• Alzheimer disease: Revising the risk of Alzheimer disease in women

      Patel, Mitesh (Springer, 2017-09-08)
      Among individuals who carry the apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE*ε4) allele, women are more susceptible to Alzheimer disease (AD) than men only between the ages of 65 and 75 years, according to a new study published in JAMA Neurology.
    • An Appreciation of the Adder

      O'Shea, Mark (Iceberg Press, 2019-06)
    • Comparative thematic analysis: evaluating the placement experiences of health-care students in the United Kingdom

      Laverty, Jacqueline; Khechara, Martin; Smith, Sara (SAGE, 2017)
      As three individuals employed within the same higher educational institution and in the same office, we have a close working relationship, and all are involved in the educational experience of students enrolled on health-care-related degree programs. These awards have different approaches to work experience that are advocated by the professional bodies accrediting the individual programs of study. Inevitably, we debated why these different approaches had been taken to work-based experience. Although we could find evidence to suggest that work-based experience was recommended while in higher education, we found little information concerning the students’ perspective surrounding their understanding of placement expectations or the employability skills that these placements hope to address. Our study aimed to explore students’ perspectives concerning their work-based placement and attempt to determine ...
    • Editorial in Special Issue on "Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) Sector Role to Urbanise India"

      Ahuja, Vanitha; Subashini, Suresh (Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 2017-12)
    • Effect of blending conditions on the tabletting performance of paracetamol–polyvinylpyrrolidone mixture

      Kaialy, Waseem; Rose, Ayuk Agbor (sciForum, 2016-09)
      Monoclinic paracetamol is notorious as a poorly compactible model drug that exhibits reduced plastic deformation, resulting in fragile tablets with high capping tendency during tabletting. Polyvinylpyrrolidone is a polymer that can act as effective additive to improve the stability and physicomechanical properties of paracetamol, since it could adsorb onto the surfaces of paracetamol crystals via hydrogen bonding. It is surprising however that the role of blending process on paracetamol–polyvinylpyrrolidone (PA–PVP) interactions and the tableting performance of PA–PVP mixture is ignored in many studies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of blending conditions of the physicochemical and mechanical properties of PA–PVP mixtures (95:5, w:w). PA–PVP mixtures were prepared using low shear (using V–shaped mixer for 30 min), medium shear (hand blending for 10 min), and dry high shear (Tefal high speed blender, Berkshire, UK, for 1 min) blending conditions. The high shear blender consists of two faced flat knife-like blades (6.5 cm × 1.5 cm) rotating at ~500 rpm in a bowel of 186 cm2). The results showed that all PA–PVP mixtures demonstrated improved tabletting compared to commercial paracetamol, regardless of the blending method. PA–PVP mixtures processed using high shear blending conditions demonstrated the best compactibility at a range of compaction pressures. For example, the mixtures processed using lower shear, medium shear and high shear blending conditions produced tablets with tensile strengths of 0.37 MPa, 0.38 MPa, and 1.36 MPa respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that, with the increase in blending shear, there was a reduction in absorption intensities (i.e. increased band broadening) between 3150 cm-1 and 3250 cm-1 compared to the sharp peak observed with the commercial drug. This could be due to the higher level of hydrogen bond interaction obtained in the PA–PVP mixture processed by high shear blending in comparison to the mixtures processed by low and medium shear blending. Powder X-Ray diffraction analyses showed PA–PVP mixture processed by high shear blending to have a slightly reduced degree of crystallinity compared to the mixtures processed by low and medium shear blending. PA–PVP mixture processed using dry high shear blending showed higher bulk porosity than the mixtures processed using low shear and medium shear blending, as indicated by its lower bulk density (0.31 ± 0.01 g/cm3 versus (0.66 to 0.69) g/cm3). Particle blending is a critical process during the preparation of interactive mixtures for tableting. Blending alters the physicochemical and mechanical properties of PA–PVP mixture. Future studies will concentrate on engineering paracetamol-polyvinylpyrrolidone mixtures with optimised physicochemical and mechanical properties.
    • Giant Snakes: A Natural History, John C. Murphy and Tom Crutchield 2019 (book review)

      O'Shea, Mark (Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 2019-12-31)
    • Heuristics, Bias and Personality Traits Attribution: The Cognitive Side of Gender Career Inequalities in a Male-dominated Work Sector

      Riva, Silvia; Chinyio, Ezekiel; Hampton, Paul (European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, 2018-09-05)
      Background: We have witnessed significant work-life policy advancements designed to help men and women combine employment with career opportunities more equally, yet gender inequality persists. This is particular evident in some industry sectors that are traditionally male-predominant. A study was thus aimed at exploring gender career opportunities using the perspective of the Implicit Personality and the social cognitive theory in a particularly male-dominated work sector: the Construction Industry (CI). Methods: This study is based on a qualitative approach by using ethnographic observations and interviews in 10 Construction sites in the West Midlands, UK in a frame-time period of 6 months. The great part of the data collection period was structured in observation ranged between 2 and 4 hr per day, 1 to 3 days per week. In each site, observations involved activities by 5 to 20 people. Results: The research was able to clarify different aspects related with career opportunities for male and female Construction workers. While they enjoyed working in the environment, there was an obvious gender-lopsided workforce with most leadership positions being held by men while women work in mainly softer roles. These gender differences were markedly perpetuated by different social cognitive biases and implicit personality heuristics. Conclusion: The Implicit Personality and the social cognitive paradigm represent an excellent framework to explain gender imbalance in construction. An understanding of how women view the construction workplace will contribute to attracting and retaining them in an industry that is in a constant growth but with a persistent gender imbalance.
    • Invasive species: Review risks before eradicating toads

      Mecke, Sven; Kieckbusch, Max; Schuster, Ka; Ernst, Raffael; O'Shea, Mark; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Köhler, Gunther; Grillitsch, Heinz; Köhler, Jörn; Haas, Alexander; et al. (Nature Publishing, 2014-07-30)
    • Multiple sclerosis: Intrathecal inflammation mediates mood in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis

      Patel, Mitesh (Springer, 2017-09-15)
      A new study has revealed that subclinical intrathecal inflammation influences anxiety and depression in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and has prognostic relevance in patients with this condition
    • Multiple sclerosis: Microstructural pathology imaged in MS

      Patel, Mitesh (Springer, 2017-09-01)
      The variability of axon and dendrite orientations — termed neurite orientation dispersion — is reduced in the spinal cords of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), according to new research. This finding could provide a new biomarker for MS prognosis and therapeutic efficacy.
    • Nudging and acceptance-commitment therapy: Cognitive aspects of a mobile application for stress management

      Riva, Silvia; Hampton, Paul; Chinyio, Ezekiel (European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, 2018-09-05)
      The negative effects of stress at work in terms of emotional disorders and organisational difficulties have urged the need for new solutions and especially direct-to-user tools such as mobile applications. While new technology can support the architecture of such tools adaptive coping behaviours have also been identified as an important factor for promoting new strategies to cope effectively with stress at work. A study being reported in this paper investigates how technology has been used to influence adaptive coping behaviours and synthesises the key aspects into a conceptual model for creating a new mobile application. A literature review concerning coping behaviours and technology was conducted to gather evidence for the foundation of the conceptual model. The empirical findings of the research will be tested and verified against the theoretical framework consisting of the “Nudging theory” and the “Acceptance and Commitment Theory – ACT”. Particularly, ACT is an empirically-based psychological intervention that uses acceptance and mindfulness strategies mixed in different ways with commitment and behaviour-change strategies, to increase psychological flexibility. In our study, ACT resulted predominant to design the App’s solutions to cope with stress. Other aspects used to design the mobile application were: the customisation to the user, the use of relevant and tailored information and feedback, the use of positive reinforcement, and indirect suggestions. The conceptual model provides further knowledge of key aspects to be considered when developing persuasive tools that aim to encourage more efficient ways of coping with stressful events
    • Reply to Adrion et al. On Patel et al. Letter to the Editor, British Medical Journal

      Patel, Mitesh; Arshad, Qadeer; Seemungal, Barry M.; Harcourt, Jonny P.; Golding, John F.; Bronstein, Adolfo M. (British Medical Journal, 2018-02-28)
      We apologise for not having noticed earlier Adrion and colleagues’ comments on our study comparing the effectiveness of intratympanic Methylprednisolone to Gentamicin in refractory Ménière’s disease [1], covered by the BMJ [2]. Contrary to our expectations, both drugs were equally effective in controlling vertigo (primary outcome).
    • Special Issue "Soil Science in Conservation Agricultural Systems"

      Fullen, Michael A.; Bhattacharyya, Ranjan (MDPI, 2017)
    • Stress and Coping Strategies: A Correlational Analysis to Profiling Maladaptive Behaviors at Work

      Riva, Silvia; Chinyio, Ezekiel (World Academy of Science Engineering and Technology, 2019-05-23)
      Introduction: Workers in different sectors are prone to stress at varying levels. They also respond to stress in different ways. An inspiration was to study stress development amongst workers in a work dangerous setting (Construction Industry) as well as how they cope with specific stress incidences. Objective: The overarching objective of the study was to study and correlate between stress and coping strategies. The research was conducted in an organizational industrial setting, and its findings on the coping actions of construction workers are reported in this article. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted with 80 participants aged 18-62. These were working for three different construction organizations in the West Midland region of the UK. Their coping actions were assessed using the COPE Inventory (Carver, 2013) instrument while the level of stress was assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, 1994). Results: Out of 80 workers (20 female, 25%, mean age 40.66), positive reinterpretation (M=4.15, SD=2.60) and active coping (M=4.18, SD=2.55) were the two most adaptive strategies reported by the workers while the most frequent maladaptive behavior was mental disengagement (M=3.62, SD=2.25). Among the maladaptive tactics, alcohol and drug abuse was a significant moderator in stress reactions (t=6.12, p=.000). Conclusion: Some maladaptive strategies are adopted by construction workers to cope with stress. So, it could be argued that programs of stress prevention and control in the construction industry have a basis to develop solutions that can improve and strengthen effective interventions when workers are stressed or getting stressed.
    • Stroke: Twist in artery linked to stroke in young adults

      Patel, Mitesh (Springer, 2017-08-17)
      Dolichoectasia, a condition of unknown cause characterized by elongation, twisting and dilation of the basilar artery in old age, is common among young patients admitted for acute stroke, a new study shows. This finding highlights the need to consider vascular abnormalities as a risk factor for stroke in young adults.