• What makes a book tweet popular? Analysis of the most retweeted content posted by Spanish and non-Spanish book publishers

      Mas-Bleda, Amalia; Makita, Meiko; Mrva-Montoya, Agata; Thelwall, Mike (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 2022-12-31)
      The aim of this article is to identify content-related features of the most retweeted messages posted by Spanish and non-Spanish book publishers on Twitter. A content analysis has been conducted to identify the topic of the tweets and whether they include book title hashtags, images and hyperlinks, and if so, what the images are about and where the links point to. As a complement, a word association analysis has been carried out to determine which terms are associated with each of the different publishers. Overall, publishers tend to tweet about themselves and their books for marketing purposes. About half of the publishers have Twitter accounts. Spanish publishers’ tweets often contain literary quotes, while the top tweets by non-Spanish publishers are more likely to contain free prize draws. Publishers seeking to engage with potential readers on Twitter could consider quotes and giveaways to build their audience, in addition to tagging author @usernames in book related posts to help reach the author’s network.
    • Time-dependent thixotropic behaviours of lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder pastes and flux mediums used in electronic assemblies

      Mallik, S; Ekere, Nduka; Depiver, Joshua (David Publishing, 2022-12-31)
      Solder pastes are widely used as crucial joining material in microelectronic assemblies. This study investigates time-depended behaviours of paste materials (solder pastes and flux mediums) in relation to their transportation, storage, handling and applications. Two fluxes and four commercially available lead-free solder pastes prepared from those fluxes were evaluated. Two rheological test methods – ‘hysteresis loop test’ and ‘step shear test’ were adapted, taking account of actual shear profile of solder pastes and flux mediums. Within hysteresis loop tests, samples were sheared for both single and multiple cycles, with increasing and decreasing shear rates. These tests provided a quick and straightforward way of benchmarking time-depended structural breakdown and build-up of paste materials. The test results also provided an effective means of predicting how the pastes will behave during their use, such as at various stages of the stencil printing process. Step shear tests were performed by applying a sequence of stepwise increase in shear rates. The step-wise increase in shear rate has influenced the timedependent behaviours of solder paste samples and flux mediums. The result from the stepshear-test implies that the build-up of solder paste structure depends mainly on both the previous shear history and the intensity of structural break-down.
    • Improved attentive pairwise interaction (API-Net) for fine-grained image classification

      Yet, Ong Zu; Rassem, Taha H; Rahman, Md Arafatur; Rahman, MM (IEEE, 2022-12-31)
      Fine-grained classification is a challenging problem as one has to deal with a similar class of objects but with various types of variations. For more elaboration, they are almost similar and have subtle differences, and are confusing. In this study, aircraft will be the fine-grained object to be focused on. Aircraft which has almost similar shapes and patterns can be hardly recognized even for humans, especially those who haven not gone through any training. In recent years, a lot of proposed methods addressed to solve the difficulties in fine-grained problems by learning contrastive clues from an image. This study aims to increase the accuracy of the Attentive Pairwise Interaction Network (API-Net) by introducing data augmentation into the network structure. Some of the previous studies proved that data augmentation does help improve a network. So, this study is going to modify the API-Net with different data augmentation settings. In this study, various settings have been introduced to the API-Net. Several experiments had been done with a simple modification where a portion of the train dataset’s images will randomly convert into greyscale images. These settings are, only brightness & contrast 0.2, only grayscale 0.3, only grayscale 0.5, b rightness & contrast 0.2 with grayscale 0.3, and brightness & contrast 0.2 with grayscale 0.5. As a result, the proposed modification achieved with 92.74% with brightness & contrast 0.2, 92.80% on brightness & contrast 0.2 with grayscale 0.5, and 92.86% on brightness & contrast 0.2 with grayscale 0.3. While grayscale 0.3 alone achieve 93.25% and grayscale 0.5 alone achieve 93.46% compared with the original results which reached 92.77%.
    • APIVADS: A novel privacy-preserving pivot attack detection scheme based on statistical pattern recognition

      Marques, Rafael Salema; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Maple, Carsten (IEEE, 2022-12-31)
      Advanced cyber attackers often “pivot” through several devices in such complex infrastructure to obfuscate their footprints and overcome connectivity restrictions. However, prior pivot attack detection strategies present concerning limitations. This paper addresses an improvement of cyber defence with APIVADS, a novel adaptive pivoting detection scheme based on traffic flows to determine cyber adversaries’ presence based on their pivoting behaviour in simple and complex interconnected networks. Additionally, APIVADS is agnostic regarding transport and application protocols. The scheme is optimized and tested to cover remotely connected locations beyond a corporate campus’s perimeters. The scheme considers a hybrid approach between decentralized host-based detection of pivot attacks and a centralized approach to aggregate the results to achieve scalability. Empirical results from our experiments show the proposed scheme is efficient and feasible. For example, a 98.54% detection accuracy near real-time is achievable by APIVADS differentiating ongoing pivot attacks from regular enterprise traffic as TLS, HTTPS, DNS and P2P over the internet.
    • Immune response to COVID-19 vaccination is attenuated by poor disease control and antimyeloma therapy with vaccine driven divergent T cell response

      Ramasamy, Karthik; Sadler, Ross; Jeans, Sally; Weeden, Paul; Varghese, Sherin; Turner, Alison; Larham, Jemma; Gray, Nathanael; Carty, Oluremi; Barrett, Joe; et al. (Wiley, 2022-12-31)
      Myeloma patients frequently respond poorly to bacterial and viral vaccination. A few studies have reported poor humoral immune responses in myeloma patients to COVID-19 vaccination. Using a prospective study of myeloma patients in UK Rudy Study cohort, we assessed humoral and Interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) cellular immune responses to COVID-19 vaccination post second COVID-19 vaccine administration. We report data from 214 adults with myeloma (n=204) or smouldering myeloma (n=10) who provided blood samples at least 3 weeks after second vaccine dose. Positive Anti-Spike antibody levels (> 50 IU/ml) were detected in 189/203 (92.7%), positive IGRA responses were seen in 97/158 (61.4%) myeloma patients. Only 10/158 (6.3%) patients were identified to have both a negative IGRA and negative Anti-Spike protein antibody response. 95/158 (60.1%) patients produced positive results for both anti-Spike protein serology and IGRA. After adjusting for disease severity and myeloma therapy, poor humoral immune response was predicted by male gender. Predictors of poor IGRA included anti-CD38/ anti-BCMA therapy and Pfizer-BioNTech (PB) vaccination. Further work is required to understand the clinical significance of divergent cellular response to vaccination.
    • Challenges negating virtual construction project team performance in the Middle East

      Sagar, Sukhwant Kaur; Arif, Mohammed; Oladinrin, Olugbenga Timo; Rana, Muhammad Qasim (Emerald, 2022-12-31)
      Purpose Over the last couple of decades, many organisations are increasingly adopting virtual team concepts, and construction companies in the Middle East are no exception. Members of a virtual team are geographically scattered and represent diverse cultures. Thus, challenging issues emerge more frequently than in a traditional team. There are challenges associated with space and time as well as high client’s demand. Therefore, this study aims to identify and probe the causes of the challenges in virtual project teams in the construction industry of the Middle East. Design/methodology/approach A list of challenges was derived through a comprehensive review of relevant literature. Questionnaire survey was conducted with professionals who are involved in construction virtual project teams. Further, the factor analysis technique was used to analyse the survey responses. Findings Results show that the challenges in virtual team arrangement in the Middle East construction industry can be grouped into seven categories, namely: organisational culture, conflict within the team, characteristics of the team members, trust within the team members diversity of the team, communication and training, and cohesion in the team. Understanding of these factors will drive the needed platform to support effective virtual project teams in the Middle East. Originality/value This study raises the prospect that organisations may establish an environment for team members to achieve higher levels of virtual cooperation by concentrating on these potentially crucial factors. This, in turn, will encourage further innovation and performance within construction organisations.
    • Super-learner ensemble for anomaly detection and cyber-risk quantification in industrial control systems

      Ahmadi-Assalemi, Gabriela; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Aggoun, Ammar (IEEE, 2022-12-31)
      Industrial Control Systems (ICS) are integral parts of smart cities and critical to modern societies. Despite indisputable opportunities introduced by disruptor technologies, they proliferate the cybersecurity threat landscape, which is increasingly more hostile. The quantum of sensors utilised by ICS aided by Artificial Intelligence (AI) enables data collection capabilities to facilitate automation, process streamlining and cost reduction. However, apart from operational use, the sensors generated data combined with AI can be innovatively utilised to model anomalous behaviour as part of layered security to increase resilience to cyber-attacks. We introduce a framework to profile anomalous behaviour in ICS and derive a cyber-risk score. A novel super learner ensemble for one-class classification is developed, using overlapping rolling windows with stratified, k-fold, n-repeat cross-validation applied to each base-learner followed by majority voting to derive the best learner. Our approach is demonstrated on a liquid distribution sensor dataset. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique achieves an overall F1-score of 99.13%, an anomalous recall score of 99% detecting anomalies lasting only 17 seconds. The key strength of the framework is the low computational complexity and error rate. The framework is modular, generic, applicable to other ICS and transferable to other smart city sectors.
    • Detecting shifts in metropolitan structure: a spatial network perspective

      Odell, Harry; Navarro Lopez, Eva; Pinto, Nuno; Deas, Iain (SAGE, 2022-06-30)
      The spatial distribution of metropolitan areas creates a complex system of competing and cooperating economic units. Understanding the size, scale and functional structure of such systems is an important topic in regional science. This paper uses commuter flow data over a forty year period to analyse the changing structure of the Greater Manchester metropolitan area. We apply a combination of complex network analysis, residual network analysis and spatial network visualisation to detect Greater Manchester’s polycentric structure and identify intra-regional communities. This method is able to identify economic geographies in a highly complex and interdependent commuter network. We comment on the role of administrative boundaries in shaping metropolitan regions and discuss the potential of our work to inform debates on regional governance geographies and local government planning practices.
    • Small female citation advantages for US journal articles in medicine

      Thelwall, Michael; Maflahi, Nabeil (SAGE, 2022-06-30)
      Female underrepresentation continues in senior roles within academic medicine, potentially influenced by a perception that female research has less citation impact. This article provides systematic evidence of (a) female participation rates from the perspective of published journal articles in 46 Scopus medical subject categories 1996-2018 and (b) gender differences in citation rates 1996-2014. The results show female proportion increases 1996-2018 in all fields and a female majority of first authored articles in two fifths of categories, but substantial differences between fields: A paper is 7.3 times more likely to have a female first author in Obstetrics and Gynecology than in Orthopedics and Sports Medicine. Only three fields had a female last author majority by 2018, a probable side effect of ongoing problems with appointing female leaders. Female first-authored research tended to be more cited than male first-authored research in most fields (59%), although with a maximum difference of only 5.1% (log-transformed normalised citations). In contrast, male last-authored research tends to be more cited than female last-authored research, perhaps due to cases where a senior male has attracted substantial funding for a project. These differences increase if team sizes are not accounted for in the calculations. Since female first-authored research is cited slightly more than male first-authored research, properly analysed bibliometric data considering career gaps should not disadvantage female candidates for senior roles.
    • Genome-wide methylation analyses identifies Non-coding RNA genes dysregulated in breast tumours that metastasise to the brain

      Pangeni, Rajendra; Olivaries, Ivonne; Huen, David; Buzatto, Vannessa C; Dawson, Timothy P; Ashton, Katherine M; Davis, Charles; Brodbelt, Andrew R; Jenkinson, Michael D; Bièche, Ivan; et al. (Springer Nature, 2022-01-20)
      Brain metastases comprise 40% of all metastatic tumours and breast tumours are among the tumours that most commonly metastasise to the brain, the role that epigenetic gene dysregulation plays in this process is not well understood. We carried out 450K methylation array analysis to investigate epigenetically dysregulated genes in breast to brain metastases (BBM) compared to normal breast tissues (BN) and primary breast tumours (BP). For this, we referenced 450K methylation data for BBM tumours prepared in our laboratory with BN and BP from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Experimental validation on our initially identified genes, in an independent cohort of BP and in BBM and their originating primary breast tumours using Combined Bisulphite and Restriction Analysis (CoBRA) and Methylation Specific PCR identified three genes (RP11- 713P17.4, MIR124-2, NUS1P3) that are hypermethylated and three genes (MIR3193, CTD-2023M8.1 and MTND6P4) that are hypomethylated in breast to brain metastases. In addition, methylation differences in candidate genes between BBM tumours and originating primary tumours shows dysregulation of DNA methylation occurs either at an early stage of tumour evolution (in the primary tumour) or at a later evolutionary stage (where the epigenetic change is only observed in the brain metastasis). Epigentic changes identified could also be found when analysing tumour free circulating DNA (tfcDNA) in patient’s serum taken during BBM biopsies. Epigenetic dysregulation of RP11-713P17.4, MIR3193, MTND6P4 are early events suggesting a potential use for these genes as prognostic markers.
    • Evaluation of challenges for sustainable transformation of Qatar oil and gas industry: A graph theoretic and matrix approach

      Sarrakh, Redouane; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini (Elsevier, 2022-01-18)
      Despite Qatar’s National Vision 2030 implementation, several organisations within the oil and gas sector still have difficulties in embedding sustainability agenda in their systems and processes. There is, also, a paucity of empirical research on the key challenges Qatar oil and gas organisations face in embedding sustainable strategies to improve competitiveness – which is the core raison d’être of this paper. A qualitative approach was adopted to collect and analyze data based on 24 interviewees from eight organizations. Six key challenges hindering the implementation of sustainability strategies. They are: stakeholders’ issues, volatility of price, resistance to change, knowledge and awareness, initial cost and strategic issues. Furthermore, the graph theoretic and matrix approach was applied to evaluate the challenges inhibiting the implementation of sustainability strategies within the Qatar oil and gas industry. The results show that strategic issues represent a greatest challenge when compared to other challenges.
    • Interpretive structural model of trust factors in construction virtual project teams

      Sagar, Sukhwant Kaur; Oladinrin, Olugbenga Timo; Arif, Mohammed; Rana, Muhammad Qasim (Emerald, 2022-01-17)
      Purpose Organisational dependence on virtual project teams (VPTs) is growing dramatically due to the substantial benefits they offer, such as efficiently achieving objectives and improving organisational performance. One of the major issues that influence the effectiveness of VPTs is trust building. The study aims to determine the key factors of trust in VPTs and design a model by identifying the interrelationships among the trust factors. Design/methodology/approach Focus group discussion was employed to gather data on factors affecting trust in VPTs and their interrelationships. Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) was used to establish the relationship among the factors. MICMAC analysis was conducted to identify the driving power and the dependence power towards effective VPTs in the construction sector. Findings The finding revealed that ‘characteristics of team members’ (such as ability, integrity, benevolence, competence, reliability and professionalism) is the most significant factor for building trust in virtual team members. Some factors were further identified as having high driving power, while others were defined as having high dependence variables. Practical implications The findings will assist construction managers and practitioners dealing with VPTs identify the factors influencing trust among team members. Taking cognisance of the factors that influence 34 trust will enable them to design more effective virtual team arrangements. Originality/value As the first research of its kind using ISM technique, the study offers insights into interrelationships between trust factors in the construction VPTs. It provides guides for construction managers on the effective management of trustworthy VPTs.
    • Exploring the efficacy and safety of cannabis in the management of fibromyalgia

      Sagdeo, Amol; Askari, Ayman; Ball, Patrick; Morrissey, Hana (Innovare Academic Sciences, 2022-01-15)
      Fibromyalgia is a chronic health condition characterized by chronic pain fatigue, sleep disturbances and many other symptoms affecting a patient’s quality of life. Patients with fibromyalgia often visit rheumatology outpatients with a long list of symptoms and often receive multiple medications. Many have seen multiple specialists and have done a lot of reading about alternative modalities of treatment. The limited effectiveness of conventional therapy coupled with widespread media attention raises the question of cannabis use. This review examines the literature on cannabinoid use in fibromyalgia against the context of the international variation in legal frameworks, the available products and the outcomes reported. A detailed review was performed using the EMBASE and PUBMED databases. It was concluded that despite the interest in the use of cannabinoids in the management of fibromyalgia, there is insufficient evidence to prescribe the currently available licensed medicines or to recommend the complementary health products available for legal purchase. There is a need for more global clinical randomised trials to accurately determine medicinal cannabis short and long-term long efficacy and safety for its acute and chronic use.
    • UK Joint Advisory Group consensus statements for training and certification in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

      Steed, Helen; Siau, Keith; Keane, Geri; Caddy, Grant; Church, Nick; Martin, Harry; McCrudden, Raymond; Neville, Peter; Oppong, Kofi; Rasheed, Ashraf; et al. (Thieme Open, 2022-01-14)
      Introduction: Despite the high-risk nature of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), a robust and standardised credentialing process to ensure competency before independent practice is lacking worldwide. On behalf of the Joint Advisory Group (JAG), we aimed to develop evidence-based recommendations to form the framework of ERCP training and certification in the UK. Methods: Under the oversight of the JAG, a modified Delphi process was conducted with stakeholder representation from the British Society of Gastroenterology, Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons, trainees and trainers. Recommendations on ERCP training and certification were formulated after formal literature review and appraised using the GRADE tool. These were subjected to electronic voting to achieve consensus. Accepted statements were peer-reviewed by JAG and relevant Specialist Advisory Committees before incorporation into the ERCP certification pathway. Results: In total, 27 recommendation statements were generated for the following domains: definition of competence (9 statements), acquisition of competence (8 statements), assessment of competence (6 statements) and post-certification support (4 statements). The consensus process led to the following criteria for ERCP certification: 1) performing ≥300 hands-on procedures; 2) attending a JAG-accredited ERCP skills course; 3) in modified Schutz 1-2 procedures: achieving native papilla cannulation rate ≥80%, complete bile duct clearance ≥70%, successful stenting of distal biliary strictures ≥75%, physically unassisted in ≥80% of cases; 4) 30-day post-ERCP pancreatitis rates ≤5%; 5) satisfactory performance in formative and summative direct observation of procedural skills (DOPS) assessments. Conclusion: JAG certification in ERCP has been developed following evidence-based consensus to quality assure training and to ultimately improve future standards of ERCP practice.
    • Fuzzy-logic approach for traffic light control based on IoT technology

      Hewei, Guan; Sadiq, Ali Safaa; Tahir, Mohammed Adam (Springer, 2022-01-12)
      Traffic congestion is an extremely common phenomenal issue, it occurs in many cities around the world, especially in those cities with high car ownership. Traffic congestion not only causes air pollution and fuel wastage, but it also leads to an increased commuting time and reduces the work time availability. Due to these reasons, traffic congestion needs to be controlled and reduced. The traffic light is the most widely adopted method to control traffic, however, most traffic lights in use are designed based on the predefined interval, which cannot cope with traffic volume change very well. Therefore, Internet of Things (IoT) based traffic lights or adaptive traffic lights are developed in the recent years as a complement of the traditional traffic lights. The adaptive traffic light can be built based on monitoring current traffic situation or using Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure communication. In this paper, a new design of adaptive traffic light is proposed, this traffic light system is based on fuzzy logic and it introduces volunteer IoT agent mechanism, which introduces more accurate results.
    • Covid-19 refereeing duration and impact in major medical journals

      Kousha, Kayvan; Thelwall, Mike (MIT Press, 2022-01-12)
      Two partly conflicting academic pressures from the seriousness of the Covid-19 pandemic are the need for faster peer review of Covid-19 health-related research and greater scrutiny of its findings. This paper investigates whether decreases in peer review durations for Covid-19 articles were universal across 97 major medical journals, Nature, Science, and Cell. The results suggest that on average, Covid-19 articles submitted during 2020 were reviewed 1.7-2.1 times faster than non-Covid-19 articles submitted during 2017-2020. Nevertheless, whilst the review speed of Covid-19 research was particularly fast during the first five months (1.9-3.4 times faster) of the pandemic (January-May 2020), this speed advantage was no longer evident for articles submitted November-December 2020. Faster peer review also associates with higher citation impact for Covid-19 articles in the same journals, suggesting it did not usually compromise the scholarly impact of important Covid-19 research. Overall, then, it seems that core medical and general journals responded quickly but carefully to the pandemic, although the situation returned closer to normal within a year.
    • Scopus 1900-2020: Growth in articles, abstracts, countries, fields, and journals

      Thelwall, Michael; Sud, Pardeep (MIT Press, 2022-01-12)
      Scientometric research often relies on large-scale bibliometric databases of academic journal articles. Long term and longitudinal research can be affected if the composition of a database varies over time, and text processing research can be affected if the percentage of articles with abstracts changes. This article therefore assesses changes in the magnitude of the coverage of a major citation index, Scopus, over 121 years from 1900. The results show sustained exponential growth from 1900, except for dips during both world wars, and with increased growth after 2004. Over the same period, the percentage of articles with 500+ character abstracts increased from 1% to 95%. The number of different journals in Scopus also increased exponentially, but slowing down from 2010, with the number of articles per journal being approximately constant until 1980, then tripling due to megajournals and online-only publishing. The breadth of Scopus, in terms of the number of narrow fields with substantial numbers of articles, simultaneously increased from one field having 1000 articles in 1945 to 308 in 2020. Scopus’s international character also radically changed from 68% of first authors from Germany and the USA in 1900 to just 17% in 2020, with China dominating (25%).
    • An evaluation of critical knowledge areas for managing the COVID-19 pandemic

      Abdalla, Wala; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini (Emerald, 2022-01-10)
      Purpose The ability to manage the COVID-19 pandemic is contingent upon the ability to effectively manage its heterogeneous knowledge resources. Knowledge mapping represents a great opportunity to create value by bringing stakeholders together, facilitating comprehensive collaboration and facilitating broader in-depth knowledge sharing and transfer. However, identifying and analysing critical knowledge areas is one of the most important steps when creating a knowledge map. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to appraise the critical knowledge areas for managing COVID-19, and thereby enhance decision-making in tackling the consequences of the pandemic. Design/methodology/approach The methodological approach for this study is a critical literature review, covering publications on knowledge management, knowledge mapping and COVID-19. EBSCOhost, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, TRID, Web of Science and Wiley Online Library were searched for full text, peer-reviewed articles written in English that investigated on critical knowledge areas for managing the spread of COVID-19. After full screening, 21 articles met the criteria for inclusion and were analysed and reported. Findings The study revealed seven critical knowledge areas for managing the COVID-19 pandemic. These are: cleaning and disinfection; training, education and communication; reporting guidance and updates; testing; infection control measures, personal protective equipment; and potential COVID-19 transmission in health and other care settings. The study developed a concept knowledge map illustrating areas of critical knowledge which decision-makers need to be aware of. Theoretical implications The study advances the literature on knowledge management and builds a theoretical link with the management of public health emergencies. Additionally, the findings support the theoretical position that knowledge maps facilitate decision-making and help users to identify critical knowledge areas easily and effectively. Practical implications Providing decision-makers with access to key knowledge during the COVID-19 pandemic seems to be crucial for effective decision-making. This study has provided insights for the professionals and decision-makers identifying the critical knowledge areas for managing the COVID-19 pandemic. Originality/value This study fills gaps in the existing literature by providing an explicit representation of know-how for managing the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper uses an objective and qualitative approach by reviewing related publications, reports and guidelines in the analysis. The concept map illustrates the critical knowledge areas for managing the COVID-19 pandemic.
    • Which types of online resource support US patent claims?

      Font-Julián, Cristina I.; Ontalba-Ruipérez, José-Antonio; Orduña-Malea, Enrique; Thelwall, Mike (Elsevier, 2022-01-05)
      Patents are key documents to support the commercial exploitation of inventions. Patent documents must claim inventiveness, industrial application, and novelty to be granted and may use citations and URLs to support these claims as well as to explain their ideas. Although there is much research into the citations used to support inventions, almost nothing is known about the cited URLs. This may hinder inventors and evaluators from deciding which URLs are appropriate. To investigate this issue, all 3,133,247 patents granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) from 2008 to 2018 were investigated, and 2,719,705 URLs (patent outlinks) were automatically extracted using heuristics, and analyzed using link analyses techniques. A minority of patents included URLs (17.1%), with the percentage increasing over time. The inclusion of URLs differs between disciplines, with Physics (especially the subcategory Computation) having the most URLs per patent. Patents are generally embedded in the “other citations” patent section (referring to academic publications) and the “description” section (e.g., supplementary information and definitions). Online content-oriented resources (e.g., Wayback Machine, Wikipedia, YouTube), academic bibliographic databases (e.g., IEEE Xplore, Microsoft Academic, PubMed, CiteSeerX) and technological companies (e.g., IBM, Amazon, Microsoft) are often linked from USPTO patents. These findings show the broad roles that URLs can play when supporting a patent claim. Finally, in order to avoid bad practices found in the inclusion of URLs in patents, a list of recommendations to cite online resources from patents is provided.
    • The investigation of thymol formulations containing poloxamer 407 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose to inhibit candida biofilm formation and demonstrate improved bio-compatibility

      Al-Ani, Enas; Heaselgrave, Wayne (MDPI, 2022-01-05)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of thymol to inhibit Candida biofilm formation and improve thymol biocompatibility in the presence of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and poloxamer 407 (P407), as possible drug carriers. Thymol with and without polymers were tested for its ability to inhibit biofilm formation, its effect on the viability of biofilm and biocompatibility studies were performed on HEK 293 (human embryonic kidney) cells. Thymol showed a concentration dependent biofilm inhibition; this effect was slightly improved when it was combined with HPMC. The Thymol-P407 combination completely inhibited the formation of biofilm and the antibiofilm effect of thymol decreased as the maturation of Candida biofilms increased. The effect of thymol on HEK 293 cells was a loss of nearly 100% in their viability at a concentration of 250 mg/L. However, in the presence of P407, the viability was 25% and 85% using neutral red uptake and sulforhodamine B assays, respectively. While, HPMC had less effect on thymol activity the thymol-P407 combination showed a superior inhibitory effect on biofilm formation and better biocompatibility with human cell lines. The combination demonstrates a potential medical use for the prevention of Candida biofilm formation.