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Biomineralisation performance of bacteria isolated from a landfill in ChinaWe report an investigation of microbially induced carbonate precipitation by seven indigenous bacteria isolated from a landfill in China. Bacterial strains were cultured in a medium supplemented with 25 mmol/L calcium chloride and 333 mmol/L urea. The experiments were carried out at 30 °C for 7 days with agitation by a shaking table at 130 r/min. Scanning electron microscopic and X-ray diffraction analyses showed variations in calcium carbonate polymorphs and mineral composition induced by all bacterial strains. The amount of carbonate precipitation was quantified by titration. The amount of carbonate precipitated in the medium varied among isolates, with the lowest being Bacillus aerius rawirorabr15 (LC092833) precipitating around 1.5 times more carbonate per unit volume than the abiotic (blank) solution. Pseudomonas nitroreducens szh_asesj15 (LC090854) was found to be the most efficient, precipitating 3.2 times more carbonate than the abiotic solution. Our results indicate that bacterial carbonate precipitation occurred through ureolysis and suggest that variations in carbonate crystal polymorphs and rates of precipitation were driven by strain-specific differences in urease expression and response to the alkaline environment. These results and the method applied provide benchmarking and screening data for assessing the bioremediation potential of indigenous bacteria for containment of contaminants in landfills.
Next-generation sequencing showing potential leachate influence on bacterial communities around a landfill in ChinaThe impact of contaminated leachate on groundwater from landfills is well known, but the specific effects on bacterial consortia are less well-studied. Bacterial communities in a landfill and an urban site located in Suzhou, China, were studied using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. A total of 153 944 good-quality reads were produced and sequences assigned to 6388 operational taxonomic units. Bacterial consortia consisted of up to 16 phyla, including Proteobacteria (31.9%-94.9% at landfill, 25.1%-43.3% at urban sites), Actinobacteria (0%-28.7% at landfill, 9.9%-34.3% at urban sites), Bacteroidetes (1.4%-25.6% at landfill, 5.6%-7.8% at urban sites), Chloroflexi (0.4%-26.5% at urban sites only), and unclassified bacteria. Pseudomonas was the dominant (67%-93%) genus in landfill leachate. Arsenic concentrations in landfill raw leachate (RL) (1.11 × 103 μg/L) and fresh leachate (FL2) (1.78 × 103 μg/L) and mercury concentrations in RL (10.9 μg/L) and FL2 (7.37 μg/L) exceeded Chinese State Environmental Protection Administration standards for leachate in landfills. The Shannon diversity index and Chao1 richness estimate showed RL and FL2 lacked richness and diversity when compared with other samples. This is consistent with stresses imposed by elevated arsenic and mercury and has implications for ecological site remediation by bioremediation or natural attenuation.