentiate drivers as means of layered security. We generate a dataset collecting 14 hours of driving in the city of London. The route was 8.1 miles long and included various road conditions such as roundabouts, traffic lights, and several speed zones. We identify and rank the features from the driving segments, classify our sample using Random Forest, and optimise the learning-based model with 98.84% accuracy (95% confidence) given a small 10 seconds driving window size. Differences in driving patterns were uncovered to distinguish between female and male drivers especially through variations in longitudinal acceleration, driving speed, torque and revolutions per minute.
    • Optimising neonatal service provision for preterm babies born between 27 and 31 weeks gestation in England (OPTI-PREM), using national data, qualitative research and economic analysis: A study protocol

      Pillay, T; Modi, N; Rivero-Arias, O; Manktelow, B; Seaton, SE; Armstrong, N; Draper, ES; Dawson, K; Paton, A; Ismail, AQT; et al. (BMJ, 2019-08-22)
      Introduction In England, for babies born at 23-26 weeks gestation, care in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) as opposed to a local neonatal unit (LNU) improves survival to discharge. This evidence is shaping neonatal health services. In contrast, there is no evidence to guide location of care for the next most vulnerable group (born at 27-31 weeks gestation) whose care is currently spread between 45 NICU and 84 LNU in England. This group represents 12% of preterm births in England and over onr-third of all neonatal unit care days. Compared with those born at 23-26 weeks gestation, they account for four times more admissions and twice as many National Health Service bed days/year. Methods In this mixed-methods study, our primary objective is to assess, for babies born at 27-31 weeks gestation and admitted to a neonatal unit in England, whether care in an NICU vs an LNU impacts on survival and key morbidities (up to age 1 year), at each gestational age in weeks. Routinely recorded data extracted from real-time, point-of-care patient management systems held in the National Neonatal Research Database, Hospital Episode Statistics and Office for National Statistics, for January 2014 to December 2018, will be analysed. Secondary objectives are to assess (1) whether differences in care provided, rather than a focus on LNU/NICU designation, drives gestation-specific outcomes, (2) where care is most cost-effective and (3) what parents' and clinicians' perspectives are on place of care, and how these could guide clinical decision-making. Our findings will be used to develop recommendations, in collaboration with national bodies, to inform clinical practice, commissioning and policy-making. The project is supported by a parent advisory panel and a study steering committee. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval has been obtained (IRAS 212304). Dissemination will be through publication of findings and development of recommendations for care. Trial registration number NCT02994849 and ISRCTN74230187.
    • Optimistic bias in physical activity: when exercise flows into addiction

      Riva, Silvia; Masiero, Marianna; Mazzocco, Ketti; Pravettoni, Gabriella (Kowsarmedical, 2018-03-02)
      Background: Traditionally, psychologists have been involved in identifying the minimum amount of physical activity needed to be healthy. Latest research has changed direction and is starting to shed some light on a new trend characterized by excessive physical activity, especially in young adults. Objectives: This study aimed at examining how an intense physical activity can have detrimental psychological effects and turn into an addiction with possible repercussion on health, especially when individuals continue to have maladaptive behaviors such as smoking and drinking. Patients and Methods: A convenience sample of 158 participants (female = 101; male = 57) was enrolled, with a mean age of 28 years (SD = 6.09). A questionnaire was administered to evaluate both the optimistic bias in smokers and drinkers and the time spent in physical activity. Results: Participants showing smoking and drinking behaviors were categorized according to the extent of performed physical activity. Descriptive analyses revealed that 26% of participants were “inactive”, while 8.30% practiced “intense activity” and 8.30% practiced “extremely intense activity”. People who had 7 to 8 hours of physical activity per week estimated the risk of getting bladder cancer as “much below average” (P = 0.039). Consistent results were found for stroke (P = 0.015). Conclusions: This study aimed at offering an innovative starting point to examine more closely the role of such mechanism in individuals practicing intense and sometimes excessive physical activity. Our results may offer new hints for researchers working in the prevention and education of adolescents and young-adults.