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3D-printed polyester-based prototypes for cosmetic applications—future directions at the forensic engineering of advanced polymeric materialsKnowledge of degradation and impairment phenomena of (bio)degradable polymeric materials under operating conditions, and thus the selection of test procedures and prediction of their behavior designates the scope and capabilities as well as possible limitations of both: the preparation of the final product and its durability. The main novelty and objective of this research was to determine the degradation pathways during testing of polylactide and polylactide/polyhydroxyalkanoate materials made with three-dimensional printing and the development of a new strategy for the comprehensive characterization of such complex systems including behavior during waste disposal. Prototype objects were subjected to tests for damage evolution performed under simulating operating conditions. The reference samples and the tested items were characterized by gel permeation chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry to determine changes in material properties. The studies showed that: polyhydroxyalkanoate component during accelerated aging and degradation in environments rich in microorganisms accelerated the degradation of the material; paraffin accelerates polylactide degradation and slows degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoate-based material; under the influence of an environment rich in enzymes, paraffin contamination accelerates biodegradation; under the influence of natural conditions, paraffin contamination slowed degradation; the processing conditions, in particular the printing orientation of individual parts of the container, influenced the material properties in its various regions, affecting the rate of degradation of individual parts.
A comparative study of three-dimensional printing directions: The degradation and toxicological profile of a PLA/PHA blendThe use of biobased plastics is of great importance for many applications. Blending thermoplastic polylactide (PLA) with polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) enables the formulation of a more mechanically powerful material and this enables tailored biodegradation properties. In this study we demonstrate the 3D printing of a PLA/PHA blend as a potential candidate for biocompatible material applications. The filament for 3D printing consisted of PHA, which contains predominantly 3-hydroxybutyrate units and a small amount of 3-hydroxyvalerate units, as revealed by multistage mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn). This research found that the properties of 3D printed species before and during abiotic degradation are dependent on printing orientation. Furthermore, the 3D printed specimens exhibited good biocompatibility with HEK293 cells, indicating real promise as biological scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.