• IAgent: a real time intelligent agent animation toolkit

      Wen, Zhigang; Mehdi, Qasim; Gough, Norman (University of Wolverhampton, School of Computing and Information Technology, 2004)
      This paper describes the design and implementation of IAgent: a real time intelligent agent animation toolkit on a PC platform. The animation system consists of 5 main components, namely environment, perception, behaviours, motion generator and rendering. The intelligent agent in the system is represented as a 3D human-like avatar that has a complex underlying structure with multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs). The agent relies on a fast virtual perception system to capture information from its environment and a behaviours system to determine what actions should be taken. A novel motion generation architecture and animation blending system have been developed to produce non-repetitive behaviours for the intelligent agent based on its momentary goal, internal and emotional states. The proposed system has been implemented in DirectX. Experiments have been carried out using the toolkit and the results have clearly demonstrated that the method produces convincing real time behaviours for a 3D virtual human agent.
    • Identification and characterization of GONST1, a golgi-localized GDP-mannose transporter in Arabidopsis.

      Baldwin, Timothy C.; Handford, Michael G.; Yuseff, Maria-Isabel; Orellana, Ariel; Dupree, Paul (American Society of Plant Biologists, 2001)
      Transport of nucleotide sugars across the Golgi apparatus membrane is required for the luminal synthesis of a variety of plant cell surface components. We identified an Arabidopsis gene encoding a nucleotide sugar transporter (designated GONST1) that we have shown by transient gene expression to be localized to the Golgi. GONST1 complemented a GDP-mannose transport-defective yeast mutant (vrg4-2), and Golgi-rich vesicles from the complemented strain displayed increased GDP-mannose transport activity. GONST1 promoter
    • Identification and molecular mechanisms of the rapid tonicity-induced relocalization of the aquaporin 4 channel

      Kitchen, P; Day, RE; Taylor, LHJ; Salman, MM; Bill, RM; Conner, Matthew T.; Conner, Alex C.; From the Molecular Organisation and Assembly in Cells Doctoral Training Centre, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL. (American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB), 2015-05-26)
      © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Background: The water channel protein aquaporin 4 (AQP4) controls water permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Results: Hypotonicity induces rapid relocalization of AQP4 in a calcium-, calmodulin-, and kinase-dependent manner. Conclusion: AQP4 can be relocalized between the cell membrane and intracellular compartments. Significance: Pharmacological modulation of AQP4 membrane localization could provide a new approach to treating brain edema.
    • Identification and multi-environment validation of resistance to rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae) in Vicia faba

      Sillero, JC; Rojas-Molina, MM; Emeran, AA; Kharrat, M; Winkler, J; Khan, HR; Flores, F; Rubiales, D (CSIRO Publishing, 2017-08-01)
      A germplasm collection of 484 accessions of Vicia faba was screened for resistance to rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae) under field conditions. Accessions varied in the levels of rust infection, although no complete resistance was identified. Stability of resistance of the 39 most-resistant accessions was tested in a multi-location experiment in Austria, Egypt, Tunisia, United Kingdom and Spain over three additional field seasons. Genotype×environment interaction accounted for 43% of the sum of squares of the multi-environment evaluation, revealing instability of the phenotypic expression across environments. This might hamper the efficiency of selection suggesting the need for selection in different environments. Three possible mega-environments were discerned in the studied area, Mediterranean (Spain, Tunisia and Egypt), Oceanic (UK) and Continental (Austria). Córdoba (Spain) and Kafr El-Sheik (Egypt) showed as ideal environments for rust resistance screenings within Mediterranean environment. Several accessions (300, 303, 311, 313, 720, 1196 and 1271) were grouped as moderately to highly resistant in the three defined mega-environments. These accessions showed clear differences both in terms of reduced disease severity and high stability, which make them good candidates for international faba bean breeding programmes. Concerning each mega-environment, accessions 300 and 311 were the most resistant and stable ones across the Mediterranean one, followed by accessions 720, 1022, 1272, 1320 and BPL261. On the contrary other accessions (313, 452, 481 and 1196) were the most resistant in Oceanic and Continental environments. However, 452 and 481 were susceptible in the Mediterranean mega-environment. This contrasting performance across the environments was also supported by contradictory performance of the checks BPL261 and Baraca in Oceanic and Continental environments, suggesting differential virulence in rust populations, which deserves further attention.
    • Identification of aspirin analogues that repress NF-κB signalling and demonstrate anti-proliferative activity towards colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo

      Claudius, AK; Kankipati, CS; Kilari, RS; Hassan, S; Guest, K; Russell, ST; Perry, CJ; Stark, LA; Nicholl, ID; Edinburgh Cancer Research Centre and MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. (Spandidos Publications, 2014-07-31)
      Substantial evidence indicates that aspirin and related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have potential as chemopreventative/therapeutic agents. However, these agents cannot be universally recommended for prevention purposes due to their potential side-effect profiles. Here, we compared the growth inhibitory and mechanistic activity of aspirin to two novel analogues, diaspirin (DiA) and fumaryl diaspirin (F-DiA). We found that the aspirin analogues inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells at significantly lower doses than aspirin. Similar to aspirin, we found that an early response to the analogues was a reduction in levels of cyclin D1 and stimulation of the NF-κB pathway. This stimulation was associated with a significant reduction in basal levels of NF-κB transcriptional activity, in keeping with previous data for aspirin. However, in contrast to aspirin, DiA and F-DiA activity was not associated with nucleolar accumulation of RelA. For all assays, F-DiA had a more rapid and significant effect than DiA, identifying this agent as particularly active against colorectal cancer. Using a syngeneic colorectal tumour model in mice, we found that, while both agents significantly inhibited tumour growth in vivo, this effect was particularly pronounced for F-DiA. These data identify two compounds that are active against colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo. They also identify a potential mechanism of action of these agents and shed light on the chemical structures that may be important for the antitumour effects of aspirin.
    • Identification of candidate tumour suppressor genes frequently methylated in renal cell carcinoma

      Morris, MR; Ricketts, C; Gentle, D; Abdulrahman, M; Clarke, N; Brown, M; Kishida, T; Yao, M; Latif, F; Maher, ER; et al. (Springer Nature, 2010-02-15)
      Promoter region hyermethylation and transcriptional silencing is a frequent cause of tumour suppressor gene (TSG) inactivation in many types of human cancers. Functional epigenetic studies, in which gene expression is induced by treatment with demethylating agents, may identify novel genes with tumour-specific methylation. We used high-density gene expression microarrays in a functional epigenetic study of 11 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines. Twenty-eight genes were then selected for analysis of promoter methylation status in cell lines and primary RCC. Eight genes (BNC1, PDLIM4, RPRM, CST6, SFRP1, GREM1, COL14A1 and COL15A1) showed frequent (30% of RCC tested) tumour-specific promoter region methylation. Hypermethylation was associated with transcriptional silencing. Re-expression of BNC1, CST6, RPRM and SFRP1 suppressed the growth of RCC cell lines and RNA interference knock-down of BNC1, SFRP1 and COL14A1 increased the growth of RCC cell lines. Methylation of BNC1 or COL14A1 was associated with a poorer prognosis independent of tumour size, stage or grade. The identification of these epigenetically inactivated candidate RCC TSGs can provide insights into renal tumourigenesis and a basis for developing novel therapies and biomarkers for prognosis and detection. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
    • Identifying breast-to-brain metastasis-associated gene mutations by whole exome sequencing

      Morris, Mark; Olivares, Ivonne; Dawson, Timothy; Ashton, Kate; Davis, Charles; Jenkinson, Michael; Brodbelt, Andrew; Armesilla, Angel; Warr, Tracy (Springer Nature, 2018-11-08)
    • Identifying data sharing and reuse with Scholix: potentials and limitations

      Khan, Nushrat; Pink, Catherine J.; Thelwall, Mike (Elsevier, 2020-04-10)
      The Scholexplorer API, based on the Scholix (Scholarly Link eXchange) framework, aims to identify links between articles and supporting data. This quantitative case study demonstrates that the API vastly expanded the number of datasets previously known to be affiliated with University of Bath outputs, allowing improved monitoring of compliance with funder mandates by identifying peer-reviewed articles linked to at least one unique dataset. Availability of author names for research outputs increased from 2.4% to 89.2%, which enabled identification of ten articles reusing non-Bath-affiliated datasets published in external repositories in the first phase, giving valuable evidence of data reuse and impact for data producers. Of these, only three were formally cited in the references. Further enhancement of the Scholix schema and enrichment of Scholexplorer metadata using controlled vocabularies would be beneficial. The adoption of standardized data citations by journals will be critical to creating links in a more systematic manner.
    • IGR Report: The Virtual Construction Site: A Decision Support System for Construction Planning (Award Numbers GR/N 00890; 00876; 00906)

      Dawood, N.; Heesom, David; Winch, G.; Penn, A. (EPSRC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council), 2002)
      The software was a direct outcome of the collaborative EPSRC 'Virtual Construction Site - VirCon' project involving UCL, UMIST, Teesside and Wolverhampton Universities and several industrial collaborators. The software provides a platform for current research and knowledge transfer activities through the West Midlands Centre for Construction Excellence and has directly informed the development of the '3-Centre' collaborative visualisation system which provides support to numerous construction companies.
    • Iloperidone - new second generation antipsychotic: Pharmacological aspects and schizophrenia clinical management

      Reyad, Ayman Antoun; Mishriky, Raafat (Villupuram : journalcmpr, 2018-07-02)
      Iloperidone is a new atypical antipsychotic drug approved by FDA for the treatment of schizophrenia. In this article, we searched the published randomized controlled trials (RCT) and other literature to review the efficacy and safety of iloperidone using the following database (Science Direct, PubMed) and illustrate its role in the management of schizophrenia. Iloperidone showed efficacy by causing significant improvements in psychiatric scales such as Positive and Negative Syndrome scale (PANSS) and clinical global impressions (CGI). Iloperidone was associated with a number of common side effects such as metabolic and cardiovascular side effects. This review illustrated that iloperidone was well tolerated with significant improvements in disease severity and symptom intensity control in patients suffering with schizophrenia, however, iloperidone was associated with a significantly higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular side effects with minimal extrapyramidal side effects. These findings would guide psychiatrists and pharmacists in their clinical role for supporting the care of psychiatric patients.
    • Immune reconstitution and clinical recovery following anti-CD28 antibody (TGN1412)-induced cytokine storm

      Panoskaltsis, N; McCarthy, NE; Stagg, AJ; Mummery, CJ; Husni, M; Arebi, N; Greenstein, D; Price, CL; Al-Hassi, HO; Koutinas, M; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-08)
      © 2020, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. Cytokine storm can result from cancer immunotherapy or certain infections, including COVID-19. Though short-term immune-related adverse events are routinely described, longer-term immune consequences and sequential immune monitoring are not as well defined. In 2006, six healthy volunteers received TGN1412, a CD28 superagonist antibody, in a first-in-man clinical trial and suffered from cytokine storm. After the initial cytokine release, antibody effect-specific immune monitoring started on Day + 10 and consisted mainly of evaluation of dendritic cell and T-cell subsets and 15 serum cytokines at 21 time-points over 2 years. All patients developed problems with concentration and memory; three patients were diagnosed with mild-to-moderate depression. Mild neutropenia and autoantibody production was observed intermittently. One patient suffered from peripheral dry gangrene, required amputations, and had persistent Raynaud’s phenomenon. Gastrointestinal irritability was noted in three patients and coincided with elevated γδT-cells. One had pruritus associated with elevated IgE levels, also found in three other asymptomatic patients. Dendritic cells, initially undetectable, rose to normal within a month. Naïve CD8+ T-cells were maintained at high levels, whereas naïve CD4+ and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells started high but declined over 2 years. T-regulatory cells cycled circannually and were normal in number. Cytokine dysregulation was especially noted in one patient with systemic symptoms. Over a 2-year follow-up, cognitive deficits were observed in all patients following TGN1412 infusion. Some also had signs or symptoms of psychological, mucosal or immune dysregulation. These observations may discern immunopathology, treatment targets, and long-term monitoring strategies for other patients undergoing immunotherapy or with cytokine storm.
    • Impact of anthropogenic factors on affiliative behaviors among bonnet macaques

      Balasubramaniam, Krishna N; Marty, Pascal R; Arlet, Małgorzata E; Beisner, Brianne A; Kaburu, Stefano; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Kodandaramaijah, Ullasa; McCowan, Brenda (Wiley-Blackwell, 2020-02-16)
      Objectives: In primates, allogrooming and other affiliative behaviors confer many benefits and may be influenced by many socioecological factors. Of these, the impact of anthropogenic factors remain relatively understudied. Here we ask whether interactions with humans decreased macaques’ affiliative behaviors by imposing time-constraints, or increased these behaviors on account of more free-/available-time due to macaques’ consumption of high-energy human foods. Materials and Methods: In Southern India, we collected data on human-macaque and macaque-macaque interactions using focal-animal sampling on two groups of semi-urban bonnet macaques for 11 months. For each macaque within each climatic season, we calculated frequencies of human-macaque interactions, rates of monitoring human activity and foraging on anthropogenic food, dominance ranks, grooming duration, number of unique grooming partners, and frequencies of other affiliative interactions. Results: We found strong evidence for time-constraints on grooming. Macaques that monitored humans more groomed for shorter durations and groomed fewer partners, independent of their group membership, sex, dominance rank, and season. However, monitoring humans had no impact on other affiliative interactions. We found no evidence for the free-time hypothesis foraging on anthropogenic food was unrelated to grooming and other affiliation. Discussion: Our results are consistent with recent findings on other urban-dwellingspecies/populations. Macaques in such environments may be especially reliant on other forms of affiliation that are of short duration (e.g. coalitionary support, lip-smacking) and unaffected by time-constraints. We stress on the importance of evaluating human impact on inter-individual differences in primate/wildlife behavior for conservation efforts.
    • The impact of coronavirus on businesses and workers: Written evidence submitted by Haddy Jallow, Dr Suresh Renukappa, Dr Subashini Suresh, and Nisha Shetty, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton (COV0174)

      Jallow, Haddy; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Shetty, Nisha (U.K. Parliment, 2020-07-23)
      COVID-9 has changed the way in which the whole world has been working and has forced the implementation of Working from Home. Industry 4.0 strategies and applications have aided in this change, as we are mainly dependent on technology in order to be working efficiently and to be able to carry on being productive. Despite working from home creating productivity and efficiency in the way in which we work, mental health and well-being of the public has had an impact as families with children or people living alone resulting in social isolation.  The UK went into Lockdown during the last week of March 2020 where the rules involved everyone one to be homebound and only leave for essential trips. These rules introduced came with a lot of uncertainty, as COVID-19 is an uncertain virus, this has made these rules be in unknown territory as is it unclear as to when the pandemic will be over. This has forced organisations worldwide to think about the future of their working ways with the factoring of the mental health and wellbeing of their workers with this change in the way we work.
    • The impact of coronavirus on businesses and workers: Written evidence submitted by Wahiba Erriadi, Suresh Renukappa, Subashini Suresh, Wala Abdalla, and Redouane Sarrakh, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton (COV0173)

      Erriadi, Wahiba; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Abdalla, Wala; Sarrakh, Redouane (U.K Parliment, 2020-07-23)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has affected our daily life brining unprecedented changes. This outbreak has shifted many families’ life mainly the ones with children. Balancing between working from home, being responsible for children’s care, and home-schooling, as well as doing the housework have been very difficult. In addition, the mental health and well-being of children are a priority to every single mother besides taking care of her own.
    • The impact of Covid-19 on the UK construction industry

      Suresh, Subashini; Renukappa, Suresh; Stride, Mark (Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy Committee, U.K Parliament, 2020-06-09)
      This written evidence provides a richer insight into the understanding and awareness of the impact of Covid-19 and the changes that the UK construction industry has had to undertake in order to adhere to the lockdown rules while being productive. This written evidence contributes towards informing policymakers on some lessons learned from the management of the Covid-19 from the construction industry perspective.  In total, 13 semi-structured interviews from 10 construction organisations were conducted to collect evidence, which was then analysed for conclusion and recommendations.  Five C’s (i.e. create culture, control systems, courageous decisions, and combat mental health and care for employees) are recommended that have been recognised and should be implemented to help employers and employees safely adapt to workplace during and post-Covid-19 outbreak.
    • Impact of Covid-19 on water sector projects and practices

      Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Kamunda, Andrew (Elsevier, 2021-03-11)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected world economies. The water industry was adversely affected, with unprecedented slow down and changes to ways of working. However, the pandemic also accelerated positive digital transformation. A qualitative research approach was adopted to analyze data collected from 12 interviewees representing six water sector organizations. The paper provides insight into the impact of COVID-19 on the delivery of water sector projects and how organizational practices have adapted from business as usual.
    • The impact of Covid-19 outbreak on United Kingdom infrastructure sector

      Jallow, Haddy; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2020-06-25)
      Purpose: In December 2019, news broke out from the World Health Organisation (WHO), with the first outbreak of Covid-19 in Wuhan China. On March 11 2020, the WHO declared Covid-19 to officially be a pandemic. The UK was put under lockdown on the 23rd of March 2020 by the Prime Minister Boris Johnson, the lockdown introduced strict measures put into place including the restriction for unnecessary working from offices, and only leaving houses if it is deemed essential. Therefore, this paper focuses on the changes that the infrastructure sector has had to undertake in order to adhere to the Covid-19 lockdown rules while being productive. Design/methodology/approach: Given the new and unexplored nature of the research problem, a qualitative research methodology was adopted. In total, five semi-structured interviews from three infrastructure sector organisations were conducted to collect data, which was then analysed using thematic analysis for inference and conclusion. Findings: The results indicate that the lockdown is proving to be difficult to manage projects as staff members are working from home. This leads to delays on a project activities as many staff cannot physically go on site and conduct works. The managers are finding difficult to manage their teams. However, technological tools such as video chat and meetings via online platforms have proven to be most effective in communications with project teams. The Building Information Modelling (BIM)/Design has been useful as the 3D design models helps to visualise the project within team meetings in order to comply with the Covid-19 rules and follow social distancing guidelines while still carrying on works. However, induction to any new starter is proving to be difficult to manage with the pandemic and lockdown as it involves a drugs and alcohol test prior to commencing work of that project. Originality/value: This paper provides a rich insight into the understanding and awareness of the impact of Covid-19 and the changes that the infrastructure sector has had to undertake in order to adhere to the lockdown rules while being productive. This study contributes towards informing policymakers on some lessons learned from the management of the Covid-19 from an infrastructure sector perspective. Furthermore, twelve key implications are drawn for decision makers within the infrastructure sector business to rethink and act to deal with the pandemic crisis.
    • Impact of detuning and dephasing on a laser-corrected subnatural-linewidth single-photon source

      López Carreño, Juan Camilo; Zubizarreta Casalengua, E.; Laussy, Fabrice P.; Valle, Elena del (IOP Publishing, 2019-01-08)
      The elastic scattering peak of a resonantly driven two-level system has been argued to provide narrow-linewidth antibunched photons. Although independent measurements of spectral width on the one hand and antibunching, on the other hand, do seem to show that this is the case, a joint measurement reveals that only one or the other of these attributes can be realised in the direct emission. We discuss a scheme which interferes the emission with a laser to produce simultaneously single photons of subnatural linewidth. In particular, we consider the effect of dephasing and of the detuning between the driving laser and/or the detector with the emitter. We find that our scheme brings such considerable improvement as compared to the standard schemes as to make it the best single-photon source in terms of all-order multi-photon suppression by several orders of magnitudes. While the scheme is particularly fragile to dephasing, its superiority holds even for subnatural-linewidth emission down to a third of the radiative lifetime.
    • Impact of individual demographic and social factors on human-wildlife interactions: a comparative study of three macaque species

      Balasubramaniam, Krishna N; Marty, Pascal R; Samartino, Shelby; Sobrino, Alvaro; Gill, Taniya; Ismail, Mohammed; Saha, Rajarshi; Beisner, Brianne A; Kaburu, Stefano; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; et al. (Springer Nature, 2020-12-15)
      Despite increasing conflict at human-wildlife interfaces, there exists little research on how the attributes and behavior of individual wild animals may influence human-wildlife interactions. Adopting a comparative approach, we examined the impact of animals’ life-history and social attributes on interactions between humans and (peri)urban macaques in Asia. For 10 groups of rhesus, long-tailed, and bonnet macaques, we collected social behavior, spatial data, and human-interaction data for 11-20 months on pre-identified individuals. Mixed-model analysis revealed that, across all species, males and spatially peripheral individuals interacted with humans the most, and that high-ranking individuals initiated more interactions with humans than low-rankers. Among bonnet macaques, but not rhesus or long-tailed macaques, individuals who were more well-connected in their grooming network interacted more frequently with humans than less well-connected individuals. From an evolutionary perspective, our results suggest that individuals incurring lower costs related to their life-history (males) and resource-access (high rank; strong social connections within a socially tolerant macaque species), but also higher costs on account of compromising the advantages of being in the core of their group (spatial periphery), are the most likely to take risks by interacting with humans in anthropogenic environments. From a conservation perspective, evaluating individual behavior will better inform efforts to minimize conflict-related costs and zoonotic-risk.
    • Impact of indoor environmental quality on occupant well-being and comfort: A review of the literature

      Al horr, Yousef; Arif, Mohammed; Katafygiotou, Martha; Mazroei, Ahmed; Kaushik, Amit; Elsarrag, Esam (2016-04-01)
      Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) and its effect on occupant well-being and comfort is an important area of study. This paper presents a state of the art study through extensive review of the literature, by establishing links between IEQs and occupant well-being and comfort. A range of issues such as sick building syndrome, indoor air quality thermal comfort, visual comfort and acoustic comfort are considered in this paper. The complexity of the relationship between occupant comfort and well-being parameters with IEQ are further exacerbated due to relationships that these parameters have with each other as well. Based on the review of literature in these areas it is established that design of buildings needs to consider occupant well-being parameters right at the beginning. Some good practices in all these different areas have also been highlighted and documented in this paper. The knowledge established as part of this paper would be helpful for researchers, designer, engineers and facilities maintenance engineers. This paper will also be of great benefit to researchers who endeavour to undertake research in this area and could act as a good starting point for them.