• A comparison of the nature of pre-entry assessment in FE feeder colleges with those of the first year degree programme

      Buckley, Kevan; Davies, Jenny; Bentley, Hilary (University of Wolverhampton, 2005)
      Discusses differences in the style and content of assessment of students in Further Education colleges compared with assessment during their first year undergraduate programme in the School of Computing and Information technology at the University of Wolverhampton. Differences are analysed to identify strengths and potential areas of difficulty experienced by students.
    • A Model for Android and iOS Applications Risk Calculation: CVSS Analysis and Enhancement Using Case-Control Studies

      Petraityte, Milda; Dehghantanha, Ali; Epiphaniou, Gregory (Elsevier, 2018)
      Various researchers have shown that the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) has many drawbacks and may not provide a precise view of the risks related to software vulnerabilities. However, many threat intelligence platforms and industry-wide standards are relying on CVSS score to evaluate cyber security compliance. This paper suggests several improvements to the calculation of Impact and Exploitability sub-scores within the CVSS, improve its accuracy and help threat intelligence analysts to focus on the key risks associated with their assets. We will apply our suggested improvements against risks associated with several Android and iOS applications and discuss achieved improvements and advantages of our modelling, such as the importance and the impact of time on the overall CVSS score calculation.
    • A multicriteria approach to evaluating habitat change in urban areas: an example from the Black Country (UK)

      Young, Christopher; Jarvis, Peter (Ashurst: WIT Press, 2003)
      THE BOOK: The pressure on land resources in densely populated industrialized countries is now immense. Multifunctional management is therefore a prerequisite for the sustainable use of landscapes, and the only general strategy that may address the problems created by constantly growing demands on resources arising from production, residence, dumping of waste, habitat, ecosystem services, and recreation. This volume focuses on the discussion and research recommendations relating to three different aspects of future landscape research concerning planning and management: Monitoring Multifunctional Landscapes; Biodiversity Versus Landscape Diversity in Multifunctional Landscapes; and Complexity of Landscape Management. (WIT Press)
    • Accessibility and adaptive technology

      Musgrove, Nick; Salter, Pam (University of Wolverhampton, 2002)
      Experience gained during an earlier project (Musgrove, Homfray & Addison, 2001) supported the premise that providing appropriate specialist hardware systems and adjusting software interfaces could improve accessibility to Information and communications Technology(ICT) and consequently to Technology Supported Learning (TSL) supported modules for certain additional needs students. School of Applied Sciences (SAS) and School of Art and Design (SAD) already have a large constituency of additional needs students which has a potential to increase through normal recruitment as well as through School or University initiatives (e.g. Flexible Access Projects and Widening Participation) and transfer from linked F.E. colleges and other institutions. The project aims to enhance learner support by implementing such specialist resources, infrastructure, training and support, as will enable additional needs students to fully exploit the increasing use of software, TSL and on-line facilities. The project is supported by the broad experience of the team; two members have specific ICT skills as well as specialist subject skills and are involved in SAS TSL developments and the third has considerable experience in supporting additional needs students.
    • An evaluation of deep learning achieved by students studying environmental science modules using the Wolverhampton Online Learning Framework (WOLF)

      Simkins, Andrew; Roberts, Clive L. (University of Wolverhampton, 2003)
      The Division of Environmental and Analytical Sciences uses the Wolverhampton Online Learning Framework (WOLF) for part of its module delivery programme at all 3 levels within all Awards. This initiative followed from the mission statement that the University of Wolverhampton is committed to broadening access to the widest range of students capable of succeeding in higher education. It is however difficult to assess the level of success achieved by WOLF-based modules in terms of the student’s true understanding of module concepts, although end-of-module evaluation forms completed by students have allowed some feedback on satisfaction of the way in which modules use WOLF. There has been limited information available on specific learning and teaching issues that might help guide the style of module delivery using the WOLF system. Indeed if WOLF-based modules are intended to be an alternative form of delivery for modules that are delivered by conventional methods, evaluations for the level of true understanding achieved by students (whatever their chosen platform for studying the module) would be very useful information to develop. The research involved canvassing the opinions of students on modules that are committed to the use of WOLF as part of the module delivery. Tracking facilities within the administrator’s role on WOLF gives feedback on the amount of time students spend on WOLF pages. However it is not possible to evaluate the level of learning or understanding that has been achieved by students from tracking statistics alone. There are therefore 3 main aims for this research: 1. To evaluate the level of deep learning achieved by students studying environmental science students who have accessed the modules via WOLF. 2. To study the quality and style of approaches to learning adopted by students that have accessed modules through WOLF. 3. To assess the effectiveness of module delivery by utilising WOLF.
    • An evaluation of the educational effectiveness of fieldwork within environmental science awards at the University of Wolverhampton

      Besenyei, Lynn; Watkin, Glynne; Oliver, Ken (University of Wolverhampton, 2004)
      Fieldwork is considered to be a major component within geography, earth and environmental sciences curricula and is advocated as an effective learning environment by virtually all those who are involved in learning and teaching in these disciplines. The project undertook discipline pedagogic research to answer questions about the educational effectiveness of fieldwork.
    • An eye for an eye or an eye to the future

      Barrow, Paul; Watts, Adam; Coleman, Iain (University of Wolverhampton, 2005)
      BM1119 Human Physiology is a large level 1 module accessed by students on a wide variety of awards from the School of Applied Sciences and the School of Health. The diversity of the student body means that while some students come to the module familiar with the content, others do not have a string background in the material. The aim of this research project was to trial a method of running workshop sessions which maximised the accessibility of the wide range of learning resources available to this latter group of students.
    • An interactive triangle approach to student learning

      Coleman, Iain; Conde, Gillian; Barrow, Paul; Watts, Adam (University of Wolverhampton, 2005)
      Discusses the findings of a research project designed to improve student performance through innovative learning and teaching methods. The traditional format of the Human Physiology module (a core module in the Biomedical Science portfolio) comprising a weekly programme of two lectures and one tutorial was replaced by converting lectures into an on-line form and hosting them on the University's virtual learning environment (WOLF), linking these to key texts, on-line resources and computer software packages. Workshops and drop-in sessions provided additional support and an opportunity for lecturers to diagnose areas of difficulty and provide strategies for resolving them.
    • Application of mineral magnetic concentration measurements as a particle-size proxy for urban road deposited sediments

      Crosby, C. J.; Booth, Colin A.; Worsley, Annie T.; Fullen, Michael A.; Searle, David E.; Khatib, Jamal M.; Winspear, C. M. (Southampton : Wessex Institute of Technology Press, 2009)
      The application of mineral magnetic concentration parameters (χLF, χARM and SIRM) as a potential particle size proxy for urban road deposited sediment collected from Scunthorpe, North Lincolnshire, U.K. has been investigated. Correlation analyses between each magnetic parameter and traditional particle size classes (i.e. sand, silt and clay) and respiratory health related size classes (i.e. PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0) are reported. Significant relationships (p <0.01; n = 35) exist between clay content and two of the magnetic concentration parameters (χARM and SIRM). This is also the same for each of the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 sizes. Of the three magnetic parameters, χARM displays the strongest correlation (r = 0.45; p <0.01; n = 35) values and is the most significant parameter, which is consistent with class sizes of each approach. In doing so, these associations indicate mineral magnetic associations have considerable potential as a particle size proxy for determining urban roadside particulate matter concentrations. Given the speed, low-cost and sensitivity of the measurements, this suggests magnetic techniques could be potentially used as an alternative and/or complementary technology for pilot particulate pollution investigations. Furthermore, in certain instances, it could be useful for examining linkages between respiratory health and particulate pollution and vehicle emissions.
    • Bacterial Cell-Mineral Interface, Its Impacts on Biofilm Formation and Bioremediation

      Pouran, Hamid (Springer, 2019-03-29)
      This chapter aims to provide a better understanding of the bacterial cell attachment and biofilm formation on the mineral surfaces, which would result in improving our knowledge about: the interfacial forces governing the bacterial cell attachment, predicting trends of the biofilm formation and consequently biodegradation rates, and the contaminant’s fate in the diverse geological media (Pouran HM. Studying molecular and nanoscale interactions at metal oxide surfaces and their effects on bacterial adhesion, 2009). In both aqueous and terrestrial environments, bacterial cells tend to be attached to a surface and form biofilm. If they are associated to, e.g., a mineral surface, bacterial cells would remain in a more stable microenvironment instead of being removed by the water shear stress. Even the bacterial planktonic phase can be considered as a mechanism for translocation from one surface to the other rather than a prime lifestyle (Watnick and Kolter 2000; Young 2006). The biofilm formation, which completely covers the surface, initially begins by the adhesion of a small quantity of cells (Vadillo-rodri et al. 2006; Pouran et al. 2017). Among the different indigenous microbial species in the contaminated environments, some are capable of degrading pollutants and participating in the environmental remediation process. The bioremediation process of the contaminated soils and waters is often considered a promising low risk management tool. Even when the contamination poses an imminent threat and other approaches are essential, bioremediation often is a viable secondary strategy for the site maintenance (Haws et al. 2006; Pouran et al. 2017). Natural environments are dynamic and complex systems; therefore, characterization and identifying the underlying processes governing the contaminant’s fate are not easy. Examples of the natural environments heterogeneity are the diverse physicochemical properties of the soils and aquifers matrices (Stumm and Morgan 1996). As the soils and sediments are the prime surfaces for the bacterial cell attachment in most natural environments, elucidation of the surface properties of these constituents and their role in initiating cell adhesion and biofilm formation are of the key importance in understanding the bioremediation process. In fact, the cell-mineral interface reactions not only influence the biodegradation process but many natural phenomena are affected by them. Understanding role of physicochemical interactions at the bacterial cells and minerals interface in the cell adhesion (as well as biofilm formation, development, and behavior) is essential for planning effective bioremediation techniques. It could potentially help us to predict the contaminants’ fate, and trends of the biodegradation rates in different environments. Consequently, the improved knowledge of the cell-mineral interface enable us to design and apply more sophisticated bioremediation techniques as a viable approach towards tackling the soil and water environmental pollution problems. Figure 1 schematically represents an aquifer and biofilm formation on some of the most abundant minerals in the environment, iron and aluminum oxides. It also indicates some the major effects of cell-mineral interface interactions on different environmental processes (Stumm and Morgan 1996; Zachara and Fredrickson 2004; Cornell and Schwertmann 2003).
    • Characterizing the Cell Surface Properties of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Strains, a Case Study

      Pouran, Hamid (Springer, 2019-03-29)
      This chapter describes some of the most common methods used to characterize the cell surface properties of the bacterial cells. As a case study, the focus of this chapter is on Sphingomonas spp., Sph2, which is a Gram negative and hydrophilic bacterial strain. The species used in this research was isolated from groundwater at a phenol-contaminated site. This hydrocarbon-degrading strain that can participate in bioremediation of polluted environments belongs to Sphingomonadaceae family. This group of bacteria is unique among Gram-negative cells because of having glycosphingolipids (GSL) instead of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer in their cell wall. To characterize this strain, its surface properties were examined using potentiometric titration, modelling surface protonation sites using ProtoFit, zeta potential measurements, and attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. There is no published detailed study about cell wall characteristics of Sph2 yet, and this research reports such information for the first time. In addition, to investigate effects of the solution ionic strength on Sph2 adhesion behavior on metal oxides, its biofilm formation on hematite, as the model mineral, was evaluated in three different ionic strengths; ≈200 mM, 100 mM, and 20 mM. The ATR-FTIR analysis showed that despite the unique cell wall chemistry of Sph2 among the Gram-negative strains, its surface functional groups are similar to other bacterial species. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, phosphoryl, and amide groups were detected in Sph2 infrared spectra. The potentiometric titration results showed that Sph2 PZC is approximately 4.3. Optimizing the titration data based on ProtoFit non-electrostatic model (NEM) provided compatible results to the infrared spectroscopy analysis and four pKa values were identified; 3.9 ± 0.3, 5.9 ± 0.2, 8.9 ± 0.0, and 10.2 ± 0.1, which could be assigned to carboxyl, phosphate, amine, and hydroxyl groups, respectively. Zeta potential measurements demonstrated that changing the ionic strength from ≈200 mM to ≈20 mM shifts the zeta potential by ≈−20 mV. Direct observation showed that this alteration in the ionic strength coincides with a tenfold increase in the number of Sph2 attached cells to the hematite surface. This could be attributed to both electrostatic interactions between the cell and surface, and conformational changes of Sph2 surface biopolymers. In addition to reporting Sph2 cell wall characterization results for the first time, this study highlights importance of ionic strength in the cell adhesion to the mineral surfaces, which directly influence biofilm formation, bioremediation, and bacterial transport in aqueous systems.
    • Child and young person development: biological, environmental and interpersonal influences

      Bennett, Kay; Brown, Zeta; Edwards, Tracey (Routledge, 2017-07-27)
    • Counting on numbers - squaring the numeracy divide?

      Watts, Adam; Shiner, R.; O'Gara, Elizabeth A.; Warrender, Tom (Centre of Excellence in Learning and Teaching, 2005)
    • Creating Time and Responsive Dimensions in Science with Mobile Technology

      Khechara, Marin; Smith, S (Routledge, 2017-12-06)
      Mobile learning (mlearning) is now used extensively in higher education (HE) (El-Hussain & Cronje, 2010). The use of this technology, most commonly represented by smartphones (Ofcom, 2015), allows approaches such as the flipped classroom or ‘flipping’ to be facilitated (Bishop & Verleger, 2013). Content is recorded and made available online before class through a mobile device (Bergman & Sams, 2012), leaving face-to-face sessions free for other activities that support learning. The use of the flipped approach has been shown to have a range of positive impacts on students (Smith, Brown, Purnell & Martin, 2015; Witton, 2016).
    • Cross modular tracking, academic counselling and retention of students on traditional delivery, technology supported learning, flexible access and other awards

      Oliver, Ken; Musgrove, Nick; Smith, John (University of Wolverhampton, 2002)
      The increasing emphasis in recruitment of ‘non traditional’ student cohorts (Year 0, part- time evening only, Flexible Access, additional needs etc) combined with multi-staffed modules and technology supported learning (TSL) delivery is mitigating against the traditional tutor overview of cross-modular student performance and may be hiding student problems until a point of no return when formal summative evidence of failure is validated. In addition the trend towards minimising formal assessment loading can be seen as reducing the numbers of performance benchmarks available to establish learner profiles. The project aims to implement a continuous cross-modular tracking and assessment structure, initially for first year Environmental Science (ES) students, in order to provide such ‘early warning’ of student difficulties as will permit viable counselling and remedial support. It is anticipated that such a strategy will reduce the incidence of ‘under performance’, ‘drop outs’ and ‘resits’ by making support available at the point problems arise and not when formal failure is established.
    • Developing a key skills profile for first year computing undergraduates

      Davies, Jenny; Hunt, Rose; Wrighton, Naomi; Holland, Lynda (University of Wolverhampton, 2003)
    • Development of a formalised skills-based tutorial system in support of student learning

      Norton, Ken; Reynolds, Steve (University of Wolverhampton, 2001)
      A formalised skills-based tutorial system in support of student learning has been devised, stitched into core Level 1 modules, and requiring student self study and individual student inputs in small group (maximum 5) compulsory tutorials. The aim has been to co-ordinate the development of the six (Foundation Degree) key transferable skills and to underpin career management activities by fostering, in first year students, a feeling of ‘belonging’ through the strengthening of personal progress planning. The outcome has been a series of skills-related tutorial topics providing training in relevant study techniques (involving all staff irrespective of discipline) with student guidance notes on task completion, a mechanism for encouraging students to use assessment feedback from all sources in a constructive and reflective manner and a means for monitoring student attendance and performance which, it is envisaged, should lead to improvements in Year 1 retention rates. Our system has recently been evaluated at a full Biosciences divisional meeting. Unanimous acceptance by all 20+ staff with some discussion on, and modification to, the proposed mode of assessment for the subject-specific extended essay and the nature of the numerical exercise on statistics and use of calculators. Potential rooming problems were voiced. The project is now virtually completed and is ready for an October start, apart from final agreements on the format of the skills diaries/recording systems which will form the basis of a Science student’s Progress File.
    • Development of an interactive on-line alternative to a laboratory-based demonstration in the module: Food Microbiology

      Gibson, Hazel; Walton, Julie; Hammerton, Matthew; Dyer, Ros (University of Wolverhampton, 2005)
      Discusses the development of an interactive on-line alternative to a laboratory-based demonstration for a course module on Food Microbiology at the University of Wolverhampton. The programme was designed to provide a stimulating learning experience to promote a deep approach to learning and also to provide the opportunity for distance and self-paced learning.
    • Development of ICT provisions for additional needs science students

      Musgrove, Nick; Homfray, Richard P.; Addison, Ken (University of Wolverhampton, 2001)
      The School of Applied Sciences (SAS) has one of the largest incidences of ‘additional needs’ students in the University, with the potential for this to increase through recruitment from linked organisations (e.g. Rodbaston College), through School initiatives (e.g. Flexible Learning) or University initiatives such as Widening Participation. The increased emphasis placed on the use of ICT as a means of producing assignments (word-processing, spreadsheets, specialist packages etc.), coupled with an expansion in TSL (i.e. use of the SAS intranet, WOLF, and ‘Subject Centre’ and other specialist teaching packages) in the delivery of courseware within our standard IT provision, was considered to be exacerbating the difficulties encountered by some of our students with additional needs. The principal objective of the project is to increase accessibility to the University standard software suites in use in SAS in addition to the specialist packages used in the school. The basic strategy falls within two areas: use of appropriate additional hardware and software to enhance the display options available to students and use of appropriate additional hardware and software to provide alternate means of inputting information into, and receiving output from, standard software packages.