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Three-dimensional printing of PLA and PLA/PHA dumbbell-shaped specimens of crisscross and transverse patterns as promising materials in emerging application areas: Prediction studyThis paper presents ex-ante examination of advanced polymer materials to detect defects and define and minimize the potential failure of novel polymer products before they arise. The effect of build directions on the properties of dumbbell-shaped specimens obtained by three-dimensional printing from polylactide and polylactide/polyhydroxyalkanoate commercial filaments was investigated, as well as the hydrolytic degradation of these specimens at 50 ºC and 70 ºC. Taking into account previous studies, we have found further dependences of the properties of 3D printed species before and during abiotic degradation from the orientation of printing. The initial assumption that only the contact time with the 3D printer platform leads to an increase in the crystalline phase during printing turned out to be insufficient. Further investigations of individual parts of the dumbbell-shaped specimens showed that the size of the specimens’ surface in contact with the platform also affected the structural ordering of the material.