• A comparison of the nature of pre-entry assessment in FE feeder colleges with those of the first year degree programme

      Buckley, Kevan; Davies, Jenny; Bentley, Hilary (University of Wolverhampton, 2005)
      Discusses differences in the style and content of assessment of students in Further Education colleges compared with assessment during their first year undergraduate programme in the School of Computing and Information technology at the University of Wolverhampton. Differences are analysed to identify strengths and potential areas of difficulty experienced by students.
    • A model for Android and iOS applications risk calculation: CVSS analysis and enhancement using case-control studies

      Petraityte, Milda; Dehghantanha, Ali; Epiphaniou, Gregory (Elsevier, 2018)
      Various researchers have shown that the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) has many drawbacks and may not provide a precise view of the risks related to software vulnerabilities. However, many threat intelligence platforms and industry-wide standards are relying on CVSS score to evaluate cyber security compliance. This paper suggests several improvements to the calculation of Impact and Exploitability sub-scores within the CVSS, improve its accuracy and help threat intelligence analysts to focus on the key risks associated with their assets. We will apply our suggested improvements against risks associated with several Android and iOS applications and discuss achieved improvements and advantages of our modelling, such as the importance and the impact of time on the overall CVSS score calculation.
    • A multicriteria approach to evaluating habitat change in urban areas: an example from the Black Country (UK)

      Young, Christopher; Jarvis, Peter (Ashurst: WIT Press, 2003)
      THE BOOK: The pressure on land resources in densely populated industrialized countries is now immense. Multifunctional management is therefore a prerequisite for the sustainable use of landscapes, and the only general strategy that may address the problems created by constantly growing demands on resources arising from production, residence, dumping of waste, habitat, ecosystem services, and recreation. This volume focuses on the discussion and research recommendations relating to three different aspects of future landscape research concerning planning and management: Monitoring Multifunctional Landscapes; Biodiversity Versus Landscape Diversity in Multifunctional Landscapes; and Complexity of Landscape Management. (WIT Press)
    • Accessibility and adaptive technology

      Musgrove, Nick; Salter, Pam (University of Wolverhampton, 2002)
      Experience gained during an earlier project (Musgrove, Homfray & Addison, 2001) supported the premise that providing appropriate specialist hardware systems and adjusting software interfaces could improve accessibility to Information and communications Technology(ICT) and consequently to Technology Supported Learning (TSL) supported modules for certain additional needs students. School of Applied Sciences (SAS) and School of Art and Design (SAD) already have a large constituency of additional needs students which has a potential to increase through normal recruitment as well as through School or University initiatives (e.g. Flexible Access Projects and Widening Participation) and transfer from linked F.E. colleges and other institutions. The project aims to enhance learner support by implementing such specialist resources, infrastructure, training and support, as will enable additional needs students to fully exploit the increasing use of software, TSL and on-line facilities. The project is supported by the broad experience of the team; two members have specific ICT skills as well as specialist subject skills and are involved in SAS TSL developments and the third has considerable experience in supporting additional needs students.
    • Acoustic performance of metallic foams

      Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Praveen, Ayyappan S.; Olabi, Abdul G.; Wang, Chang J. (Elsevier, 2019-03-29)
      Metallic foams are among the most promising class of materials due to their unique mechanical properties combining low mass with high stiffness, excellent energy absorption, and vibroacoustic damping. Consequently, noise control using methodically engineered metallic foams has received increased attention from both industrial and scientific community. Accordingly, this paper aims to present the mechanism of sound absorption along with the experimental and theoretical procedure that can be used to classify metallic foams. Additionally, the influence of design parameters on the resulting sound absorption coefficient of closed and open-cell metallic foams are explored. While Aluminium foams used to dominate the literature when it comes to acoustics, recent studies have reported Nickel-Inconel superalloy and Copper foams as having superior sound absorption coefficients.
    • Advances in acoustic metamaterials

      Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Robinson, John (Elsevier, 2021-05-03)
      Acoustic metamaterials offer a new paradigm for the control and manipulation of sound waves that are often unachievable through conventional materials. The potential this offers to the field of sound absorption, insulation, cloaking, and imaging are remarkable. Acoustic metamaterials also allow material constructs to be tuned both actively and passively for reconfigurable material that offers unprecedented wave manipulation. Challenges remain, in simplifying, identifying scaling techniques and deriving design guidelines for the manufacture of large-scale acoustic metamaterials to transform laboratory prototypes to useful devices. However, research in this area is rapidly evolving with the necessary building blocks that can be additively manufactured or assembled to form metamaterials. In this regard, the article provides a general introduction into acoustic metamaterials followed by their qualifiers. The focus is placed on summarizing the advances that are happening in the field of acoustic metamaterials classified based on potential application. In doing so key design approaches and resulting properties of acoustic metamaterials are discussed in relation to their most recent advancements.
    • An evaluation of deep learning achieved by students studying environmental science modules using the Wolverhampton Online Learning Framework (WOLF)

      Simkins, Andrew; Roberts, Clive L. (University of Wolverhampton, 2003)
      The Division of Environmental and Analytical Sciences uses the Wolverhampton Online Learning Framework (WOLF) for part of its module delivery programme at all 3 levels within all Awards. This initiative followed from the mission statement that the University of Wolverhampton is committed to broadening access to the widest range of students capable of succeeding in higher education. It is however difficult to assess the level of success achieved by WOLF-based modules in terms of the student’s true understanding of module concepts, although end-of-module evaluation forms completed by students have allowed some feedback on satisfaction of the way in which modules use WOLF. There has been limited information available on specific learning and teaching issues that might help guide the style of module delivery using the WOLF system. Indeed if WOLF-based modules are intended to be an alternative form of delivery for modules that are delivered by conventional methods, evaluations for the level of true understanding achieved by students (whatever their chosen platform for studying the module) would be very useful information to develop. The research involved canvassing the opinions of students on modules that are committed to the use of WOLF as part of the module delivery. Tracking facilities within the administrator’s role on WOLF gives feedback on the amount of time students spend on WOLF pages. However it is not possible to evaluate the level of learning or understanding that has been achieved by students from tracking statistics alone. There are therefore 3 main aims for this research: 1. To evaluate the level of deep learning achieved by students studying environmental science students who have accessed the modules via WOLF. 2. To study the quality and style of approaches to learning adopted by students that have accessed modules through WOLF. 3. To assess the effectiveness of module delivery by utilising WOLF.
    • An evaluation of the educational effectiveness of fieldwork within environmental science awards at the University of Wolverhampton

      Besenyei, Lynn; Watkin, Glynne; Oliver, Ken (University of Wolverhampton, 2004)
      Fieldwork is considered to be a major component within geography, earth and environmental sciences curricula and is advocated as an effective learning environment by virtually all those who are involved in learning and teaching in these disciplines. The project undertook discipline pedagogic research to answer questions about the educational effectiveness of fieldwork.
    • An eye for an eye or an eye to the future

      Barrow, Paul; Watts, Adam; Coleman, Iain (University of Wolverhampton, 2005)
      BM1119 Human Physiology is a large level 1 module accessed by students on a wide variety of awards from the School of Applied Sciences and the School of Health. The diversity of the student body means that while some students come to the module familiar with the content, others do not have a string background in the material. The aim of this research project was to trial a method of running workshop sessions which maximised the accessibility of the wide range of learning resources available to this latter group of students.
    • An interactive triangle approach to student learning

      Coleman, Iain; Conde, Gillian; Barrow, Paul; Watts, Adam (University of Wolverhampton, 2005)
      Discusses the findings of a research project designed to improve student performance through innovative learning and teaching methods. The traditional format of the Human Physiology module (a core module in the Biomedical Science portfolio) comprising a weekly programme of two lectures and one tutorial was replaced by converting lectures into an on-line form and hosting them on the University's virtual learning environment (WOLF), linking these to key texts, on-line resources and computer software packages. Workshops and drop-in sessions provided additional support and an opportunity for lecturers to diagnose areas of difficulty and provide strategies for resolving them.
    • Antibacterial biomaterials in orthopedics

      Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Robinson, John; Wang, Chang (Elsevier, 2021-07-10)
      Implant infection is a serious complication resulting in pain, mortality, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). AMR is one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century causing an estimated 25000 deaths/year in the EU at €1.5 billion/year in healthcare and productivity cost. By 2050, WHO estimates 10 million lives a year will be at risk from AMR, surpassing cancer, with $100 trillion in economic costs if no proactive solutions are found. The risk-of-infection associated with surgical implants is the one that is called for the highest attention. Antibacterial biomaterials are rapidly emerging as a primary component of the global mitigation strategy against both implant infection and AMR. As a result of extensive research efforts, advances are being made both on antibacterial surface coatings topographical architecture that can be applied that reduces the risk of infection. In this regard, the paper introduces the emerging research on antibacterial constructs highlighting the challenges and opportunities. In doing so, antibacterial biomaterials the offer the highest potential for reducing orthopedic infections while combating AMR are discussed.
    • Application of cellular material in crashworthiness applications: an overview

      Baroutaji, Ahmad; Arjunan, Arun; Niknejad, Abbas; Tran, TrongNahn; Olabi, Abdul G. (Elsevier, 2019-03-29)
      Cellular foams are a modern class of materials with unique mechanical properties that have wide ranging engineering applications, in the areas of biomedical, acoustic and thermal insulation, and crashworthiness. Recently, foam materials have received increased attention for vehicle crashworthiness due to their lightweight and excellent energy absorption capabilities that allow significant weight reduction without compromising structural safety aspects. Accordingly, this paper reviews the crush and energy absorption behaviour of foam-filled structures that can be used for crashworthy design in transport engineering. In addition, the mechanical and dynamic properties of cellular material and their role on the crashworthiness performance of filled structure are discussed. Particularly, the influences of foam density and interactions, between the foam and the tubes, on the deformation mode of the filled structures are clarified. The advantages offered by the innovative foam material, which contains a density gradient, on the crashworthiness behaviour are also highlighted. Also, a brief summary of optimisation studies involving the use of foam-filled structures are presented. It was found that the cellular materials improve the crashworthiness performance when they are used as filler material in thin-walled energy absorbers due to their capability of altering the deformation mode to a more favourable one.
    • Application of mineral magnetic concentration measurements as a particle-size proxy for urban road deposited sediments

      Crosby, C. J.; Booth, Colin A.; Worsley, Annie T.; Fullen, Michael A.; Searle, David E.; Khatib, Jamal M.; Winspear, C. M. (Southampton : Wessex Institute of Technology Press, 2009)
      The application of mineral magnetic concentration parameters (χLF, χARM and SIRM) as a potential particle size proxy for urban road deposited sediment collected from Scunthorpe, North Lincolnshire, U.K. has been investigated. Correlation analyses between each magnetic parameter and traditional particle size classes (i.e. sand, silt and clay) and respiratory health related size classes (i.e. PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0) are reported. Significant relationships (p <0.01; n = 35) exist between clay content and two of the magnetic concentration parameters (χARM and SIRM). This is also the same for each of the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 sizes. Of the three magnetic parameters, χARM displays the strongest correlation (r = 0.45; p <0.01; n = 35) values and is the most significant parameter, which is consistent with class sizes of each approach. In doing so, these associations indicate mineral magnetic associations have considerable potential as a particle size proxy for determining urban roadside particulate matter concentrations. Given the speed, low-cost and sensitivity of the measurements, this suggests magnetic techniques could be potentially used as an alternative and/or complementary technology for pilot particulate pollution investigations. Furthermore, in certain instances, it could be useful for examining linkages between respiratory health and particulate pollution and vehicle emissions.
    • Application of Zeolites to Environmental Remediation

      Williams, Craig D; Charlesworth, Susanne; Booth, Colin (Wiley, 2018-10)
    • Bacterial Cell-Mineral Interface, Its Impacts on Biofilm Formation and Bioremediation

      Pouran, Hamid; Hussain, Chaudhery (Springer, 2019-03-29)
      This chapter aims to provide a better understanding of the bacterial cell attachment and biofilm formation on the mineral surfaces, which would result in improving our knowledge about: the interfacial forces governing the bacterial cell attachment, predicting trends of the biofilm formation and consequently biodegradation rates, and the contaminant’s fate in the diverse geological media (Pouran HM. Studying molecular and nanoscale interactions at metal oxide surfaces and their effects on bacterial adhesion, 2009). In both aqueous and terrestrial environments, bacterial cells tend to be attached to a surface and form biofilm. If they are associated to, e.g., a mineral surface, bacterial cells would remain in a more stable microenvironment instead of being removed by the water shear stress. Even the bacterial planktonic phase can be considered as a mechanism for translocation from one surface to the other rather than a prime lifestyle (Watnick and Kolter 2000; Young 2006). The biofilm formation, which completely covers the surface, initially begins by the adhesion of a small quantity of cells (Vadillo-rodri et al. 2006; Pouran et al. 2017). Among the different indigenous microbial species in the contaminated environments, some are capable of degrading pollutants and participating in the environmental remediation process. The bioremediation process of the contaminated soils and waters is often considered a promising low risk management tool. Even when the contamination poses an imminent threat and other approaches are essential, bioremediation often is a viable secondary strategy for the site maintenance (Haws et al. 2006; Pouran et al. 2017). Natural environments are dynamic and complex systems; therefore, characterization and identifying the underlying processes governing the contaminant’s fate are not easy. Examples of the natural environments heterogeneity are the diverse physicochemical properties of the soils and aquifers matrices (Stumm and Morgan 1996). As the soils and sediments are the prime surfaces for the bacterial cell attachment in most natural environments, elucidation of the surface properties of these constituents and their role in initiating cell adhesion and biofilm formation are of the key importance in understanding the bioremediation process. In fact, the cell-mineral interface reactions not only influence the biodegradation process but many natural phenomena are affected by them. Understanding role of physicochemical interactions at the bacterial cells and minerals interface in the cell adhesion (as well as biofilm formation, development, and behavior) is essential for planning effective bioremediation techniques. It could potentially help us to predict the contaminants’ fate, and trends of the biodegradation rates in different environments. Consequently, the improved knowledge of the cell-mineral interface enable us to design and apply more sophisticated bioremediation techniques as a viable approach towards tackling the soil and water environmental pollution problems. Figure 1 schematically represents an aquifer and biofilm formation on some of the most abundant minerals in the environment, iron and aluminum oxides. It also indicates some the major effects of cell-mineral interface interactions on different environmental processes (Stumm and Morgan 1996; Zachara and Fredrickson 2004; Cornell and Schwertmann 2003).
    • Bioactive and functional oligomers derived from natural PHA and their synthetic analogs

      Radecka, Iza; Kowalczuk, Marek; Tchuenbou-Magaia, Fideline; Kurcok, Piotr; Adamus, Grazyna; Konieczny, Tomasz; Zięba, Magdalena; Ekere, Anabel Itohowo; Koller, Martin (CRC Press, 2020-11-05)
      Polyhydroxyalkanoate oligomers (oligo-PHA) are low molar mass PHA consisting of a small number of 3-hydroxyacid repeat units (usually not more than 200 residue units). They can be synthesized either naturally in eukaryotic cells and in prokaryotic cells through intracellular or extracellular degradation of storage PHA to yield natural oligomers, or via several chemical modifications such as basic hydrolysis or transesterification. The synthetic analogs of natural PHA oligomers are obtained by anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of β-substituted β-lactones. These synthetic and biodegradable oligomers, through various chemical modifications, can further allow the preparation of bioactive oligomers with attractive properties for novel and high value-added applications, especially in medicine, agrochemistry, and cosmetology. Bioactive oligomers are also biodegradable: they possess enhanced properties, controlled functional end groups, and thus can be potential components of copolymers or blends with other biodegradable polymers. The natural and synthetic routes used for the preparation of selected bioactive PHA oligomers and their detailed characterization by mass spectrometry are discussed in this chapter.
    • Characteristics of acoustic metamaterials

      Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Robinson, John; Wang, Chang (Elsevier, 2021-05-03)
      The term “metamaterials” refers to artificial constructs whose characteristics are determined by the collective manifestations of local units. When such constructs are designed for acoustic wave manipulation, they are referred to as acoustic metamaterials. Acoustic metamaterials allow controlled wave propagation that is often inconceivable through chemically developed bulk materials. This means that the wave propagation in acoustic metamaterials goes beyond the mass-density characteristics of the material resulting in targeted acoustic outcomes. The unique characteristics of acoustic metamaterials have opened a new direction in the development of effective solutions for a range of applications, including but not limited to low-frequency sound insulation, acoustic cloaking, sound focusing, biomedical acoustics, and passive destructive interference. The overall characteristic of an acoustic metamaterial depends on the type of sound manipulation being targeted. This article introduces the characteristics associated with some of the most promising acoustic metamaterials from passive to active. An effort is placed to highlighting both the underlying principles and the physical prototypes that were evaluated.
    • Characterizing the Cell Surface Properties of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Strains, a Case Study

      Pouran, Hamid; Hussain, Chaudhery (Springer, 2019-03-29)
      This chapter describes some of the most common methods used to characterize the cell surface properties of the bacterial cells. As a case study, the focus of this chapter is on Sphingomonas spp., Sph2, which is a Gram negative and hydrophilic bacterial strain. The species used in this research was isolated from groundwater at a phenol-contaminated site. This hydrocarbon-degrading strain that can participate in bioremediation of polluted environments belongs to Sphingomonadaceae family. This group of bacteria is unique among Gram-negative cells because of having glycosphingolipids (GSL) instead of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer in their cell wall. To characterize this strain, its surface properties were examined using potentiometric titration, modelling surface protonation sites using ProtoFit, zeta potential measurements, and attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. There is no published detailed study about cell wall characteristics of Sph2 yet, and this research reports such information for the first time. In addition, to investigate effects of the solution ionic strength on Sph2 adhesion behavior on metal oxides, its biofilm formation on hematite, as the model mineral, was evaluated in three different ionic strengths; ≈200 mM, 100 mM, and 20 mM. The ATR-FTIR analysis showed that despite the unique cell wall chemistry of Sph2 among the Gram-negative strains, its surface functional groups are similar to other bacterial species. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, phosphoryl, and amide groups were detected in Sph2 infrared spectra. The potentiometric titration results showed that Sph2 PZC is approximately 4.3. Optimizing the titration data based on ProtoFit non-electrostatic model (NEM) provided compatible results to the infrared spectroscopy analysis and four pKa values were identified; 3.9 ± 0.3, 5.9 ± 0.2, 8.9 ± 0.0, and 10.2 ± 0.1, which could be assigned to carboxyl, phosphate, amine, and hydroxyl groups, respectively. Zeta potential measurements demonstrated that changing the ionic strength from ≈200 mM to ≈20 mM shifts the zeta potential by ≈−20 mV. Direct observation showed that this alteration in the ionic strength coincides with a tenfold increase in the number of Sph2 attached cells to the hematite surface. This could be attributed to both electrostatic interactions between the cell and surface, and conformational changes of Sph2 surface biopolymers. In addition to reporting Sph2 cell wall characterization results for the first time, this study highlights importance of ionic strength in the cell adhesion to the mineral surfaces, which directly influence biofilm formation, bioremediation, and bacterial transport in aqueous systems.
    • Child and young person development: biological, environmental and interpersonal influences

      Bennett, Kay; Brown, Zeta; Edwards, Tracey; Brown, Zeta; Ward, Stephen (Routledge, 2017-07-27)
    • Classification of biomaterial functionality

      Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Praveen, Ayyappan S; Robinson, John; Wang, Chang (Elsevier, 2020-10-22)
      The rapid evolution in biomaterial performance over the last decade calls for an ever-increasing need in the classification of their functionalities. In many cases, emerging biomaterials are expected to be multifunctional, customizable, and biologically active. It is also likely that the future of biomaterials will assume even greater roles in terms of their bioactive capabilities making it all the more difficult to be regulated. As such a functional classification of biomaterials allows to consider both the safety, performance, and application while facilitating the selection of the best candidate material. Although every biomaterial undergoes rigorous experimental evaluation, they are often classified similarly to conventional materials based on their composition. This contributes to the challenges in biomaterials selection, evaluation, and use, which can subsequently lead to convoluted regulations, and inherent biases. The paper, therefore, provides a general introduction into the classification of biomaterials based on their functionalities. In this regard, the biomaterial qualifiers are introduced and summarized into an overall framework in a way that allows for meaningful classification. Furthermore, the framework that is presented can accommodate both traditional and emerging biomaterials based on their existing biomechanical performance and evolving functionalities.