• Environmental magnetism: measuring, monitoring and modelling urban street dust pollution

      Shilton, Vaughan F.; Fullen, Michael A.; Booth, Colin A.; Walden, John; Worsley, Annie T.; Power, A.L. (WIT Press, 2006)
      Urban street dusts have been monitored monthly for one year (May 2000 to April 2001), their magnetic properties measured and their multivariate relationships modelled by Simultaneous R- and Q-mode Factor Analysis, so as to differentiate dusts from three urban roads (two in Wolverhampton and one in Dudley) in the West Midlands (U.K.). Results show the street dusts contain a large range of magnetic concentrations, magnetic mineralogy and magnetic domain sizes, which has enabled significant differences (p < 0.001) to be identified between individual roads. Whilst soil is proposed as a notable provenance for the dust, magnetic values in this study are much higher than those previously reported for topsoils and thus, indicate the influence of other sources, such as anthropogenic pollutants. This indicates the potential of magnetic methodologies as a valuable means of contributing to local and national road pollution monitoring schemes. Furthermore, Factor Analysis aided the interpretation of dust variations and simplified the inter-relationships between magnetic parameters, which highlights its potential for classifying and discriminating urban street dust sources.
    • Factor Analysis of Particle Size Specific Mineral Magnetic Measurements on Agricultural Topsoils from the Isle of Man

      Booth, Colin A.; Fullen, Michael A.; Smith, John P.; Hallett, Michael D.; Walden, John; Harris, John; Holland, Kim (Taylor & Francis, 2006)
      Agricultural topsoils from the five soil categories of the Isle of Man (British Isles) have been fractionated at discrete particle size intervals and their mineral magnetic properties have been analyzed. The aim was to characterize Manx soils and, with the aid of simultaneous R- and Q-mode factor analysis, evaluate the use of mineral magnetic measurements as an appropriate means of discriminating soil categories. Results show Manx agricultural topsoils contain a range of magnetic concentrations (similar to sedimentary and acid igneous rocks), magnetic mineralogy (greater influence of magnetically soft than magnetically hard minerals) and magnetic domain size (mainly stable single domain and superparamagnetic grains) characteristics, with significant differences between the five identified soil categories for each of the fractionated size class intervals used. Despite the mineral magnetic approach showing considerable potential for classifying Manx soils on the basis of their magnetic properties, large variations exist within individual soil categories. However, compared with previous studies, particle size specific measurements provide a more appropriate means of discrimination than bulk magnetic measurements. Each specific fractionated particle size range accommodates similar abilities of discrimination, yet no single class size is better than any other. Nevertheless, the ability of factor analysis to detect multivariate patterns in mineral magnetic data shows it is a useful data analysis tool for interrogating soil data sets.
    • Fructosamine; is the current interest in alternative glycaemic markers justified?

      Shipman, KE; Jawad, M; Sullivan, KM; Ford, C; Gama, Rousseau; Clinical Chemistry, New Cross Hospital, Wolverhampton. (Wiley, 2015-01-01)
    • Magnetic properties of agricultural topsoils of the Isle of Man: their characterization and classification by factor analysis

      Booth, Colin A.; Fullen, Michael A.; Walden, John; Smith, John P.; Hallett, Michael D.; Harris, John; Holland, Kim (Taylor & Francis, 2005)
      A classification system for land potential in agricultural use has identified five soil categories on the Isle of Man (British Isles), based on the nature and properties of parent materials. Each soil category has been sampled and analyzed in terms of mineral magnetic characteristics. This article describes these compositional data and uses multivariate statistics to determine whether Manx soil types can be classified on the basis of their mineral magnetic characteristics. Magnetic data indicate the soils contain low to moderate quantities of magnetic minerals, are dominated by low-coercivity (e.g., ferrimagnetic) mineral types, and contain a range of magnetic domain sizes. Soil parent material is identified as the primary source of magnetic minerals, but parent material texture does not influence magnetic domain size. Multivariate data analysis suggests that mineral magnetic characteristics are appropriate for distinguishing between Manx soil categories and, thus, indicates the generic potential of mineral magnetic methodologies in such studies.