• Small female citation advantages for US journal articles in medicine

      Thelwall, Michael; Maflahi, Nabeil (SAGE, 2021-12-31)
      Female underrepresentation continues in senior roles within academic medicine, potentially influenced by a perception that female research has less citation impact. This article provides systematic evidence of (a) female participation rates from the perspective of published journal articles in 46 Scopus medical subject categories 1996-2018 and (b) gender differences in citation rates 1996-2014. The results show female proportion increases 1996-2018 in all fields and a female majority of first authored articles in two fifths of categories, but substantial differences between fields: A paper is 7.3 times more likely to have a female first author in Obstetrics and Gynecology than in Orthopedics and Sports Medicine. Only three fields had a female last author majority by 2018, a probable side effect of ongoing problems with appointing female leaders. Female first-authored research tended to be more cited than male first-authored research in most fields (59%), although with a maximum difference of only 5.1% (log-transformed normalised citations). In contrast, male last-authored research tends to be more cited than female last-authored research, perhaps due to cases where a senior male has attracted substantial funding for a project. These differences increase if team sizes are not accounted for in the calculations. Since female first-authored research is cited slightly more than male first-authored research, properly analysed bibliometric data considering career gaps should not disadvantage female candidates for senior roles.
    • A flow-based multi-agent data exfiltration detection architecture for ultra-low latency networks

      Marques, Rafael Salema; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Maple, Carsten; Hammoudeh, Mohammad; De Castro, Paulo Andre Lima; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond (Association for Computing Machinery, 2021-12-31)
      Modern network infrastructures host converged applications that demand rapid elasticity of services, increased security and ultra-fast reaction times. The Tactile Internet promises to facilitate the delivery of these services while enabling new economies of scale for high-fdelity of machine-to-machine and human-to-machine interactions. Unavoidably, critical mission systems served by the Tactile Internet manifest high-demands not only for high speed and reliable communications but equally, the ability to rapidly identify and mitigate threats and vulnerabilities. This paper proposes a novel Multi-Agent Data Exfltration Detector Architecture (MADEX) inspired by the mechanisms and features present in the human immune system. MADEX seeks to identify data exfltration activities performed by evasive and stealthy malware that hides malicious trafc from an infected host in low-latency networks. Our approach uses cross-network trafc information collected by agents to efectively identify unknown illicit connections by an operating system subverted. MADEX does not require prior knowledge of the characteristics or behaviour of the malicious code or a dedicated access to a knowledge repository. We tested the performance of MADEX in terms of its capacity to handle real-time data and the sensitivity of our algorithm’s classifcation when exposed to malicious trafc. Experimental evaluation results show that MADEX achieved 99.97% sensitivity, 98.78% accuracy and an error rate of 1.21% when compared to its best rivals. We created a second version of MADEX, called MADEX level 2 that further improves its overall performance with a slight increase in computational complexity. We argue for the suitability of MADEX level 1 in non-critical environments, while MADEX level 2 can be used to avoid data exfltration in critical mission systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the frst article in the literature that addresses the detection of rootkits real-time in an agnostic way using an artifcial immune system approach while it satisfes strict latency requirements.
    • The effects of micro- and macro- habitat variables on tent construction in the tent-roosting bat Artibeus watsoni on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

      Brown, Scott; Kaburu, Stefano; Besenyei, Lynn (Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2021-12-31)
      Bats spend half of their lives in their roosts, which play vital roles in the life histories of the bats that occupy them. More than half of all bat species roost in foliage. Within the Neotropics, 17 species of bat are known to modify foliage into structures referred to as “tents”. Of these species, Thomas’s fruit eating bat (Artibeus watsoni) uses the widest range of plant species for roosts, constructing five different tent types. However, the factors influencing the distribution and quantity of tents are not fully understood for this species. The aims of our study were to investigate whether [1] micro-habitat characteristics influence the number of tents on individual plants and [2] macro-habitat features influence the frequency of plants used for tent-roosting in the surrounding landscape. Our results demonstrate that the distribution of tents was influenced by proximity to fresh water, with 48.8% of tents within 100 m of fresh water. Additionally, A. watsoni constructed tents in sheltered habitats with a high cover abundance of trees. These types of habitat areas should be targeted for conservation efforts to conserve this species.
    • COVID-19 and construction law: comparing the United Kingdom and Australian response

      Charlson, Jennifer; Dickson, Rebecca (Informa Business Intelligence, 2021-12-31)
    • Bullying discussions in UK female influencers’ YouTube comments

      Thelwall, Michael; Cash, Scottye (Taylor & Francis, 2021-12-31)
      Victims of bullying are often reluctant to seek formal support and internalise their emotions, hindering recovery. Some will subsequently encounter discussions of bullying online, giving them an unexpected opportunity to share their feelings or experience vicarious support. In this article we investigate reactions to discussions of offline and online bullying in the comments posted to the YouTube channels of 34 popular UK female lifestyle influencers. We used a thematic analysis of keywords associated with comments mentioning bullying to identify bullying-related themes. The almost universally supportive comments position female YouTube influencer channels as sources of unexpected indirect support for victims that professionals may also recommend. The comments also reveal a previously undiscussed strategy for helping victims: abstraction. Commenters often seemed to depersonalise the issue to support the victim by setting their experience in the wider context of human behaviour. Commenters also supported victims by criticising bullies.
    • Is research with qualitative data more prevalent and impactful now? Interviews, case studies, focus groups and ethnographies

      Thelwall, Michael; Nevill, Tamara (Elsevier, 2021-12-31)
      Researchers, editors, educators, librarians, and publishers need to understand the mix of research methods used in their field to guide decision making, with qualitative research apparently threatened by big data. In response, this study assesses the prevalence and citation impact of academic research 1996-2019 that reports one of four common methods to gather qualitative data: interviews; focus groups; case studies; ethnography. With minor exceptions, the prevalence of qualitative data has increased, often substantially, since 1996. In addition, all 27 broad fields (as classified by Scopus) now publish some qualitative research, with interviewing being by far the most common approach. The citation impact of interview and focus group research mostly decreased over time, whereas of case study citation impact increased, and ethnography was above average in its two core subject areas. This suggests that methods teachers, researchers, editors, librarians, and publishers should be increasingly open to the value of qualitative data.
    • This! Identifying new sentiment slang through orthographic pleonasm online: Yasss slay gorg queen ilysm

      Thelwall, Mike (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2021-12-31)
      Identifying neologisms is important for natural language processing of social web text when informal language is standard and youth slang is common. For example, failing to identify neologisms can reduce the accuracy of lexical sentiment analysis if opinions are frequently expressed in words that are too new to be in the sentiment dictionary. This article proposes a method based on orthographic pleonasm to identify emotion-related neologisms in the social web: finding words with the most different letter repetition spelling variations. For this method, non-dictionary words are extracted from a large social web corpus, spelling standardisation is applied, and then words are ranked in decreasing order of spelling variation frequency. Words with the most spelling variations are then KWIC-analysed for semantic context. Applied to a collection of comments on YouTube influencers, this method found neologisms like slay and early as positive terms, mixed with traditional sentiment words, exclamations, and nouns. Although orthographic pleonasm was originally used to express the speaker’s rhythm and one of voice, it is also used for initialisms in a way that is difficult to vocalise. The method is therefore a practical method to identify new sentiment slang, including both normal words and initialisms.
    • Modulation of Protein phosphatase 1 complexes: a promising approach in cancer treatment

      Matos, Barbara; Howl, John; Jeronimo, Carmen; Fardilha, Margarida (Elsevier, 2021-12-31)
      Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Despite the numerous therapeutic options available, tumor heterogeneity and chemoresistance have limited their success and the development of an effective anticancer therapy remains a major challenge in oncology research. The serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and its complexes have been recognized as potential drug targets. Although research on the modulation of PP1 complexes is currently at an early stage, there is an immense potential. Chemically diverse compounds have been developed to disrupt or stabilize different PP1 complexes in various cancer types with the objective to inhibit disease progression. Beneficial results obtained in vitro now require further pre-clinical and clinical validation. In conclusion, the modulation of PP1 complexes seems to be a promising, albeit challenging, therapeutic strategy for cancer.
    • Business model innovation (BMI) in small enterprises from developing countries during COVID-19 outbreak: Exploring drivers and BMI outcomes

      Martinez, Gabriel; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini (Inderscience Enterprises Ltd., 2021-12-31)
      The purpose of this paper is to provide understanding of driving forces for Business Model Innovation (BMI) during the pandemic for small businesses in developing countries, comparing them with identified BMI drivers before the outbreak and evaluating their response to the current crisis. A qualitative multiple case study is conducted as it allows the study of BMI within real life and contemporary context. Case study organisations that adopt innovative business models participated from technology, education, and social enterprises. Findings shows that small organisations are influenced by internal and external factors towards BMI during the pandemic. Case organisations showed resilience to the crisis by adjusting accordingly to allow uninterrupted operation during lockdown; developing new products, services and processes that would ensure sustained demand during COVID-19 pandemic. The study explores theoretical implications of the findings. Also, lessons from this research could be useful for practitioners from developed and developing countries. Policymakers from developing countries could benefit from focusing their activities on promoting firms to find novel ways of operating during times of pandemic preventing further economic damage and unemployment.
    • Supplemental and settlement agreements in the performance of construction contracts and their implications for subsequent adjudications

      Ndekugri, Issaka (Sweet and Maxwell, 2021-12-31)
      Parties to construction contracts constantly negotiate a myriad of matters concerning their existing contracts. Examples include: variation of an existing contract; additional works as a separate contract; call off contracts under framework agreements; settlement of existing claims; and amicable settlement of disputes. Such negotiation options may lead to a scenario of multiple contracts between the parties under which disputes may arise. This paper critically examines the issues associated with adjudication in such a multi contract scenario and how they have been decided by the court. It is hoped that, by providing in one place understanding of the range of solutions in the most commonly encountered factual contexts, it will be a useful reference for parties to construction contracts, their advisers and adjudicators.
    • Time-dependent thixotropic behaviours of lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder pastes and flux mediums used in electronic assemblies

      Mallik, S; Ekere, Nduka; Depiver, Joshua (David Publishing, 2021-12-31)
      Solder pastes are widely used as crucial joining material in microelectronic assemblies. This study investigates time-depended behaviours of paste materials (solder pastes and flux mediums) in relation to their transportation, storage, handling and applications. Two fluxes and four commercially available lead-free solder pastes prepared from those fluxes were evaluated. Two rheological test methods – ‘hysteresis loop test’ and ‘step shear test’ were adapted, taking account of actual shear profile of solder pastes and flux mediums. Within hysteresis loop tests, samples were sheared for both single and multiple cycles, with increasing and decreasing shear rates. These tests provided a quick and straightforward way of benchmarking time-depended structural breakdown and build-up of paste materials. The test results also provided an effective means of predicting how the pastes will behave during their use, such as at various stages of the stencil printing process. Step shear tests were performed by applying a sequence of stepwise increase in shear rates. The step-wise increase in shear rate has influenced the timedependent behaviours of solder paste samples and flux mediums. The result from the stepshear-test implies that the build-up of solder paste structure depends mainly on both the previous shear history and the intensity of structural break-down.
    • Fuzzy-logic approach for traffic light control based on IoT technology

      Hewei, Guan; Sadiq, Ali Safaa; Tahir, Mohammed Adam (Springer, 2021-12-31)
      Traffic congestion is an extremely common phenomenal issue, it occurs in many cities around the world, especially in those cities with high car ownership. Traffic congestion not only causes air pollution and fuel wastage, but it also leads to an increased commuting time and reduces the work time availability. Due to these reasons, traffic congestion needs to be controlled and reduced. The traffic light is the most widely adopted method to control traffic, however, most traffic lights in use are designed based on the predefined interval, which cannot cope with traffic volume change very well. Therefore, Internet of Things (IoT) based traffic lights or adaptive traffic lights are developed in the recent years as a complement of the traditional traffic lights. The adaptive traffic light can be built based on monitoring current traffic situation or using Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure communication. In this paper, a new design of adaptive traffic light is proposed, this traffic light system is based on fuzzy logic and it introduces volunteer IoT agent mechanism, which introduces more accurate results.
    • Financing renewable energy projects in the Dominican Republic: An empirical study

      Donastorg, Angelines; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini (Emerald, 2021-12-31)
      Purpose Currently, Renewable Energy (RE) sources represent a crucial pillar in obtaining sustainable development, one of the global goals for all countries. However, this presents a unique challenge for emerging and developing countries. Since, the technical and financial issues remain a significant barrier in implementing RE projects several mechanisms are available to aid the financial aspect of investing and implementing clean energy projects. This paper discusses new and traditional trends in the financial area of renewable investment, focusing on the Dominican Republic (DR), identifying the gaps in the financial area regarding RE. Design/methodology/approach An empirical study was conducted in the Dominican Republic. This country is located at the heart of the Caribbean. Given the complexity of RE and developing countries issues and the scarcity of comparable research in the area, an interpretivist research paradigm along with the qualitative methodology was adopted. Primary data was collected through semi-structured interviews. The study sample includes: Directors, Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) and Managers responsible for the implementation of RE strategies in their respective departments/organisations. NVivo software was used for data management and the collected data was analysed using content analysis. Findings The research highlighted several severe financial handicaps regarding RE in the DR: The lack of RE assets recognition; Lack of RE investment loans; Perceived RE risk; and Lack of financial guarantor. After extensive interviews with critical actors in the RE sector in the DR, the possible solutions and recommendations for avoiding locking the energy and economic sector in fossil fuel debt, are: (a) diversification of RE technology assets recognition (b) implementation of government RE fund (c) RE education on all actors (d) introduction and adoption of new financial trends such as: green bonds, bank pooling, cooperatives and more. Originality/value This paper provides information and knowledge related to financial tools and policies that are available for the RE projects in the DR. The results have a socio-economic impact. This research provides a better understanding of the key financial tools to be explored by RE project developers in the developing countries. This study shows the gaps that exist between the knowledge that the stakeholders should possess and the actual knowledge that exists in the country regarding the financial aspect of an RE project.
    • Assessing off-site readiness in construction organisations cases from India

      Rana, Muhammad; Arif, Mohammed; Kaushik, Amit; Bendi, Deepthi; Sawhney, Anil (Emerald, 2021-12-31)
      Purpose This paper intends to present factors affecting the Indian construction organisations in adopting Off-Site Construction (OSC) methods. Design/Methodology/Approach An existing readiness maturity model has been used to assess three large organisations in different parts of India. A case study methodology has been adopted in this paper to highlight critical issues in OSC adoption in India. Findings This paper presents three case studies and concludes the Indian construction sectors readiness to adopt the OSC methods. Through the case studies, different issues related to the adoption of OSC have been identified and highlighted for the Indian construction sector. Although the three companies are large, there are several Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ (SME) operating in India's construction sector, and future research shall be needed to review these SMEs. Originality/Value Through the three case studies, several factors related to the implementation of OSC methods have been identified and highlighted within the Indian construction sector. Although the model has been applied to the Indian construction sector, it can easily be modified to fit into other areas and similar dynamics and business conditions. Practical Implications The proposed OSC readiness maturity model guides construction practitioners in India through a structured process to assess their OSC readiness in the market. This assessment enables them to evaluate and benchmark their processes through the strategic and operational phases. This research will add to the existing knowledge of OSC in India by mapping issues relevant to India's construction industry. The research has provided background on the status of OSC, the drivers and barriers affecting the implementation of Off-site Construction techniques in the Indian construction industry. Limitations: This research study is broadly focused on developing and assessing an off-site construction readiness framework for Indian construction organisations. The research scope and the population for data collection are limited to Large construction organisations in India only.
    • A multi-user collaborative BIM-AR system to support design and construction

      Garbett, James; Hartley, Thomas; Heesom, David (Elsevier, 2021-11-29)
      Augmented Reality (AR) is fast becoming an established tool for the construction industry. Previous research reports on the conversion of BIM geometric models and the implementation of these with marker-based AR, or the use of more wide area AR taking positional input from GPS. Much of this focused on the use of AR in an individual context, so there is need to align AR with the more collaborative nature of BIM. By implementing marker-based AR, and connecting to a cloud-based database, the presented BIM-AR system provides the ability to view, interact and collaborate with 3D and 2D BIM data via AR with geographically dispersed teams. An Agile Scrum Method was used to develop the prototype system including a mobile AR application and a Large Touch Screen application based on and a Model, View, Controller (MVC) approach. Finally, the system was tested and verified using a focus group of construction practitioners.
    • An altmetric attention advantage for open access books in the humanities and social sciences

      Taylor, Michael (Springer, 2021-10-10)
      The last decade has seen two significant phenomena emerge in research communication: the rise of open access (OA) publishing, and evidence of online sharing in the form of altmetrics. There has been limited examination of the effect of OA on online sharing for journal articles, and little for books. This paper examines the altmetrics of a set of 32,222 books (of which 5% are OA) and a set of 220,527 chapters (of which 7% are OA) indexed by the scholarly database Dimensions in the Social Sciences and Humanities. Both OA books and chapters have significantly higher use on social networks, higher coverage in the mass media and blogs, and evidence of higher rates of social impact in policy documents. OA chapters have higher rates of coverage on Wikipedia than their non-OA equivalents, and are more likely to be shared on Mendeley. Even within the Humanities and Social Sciences, disciplinary differences in altmetric activity are evident. The effect is confirmed for chapters, although sampling issues prevent the strong conclusion that OA facilitates extra attention at whole book level, the apparent OA altmetrics advantage suggests that the move towards OA is increasing social sharing and broader impact.
    • New working practices: a scientometric review

      Oladinrin, Olugbenga; Jayantha, Wadu; Moses, Tochukwu (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2021-06-30)
      Study on New Working Practices (NWPs), which is the subject of this review paper, has created a large body of literature. Studies in this research area are progressing quickly and it is important to stay abreast of new trends and essential factors in the growth of mutual awareness. This study aims at evaluating the global scientific output of New Working Practices (NWPs) research and exploring their hotspots and frontiers from 1980 to 2018 (pre-COVID-19), using bibliometric methods. 850 relevant articles were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) and were used for the analysis. Scientometric method and Citespace VI were used to analyse the bibliometric data. Reference citation and co-citation networks were plotted, while keywords were used to analyse the research hotspots and trends. There is a significant increase in the number of annual publications with time. The United Kingdom (UK) ranked highest in the countries with most publications, and the leading author is Friedhelm Nachreiner based on publication counts. The most cited author/organization is the UK Department of Health. Performance, work, and flexible working are the research hotspots, while flexible working arrangement represents the prominent research domain. The study offers valuable references for researchers, industry practitioners and policymakers.
    • Review insights of nanotheranostics for molecular mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders and commensurate nanotherapeutics for neuropsychiatry: the mind-knockout

      Kumar, Rajiv; Chhikara, Bhupender S; Gulia, Kiran; Chhilar, Mitrabasu (Ivyspring International Publisher, 2021-05-31)
      Bio-neuronal led psychiatric abnormalities transpired by the loss of neuronal structure and function (neurodegeneration), pro-inflammatory cytokines, microglial dysfunction, altered neurotransmission, toxicants, serotonin deficiency, kynurenine pathway, and excessively produced neurotoxic substances. These uncontrolled happenings in the etiology of psychiatric disorders initiate further changes in neurotransmitter metabolism, pathologic microglial, cell activation, and impaired neuroplasticity. Inflammatory cytokines, the outcome of dysfunctional mitochondria, dysregulation of the immune system, and under stress functions of the brain are leading biochemical factors for depression and anxiety. Nanoscale drug delivery platforms, inexpensive diagnostics using nanomaterials, nano-scale imaging technologies, and ligandconjugated nanocrystals used for elucidating the molecular mechanisms and foremost cellular communications liable for such disorders are highly capable features to study for efficient diagnosis and therapy of the mental illness. These theranostic tools made up of multifunctional nanomaterials have the potential for effective and accurate diagnosis, imaging of psychiatric disorders, and are at the forefront of leading technologies in nanotheranostics openings field as they can collectively and efficiently target the stimulated territories of the cerebellum (cells and tissues) through molecular-scale interactions with higher bioavailability, and bio-accessibility. Specifically, the nanoplatforms based neurological changes are playing a significant role in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and portraying the routes of functional restoration of mental disorders by newer imaging tools at nano-level in all directions. Because of these nanotherapeutic platforms, the molecules of nanomedicine can penetrate the Blood-Brain Barrier with an increased half-life of drug molecules. The discoveries in nanotheranostics and nanotherapeutics inbuilt unique multi-functionalities are providing the best multiplicities of novel nanotherapeutic potentialities with no toxicity concerns at the level of nano range
    • Letter: risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes associated with inflammatory bowel disease medications - reassuring insights from the United Kingdom PREPARE-IBD multi centre cohort study

      Lamb, CA; Sebastian, S; Kent, AJ; Segal, JP; Gonzalez, HA; Brookes, MJ; Mehta, SJ; Subramanian, S; Bhala, N; Hicks, LC; et al. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-05-07)
    • Analysis of laboratory blood parameter results for patients diagnosed with COVID‐19, from all ethnic group populations: A single centre study

      Marwah, Mandeep; Marwah, Sukhjinder; Blann, Andrew; Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick; Wandroo, Farooq A (Wiley, 2021-05-03)
      Introduction Although factors such as age, sex, diabetes, obesity and changes in certain laboratory investigations are important prognostic factors in COVID‐19 infection, these may not apply to all ethnic/racial groups. We hypothesized differences in routine biochemistry and haematology indices in Caucasian and a combined group of Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) patients who tested positive for COVID‐19 who died, compared to survivors. Methods We tested our hypothesis in 445 patients (229 Caucasian, 216 BAME) admitted to secondary care with proven COVID‐19 infection, in whom standard routine laboratory indices were collected on admission. Results After 28 weeks, 190 (42.7%) had died within 28 days of COVID diagnosis (97 Caucasians [42.4%], 93 BAMEs [43.1%], P = .923). A general linear model analysis found the ethnicity interaction with mortality to be significant for fibrinogen, ferritin and HbA1c (after controlling for age). In a multivariate analysis, a neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio > 7.4 and a urea/albumin ratio > 0.28 increased the odds of death for both the Caucasian and the BAME group. Additional factors increasing the odds ratio in the BAME group included age >60 years and being diabetic. Conclusion Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and urea/albumin ratio are simple metrics that predict death to aid clinicians in determining the prognosis of COVID‐19 and help provide early intensive intervention to reduce mortality. In the BAME groups, intensive monitoring even at younger age and those with diabetes may also help reduce COVID‐19 associated mortality.