• An Economic Assessment of the Institution of Land Use Planning in the Cities of Sub-Saharan Africa

      Egbu, Anthony; Antwi, Adarkwah; Olomolaiye, Paul (RICS (Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors), 2006)
      The institutions of land use planning in the countries of sub-Saharan Africa have come of age. For more than 40 years, the received colonial town planning laws and associated regulations have guided urban land development processes in the region. In spite of the problems of ‘illegal’ developments and delays in the procedures for obtaining land and development rights, no economic assessment of the system of land use planning in Africa seems to have been attempted. This paper analyses the impact of land use planning on urban development and examines the incentive structure of the political market of planning in the cities of sub-Saharan Africa. The objective is to identify the institutional weakness of land use planning in the region. The paper concludes that it would appear the system of land use planning in sub-Saharan Africa operates in such a way that allows the externalisation of costs onto those actors of the society whose interests are not sufficiently represented within the land use planning system. (RICS)
    • Compulsory Land Acquisition in Ghana - Policy and Praxis

      Larbi, Wordsworth Odami; Antwi, Adarkwah; Olomolaiye, Paul (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2004)
      Compulsory land acquisition powers have been used extensively in Ghana since colonial times, as the main means of the state's access to land for development. The underlying principle is supremacy of the state over people and their private property, and is aimed at providing land for public and social amenities, correcting economic and social inefficiencies in private market operations and providing greater equity and social justice in the distribution of land. The paper analyses compulsory acquisition practice in Ghana in the light of these principles. It argues that few of the presumed principles have been met. Rather compulsory land acquisition has resulted in adverse socio-economic consequences including in landlessness, poverty and heightened tension in state-community relationship. The paper advocates for a new legal and institutional environment for employing compulsory acquisition powers.
    • Customary Landholding Institutions and Housing Development in Urban Centres of Ghana : Case Studies of Kumasi and Wa

      Abdulai, Raymond Talinbe; Ndekugri, Issaka E. (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2007)
      In Ghana, land is vested in families and chiefs in the traditional land sector. These corporate bodies, referred to as customary landholding institutions control over 90% of the total land area in the country. The institutions therefore govern access to land. Urban centres in Ghana are plagued with a plethora of problems and one of them is inadequate housing. The urban housing problem is partly attributed to the existence and operation of the institutions. The customary landholding system is perceived as communal landownership, which does not permit individual ownership. It is thus argued that the system does not provide incentives for investing in housing development. This paper reports on a study carried out to test the assertion that the system does not permit individual ownership using two urban centres as case studies. The analysis shows that the operation of the institutions permits individual landownership. The traditional landownership system cannot therefore be the cause of the urban housing problem based on the premise that it does not permit individual ownership of land rights.
    • Inter-relationships between soil-protecting land use systems, recreation and tourism on agricultural landscapes in Lithuania

      Jankauskas, Benediktas; Jankauskienė, Genovaitė; Fullen, Michael A. (Siauliai University, Lithuania, 2008)
      Soil de­gra­da­tion by soil erosion is evident on the hilly- undula­ting landsca­pe, when com­mon land use systems, containing tilla­ge crops, are practised by land ow­ners. Results of long-term field investigations enab­le the proposal of specific erosion‑resistant land ma­na­ge­ment systems, which enable us to loca­lize and sta­bilize erosion processes on are­as most vulne­rable to soil erosion. It is fe­a­sible to im­ple­ment soil-protecting land use systems (i.e. erosion- re­sistant crop rota­tions and long-term pe­rennial grasses) de­signed for fields of vary­ing size, slope gradient and soil texture. The­se agro- environmental aims can be integrated with rural tourism, thus enabling re­ha­bilita­tion of de­gra­ded land and im­proving the socio- economic situation of rural villages. Matching specific soil tilla­ge ope­ra­tions with intensity of fertiliza­tion permits further re­tarda­tion of soil erosion intensity. The proposed vision of the modern Lithua­nian villa­ge is thus to re­com­mend new activities for local land owners and to promote sustainable and environmentally- friendly economic de­ve­lopment
    • Is Land Title Registration the Answer to Insecure and Uncertain Property Rights in Sub-Saharan Africa?

      Abdulai, Raymond Talinbe (RICS (The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors), 2006)
      The importance of security and certainty of land tenure cannot be overemphasized. A key justification for it is that it provides incentives for investment in land and therefore an impetus for sustainable economic development. In the customary land sector in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), land is vested in communities represented by families/clans, tribes and chiefs. These families/clans, tribes and chiefs are commonly referred to as traditional landholding institutions. It is, however, believed that property rights to land emanating from these institutions are insecure and uncertain, implying a disincentive to investment and therefore a barrier to economic development. This belief appears to be premised on the fact that customary ownership of land is not formally recorded or registered. Thus, since the colonial era, governments have been embarking on various land title registration programmes supposedly to guarantee greater security and certainty of customary land tenure for sustainable development. Evidence, however, abounds in the sub region to indicate that: (a) land title registration has done little to guarantee security and certainty of land tenure; and (b) there is no clearly discernible link between land title registration and investment behaviour. These form the basis of the thesis pursued in this paper. The paper argues that increasing security and certainty of land tenure does not necessarily require the registration of land titles and therefore defines the ingredients of secure and certain land rights. (RICS)
    • Measuring the Economic Impacts of Sub-Saharan African Urban Real-Estate Policies: Methodological Discussions

      Hammond, Felix Nikoi (RICS (Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors), 2006)
      In recent times, the approaches used to the modelling of the economic impacts of exogenous interventions have become increasingly sophisticated. However, even though huge resources have been expended on developing and implementing development programmes in sub-Saharan Africa, many of which have a significant real estate component, little effort has been made to assess in any rigorous sense their true impacts. This paper presents a quantitative framework by which the impacts of these real estate policies can be more objectively ascertained. The framework devised in this paper harnessed the strengths of a number of existing conventional models that are popular in the west to evolve a hybrid model that has due regard for the generally noisy data conditions of sub-Saharan Africa. The formulated framework is portable across the respective countries of Africa and the developing world. (RICS)
    • Real-Estate Resource Control: Policy Incentives and Investment for Development

      Hammond, Felix Nikoi (RICS (Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors), 2006)
      Real estate investments are increasingly seen as the cornerstone for prosperity and stable economies in both the developed and the developing world. The potential for real estates to play this role effectively depends on the scale of real estate investment opportunities that exists in the society in question. These investment opportunities at any rate depend on the nature of government policies that regulates real estate markets and the general investment environment. The African policy environments that have given birth to the current regime of real estate policies in Africa are highly monopolised. These have led ultimately to real estate policies that have vested in respective government’s enormous control over real estate resources. The broadly skewed real estate resource control configurations that have emerged as a result are definitely generating perverse investment incentives. These policies are difficult to remove because of the incentives they offer and the costs of doing so. It is unlikely that even well meaning governments would succeed in reforming them in any definable way. Perhaps the most plausible way to get round this albatross would be to employ incentives/disincentives of development aid conditionalities to compel these governments to hand back controls of these real estate resources to the market and private sector so that the distortions of the past policies can be corrected. (RICS)
    • The Political Economy of Sub-Saharan Africa Land Policies

      Hammond, Felix Nikoi; Antwi, Adarkwah; Proverbs, David G. (American Review of Political Economy, 2006)
      The quest for African poverty alleviation has become a global issue and governments of rich nations have registered their commitment to the task both through the Millennium Development Goals and other international programs. While poverty is endemic in Africa, extant policies that continue to dictate proceedings in the land sectors of most African nations have been constructed in a way that concentrate benefits and wealth on a few while spreading costs and poverty on a larger segment of the African population. These policies which continue to impose greater restrictions on poverty alleviation have emanated from the peculiar political and economic history of Africa. An understanding of how these political events continue to shape the performance of land markets in these countries within the context of contemporary economic learning is thus key to understanding the policy directions required for success. This paper thus employs public policy and transaction costs insights to explicate the historical political events that have led to the promulgation of such policies together with a conceptual view of their social cost implications.
    • The Social Costs of Real-Estate Market Information Gaps in Ghana

      Hammond, Felix Nikoi (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2006)
      Real estate markets function efficiently when driven by information regimes in which legitimate information corresponds with information that must count in market decisions. Where there are mismatches between legitimate information and information that must count, gaps naturally emerge in the information order. If the conditions for the creation and widening of such gaps are not removed, tenure insecurity, real estate transaction constraints and social costs tend to be heightened. This article presents a view of the conditions that have created information gaps in the Ghanaian real estate economy together with their allied tenure insecurity and social costs. Propositions for alleviating these information gaps are consequently proffered. (Routledge)
    • Traditional Landholding Institutions and Individual Ownership of Land Rights in Sub-Saharan Africa

      Abdulai, Raymond Talinbe; Antwi, Adarkwah (InderScience Publishers, 2005)
      As first level suppliers, land is vested in indigenous corporate bodies like clans/families, tribes and chiefs in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The corporate bodies are called traditional landholding institutions. This socio-political arrangement of landownership has, however, been described as communal landholding which does not permit individual ownership of land rights and this, it is argued, impedes economic development. This paper critically examines the customary land tenure systems and concludes that they are composite with communal as well as individual landownership akin to what obtains in England. Traditional landownership systems in SSA do not appear to constrain individual ownership of land rights. (InderScience Publishers)