• Slope Processes, Mass Movement and Soil Erosion: A Review

      GUERRA, Antônio José Teixeira; Fullen, Michael A.; JORGE, Maria do Carmo Oliveira; BEZERRA, José Fernando Rodrigues; SHOKR, Mohamed S. (Elsevier, 2016-12-26)
      Soil erosion and land degradation are global problems and pose major issues in many countries. Both soil erosion and mass movement are two forms of land degradation and humans play important roles in these geomorphological processes. This paper reviews slope processes associated with mass movement and soil erosion and contributory factors, including physical and human agents. Acting together, these cause diverse geomorphological features. Slope processes are illustrated by reference to case studies from Brazil and UK. The causes and impacts of erosion are discussed, along with appropriate remedial bioengineering methods and the potential of the measures to prevent these types of environmental degradation. Although there are several agents of erosion, water is the most important one. Cultivation can promote soil erosion, due to ploughing and harvesting, which moves soil down slopes. Soil erosion and mass movement data would inform the viability of soil conservation practices. Integrated management of drainage basins offers a promising way forward for effective soil conservation and soil remedial bioengineering in Brazil and UK.