• COVID-19 in haematology patients: A multi-centre West Midlands clinical outcomes analysis on behalf of West Midlands Research Consortium

      Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick; Mandal, Anandadeep; Nevill, Alan; Paneesha, Shankara; Basu, Supratik; Karim, Farheen; Imran, Mohammed; Phillips, Neil; Khawaja, Jahanzeb; et al. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-12-31)
    • Sampling and analysis of animal scent signals

      Vaglio, Stefano; Walker, David (MYJoVE Corporation, 2021-12-01)
      We have developed an effective methodology for sampling and analysis of odor signals, by using head-space solid- phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, to understand how they may be used in animal communication. This technique allows the semi-quantitative analysis of the volatile components of odor secretions by enabling the separation and tentative identification of the components in the sample, followed by the analysis of peak area ratios to look for trends that could signify compounds that may be involved in signaling. The key strengths of this current approach are the range of sample types that can be analyzed; the lack of need for any complex sample preparation or extractions; the ability to separate and analyze the components of a mixture; the identification of the components detected; and the capability to provide semi-quantitative and potentially quantitative information on the components detected. The main limitation to the methodology relates to the samples themselves. Since the components of specific interest are volatile, and these could easily be lost, or their concentrations altered, it is important that the samples are stored and transported appropriately after their collection. This also means that sample storage and transport conditions are relatively costly. This method can be applied to a variety of samples (including urine, feces, hair and scent-gland odor secretions). These odors consist of complex mixtures, occurring in a range of matrices, and thus necessitate the use of techniques to separate the individual components and extract the compounds of biological interest.
    • Coronavirus research before 2020 is more relevant than ever, especially when interpreted for COVID-19

      Thelwall, Michael (MIT Press, 2020-12-31)
      The speed with which biomedical specialists were able to identify and characterise COVID-19 was partly due to prior research with other coronaviruses. Early epidemiological comparisons with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), also made it easier to predict COVID-19’s likely spread and lethality. This article assesses whether academic interest in prior coronavirus research has translated into interest in the primary source material, using Mendeley reader counts for early academic impact evidence. The results confirm that SARS and MERS research 2008-2017 experienced anomalously high increases in Mendeley readers in April-May 2020. Nevertheless, studies learning COVID-19 lessons from SARS and MERS or using them as a benchmark for COVID-19 have generated much more academic interest than primary studies of SARS or MERS. Thus, research that interprets prior relevant research for new diseases when they are discovered seems to be particularly important to help researchers to understand its implications in the new context.
    • Review insights of nanotheranostics for molecular mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders and commensurate nanotherapeutics for neuropsychiatry: the mind-knockout

      Kumar, Rajiv; Chhikara, Bhupender S; Chandra, Mina; Gulia, Kiran; Chhilar, Mitrabasu (Ivyspring International Publisher, 2020-12-31)
      Bio-neuronal led psychiatric abnormalities transpired by the loss of neuronal structure and function (neurodegeneration), pro-inflammatory cytokines, microglial dysfunction, altered neurotransmission, toxicants, serotonin deficiency, kynurenine pathway, and excessively produced neurotoxic substances. These uncontrolled happenings in the etiology of psychiatric disorders initiate further changes in neurotransmitter metabolism, pathologic microglial, cell activation, and impaired neuroplasticity. Inflammatory cytokines, the outcome of dysfunctional mitochondria, dysregulation of the immune system, and under stress functions of the brain are leading biochemical factors for depression and anxiety. Nanoscale drug delivery platforms, inexpensive diagnostics using nanomaterials, nano-scale imaging technologies, and ligandconjugated nanocrystals used for elucidating the molecular mechanisms and foremost cellular communications liable for such disorders are highly capable features to study for efficient diagnosis and therapy of the mental illness. These theranostic tools made up of multifunctional nanomaterials have the potential for effective and accurate diagnosis, imaging of psychiatric disorders, and are at the forefront of leading technologies in nanotheranostics openings field as they can collectively and efficiently target the stimulated territories of the cerebellum (cells and tissues) through molecular-scale interactions with higher bioavailability, and bio-accessibility. Specifically, the nanoplatforms based neurological changes are playing a significant role in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and portraying the routes of functional restoration of mental disorders by newer imaging tools at nano-level in all directions. Because of these nanotherapeutic platforms, the molecules of nanomedicine can penetrate the Blood-Brain Barrier with an increased half-life of drug molecules. The discoveries in nanotheranostics and nanotherapeutics inbuilt unique multi-functionalities are providing the best multiplicities of novel nanotherapeutic potentialities with no toxicity concerns at the level of nano range
    • Patients with gastrointestinal irritability after TGN1412-induced cytokine 2 storm displayed selective expansion of gut-homing αβ and γδ T-cells

      McCarthy, Neil; Stagg, Andrew; Price, Claire; Mann, Elizabeth; Gellatly, Nichola; Al-Hassi, Hafid; Knight, Stella; Panoskaltsis, Nicki (Springer Nature, 2020-12-31)
      Following infusion of the anti-CD28 superagonist monoclonal antibody TGN1412, three of six previously healthy, young male recipients developed gastrointestinal irritability associated with increased expression of ‘gut-homing’ integrin β7 on peripheral blood αβT-cells. This subset of patients with intestinal symptoms also displayed a striking and persistent expansion of putative Vδ2+ 7 γδT-cells in the circulation which declined over a two-year period following drug infusion, concordant with subsiding gut symptoms. These data demonstrate that TGN1412-induced gastrointestinal symptoms were associated with dysregulation of the ‘gut-homing’ pool of blood αβ and γδT11 cells, induced directly by the antibody and/or arising from the subsequent cytokine storm.
    • A flow-based multi-agent data exfiltration detection architecture for ultra-low latency networks

      Marques, Rafael Salema; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Maple, Carsten; Hammoudeh, Mohammad; De Castro, Paulo Andre Lima; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond (Association for Computing Machinery, 2020-12-31)
      Modern network infrastructures host converged applications that demand rapid elasticity of services, increased security and ultra-fast reaction times. The Tactile Internet promises to facilitate the delivery of these services while enabling new economies of scale for high-fdelity of machine-to-machine and human-to-machine interactions. Unavoidably, critical mission systems served by the Tactile Internet manifest high-demands not only for high speed and reliable communications but equally, the ability to rapidly identify and mitigate threats and vulnerabilities. This paper proposes a novel Multi-Agent Data Exfltration Detector Architecture (MADEX) inspired by the mechanisms and features present in the human immune system. MADEX seeks to identify data exfltration activities performed by evasive and stealthy malware that hides malicious trafc from an infected host in low-latency networks. Our approach uses cross-network trafc information collected by agents to efectively identify unknown illicit connections by an operating system subverted. MADEX does not require prior knowledge of the characteristics or behaviour of the malicious code or a dedicated access to a knowledge repository. We tested the performance of MADEX in terms of its capacity to handle real-time data and the sensitivity of our algorithm’s classifcation when exposed to malicious trafc. Experimental evaluation results show that MADEX achieved 99.97% sensitivity, 98.78% accuracy and an error rate of 1.21% when compared to its best rivals. We created a second version of MADEX, called MADEX level 2 that further improves its overall performance with a slight increase in computational complexity. We argue for the suitability of MADEX level 1 in non-critical environments, while MADEX level 2 can be used to avoid data exfltration in critical mission systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the frst article in the literature that addresses the detection of rootkits real-time in an agnostic way using an artifcial immune system approach while it satisfes strict latency requirements.
    • Novel metaheuristic based on multiverse theory for optimization problems in emerging systems

      Hosseini, Eghbal; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Emrouznejad, Ali; Sadiq, Ali Safaa; Rawat, Danda B. (Springer Nature, 2020-12-31)
      Finding an optimal solution for emerging cyber physical systems (CPS) for better efficiency and robustness is one of the major issues. Meta-heuristic is emerging as a promising field of study for solving various optimization problems applicable to different CPS systems. In this paper, we propose a new meta-heuristic algorithm based on Multiverse Theory, named MVA, that can solve NP-hard optimization problems such as non-linear and multi-level programming problems as well as applied optimization problems for CPS systems. MVA algorithm inspires the creation of the next population to be very close to the solution of initial population, which mimics the nature of parallel worlds in multiverse theory. Additionally, MVA distributes the solutions in the feasible region similarly to the nature of big bangs. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a set of test problems is implemented and measured in terms of feasibility, efficiency of their solutions and the number of iterations taken in finding the optimum solution. Numerical results obtained from extensive simulations have shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches while solving the optimization problems with large feasible regions.
    • Optimising driver profiling through behaviour modelling of in-car sensor and global positioning system data

      Ahmadi-Assalemi, Gabriela; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Maple, Carsten; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Hammoudeh, Mohammad; Jahankhani, Hamid; Pillai, Prashant (Elsevier, 2020-12-31)
      Connected cars have a massive impact on the automotive sector, and whilst this catalyst and disruptor technology introduce threats, it brings opportunities to address existing vehicle-related crimes such as carjacking. Connected cars are fitted with sensors, and capable of sophisticated computational processing which can be used to model and differentiate drivers as means of layered security. We generate a dataset collecting 14 hours of driving in the city of London. The route was 8.1 miles long and included various road conditions such as roundabouts, traffic lights, and several speed zones. We identify and rank the features from the driving segments, classify our sample using Random Forest, and optimise the learning-based model with 98.84% accuracy (95% confidence) given a small 10 seconds driving window size. Differences in driving patterns were uncovered to distinguish between female and male drivers especially through variations in longitudinal acceleration, driving speed, torque and revolutions per minute.
    • Framework for sustainable risk management in the manufacturing sector

      Oduoza, Chike (Elsevier, 2020-12-31)
      Risk management is a huge challenge for business managers especially in the manufacturing engineering sector, and if not proactively controlled can lead to under performance and sometimes cessation of activities for some companies. It is common knowledge that poorly managed risks can have an adverse effect on performance while proactive and systematic control of key risk variables in a business environment could generate successful outcomes. The work carried out here has developed a framework for risk management affordable and suitable for use especially by small and medium size enterprises in the manufacturing sector. Using a combination of Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) and Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) search algorithms, it was possible to search and identify key risk indicators that could undermine business performance (measured in terms of cost, time, quality and safety) from a system database, and thereby manage (monitor, identify, analyse, reduce, accept or reject their impact) them. The conclusion drawn from the study is that risk management for a manufacturing process can be successfully achieved if risk factors which have a negative impact on project cost, quality of delivery, lead cycle and takt time and health and safety of workers can be identified using BBN and minimised using the framework developed in this study.
    • Small female citation advantages for US journal articles in medicine

      Thelwall, Michael; Maflahi, Nabeil (SAGE, 2020-12-31)
      Female underrepresentation continues in senior roles within academic medicine, potentially influenced by a perception that female research has less citation impact. This article provides systematic evidence of (a) female participation rates from the perspective of published journal articles in 46 Scopus medical subject categories 1996-2018 and (b) gender differences in citation rates 1996-2014. The results show female proportion increases 1996-2018 in all fields and a female majority of first authored articles in two fifths of categories, but substantial differences between fields: A paper is 7.3 times more likely to have a female first author in Obstetrics and Gynecology than in Orthopedics and Sports Medicine. Only three fields had a female last author majority by 2018, a probable side effect of ongoing problems with appointing female leaders. Female first-authored research tended to be more cited than male first-authored research in most fields (59%), although with a maximum difference of only 5.1% (log-transformed normalised citations). In contrast, male last-authored research tends to be more cited than female last-authored research, perhaps due to cases where a senior male has attracted substantial funding for a project. These differences increase if team sizes are not accounted for in the calculations. Since female first-authored research is cited slightly more than male first-authored research, properly analysed bibliometric data considering career gaps should not disadvantage female candidates for senior roles.
    • Conceptual model for cloud computing adoption in upstream oil & gas sector

      Lawan, Mahmud; Oduoza, Chike; Buckley, Kevan (Elsevier, 2020-12-31)
      Cloud computing is a paradigm which offers IT services such as storage, network and processing power via the internet. The technology has gained popularity in recent years with adoption in different sectors due to the numerous benefits it offers such as scalability, flexibility and cost reduction. Although some are quick adopters, others are considered cautious adaptors. The upstream oil and gas industry fall under the latter category due to some challenges with regards to adoption decision. Migrating to a cloud platform depends on a number of factors. A clear understanding of these factors is necessary to enable decision makers in the industry to be more proactive and appropriately guided in their plan towards adoption. Therefore, this study aims to identify the factors that may influence cloud adoption in the industry. A literature review was conducted in order to propose an integrated model, which is a combination of the Technology environment organisation (TOE) framework, institutional theory, and diffusion of innovation. The model groups the factors into three fundamental categories. In addition, the study reports benefits of the cloud technology in the upstream oil and gas sector, challenges hindering adoption, as well as approaches by earlier researchers to support cloud migration in the industry.
    • Iron deficiency, immunology and colorectal cancer

      Omar, Hafid; Phipps, Oliver; Brookes, Matthew (Oxford University Press, 2020-12-31)
      Excessive gut luminal iron contributes to the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. However, emerging evidence suggests that reduced iron intake and low systemic iron levels are also associated with the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. This is important because patients with colorectal cancer often present with iron deficiency. Iron is necessary for appropriate immunological functions; hence, iron deficiency may hinder cancer immunosurveillance and potentially modify the tumor immune microenvironment, both of which may assist cancer development. This is supported by studies showing that patients with colorectal cancer with iron deficiency have inferior outcomes and reduced response to therapy. Here, we provide an overview of the immunological consequences of iron deficiency and suggest ensuring adequate iron therapy to limit these outcomes.
    • Strategic framework for implementing smart devices in the construction industry

      Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Silverio-Fernández, Manuel (Emerald, 2020-12-31)
      Purpose: The decentralisation of information and high rate of mobile content access in the construction industry provides an ideal scenario for improvement of processes via the implementation of the paradigm of the Internet of Things (IoT). Smart devices are considered as the objects interconnected in the IoT; therefore they play a fundamental role in the digital transformation of the construction industry. Currently, there is a lack of guidelines regarding the implementation of smart devices for digitalisation in the construction industry. Consequently, this paper intends to provide a set of guidelines for implementing smart devices in the construction industry Design/methodology/approach: An empirical study was performed in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Dominican Republic (DR). Following a systematic approach, qualitative data collection and analysis was performed based on semi-structured interviews involving professionals from construction companies in the UK and the DR. Interviews were recorded and subsequently transcribed using and exported to the software NVivo where it was used to find common thematic nodes across all interviews. Findings: The findings encompass drivers, challenges and Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for implementing smart devices in construction project. For both countries the top five CSFs were Leadership, Staff training, culture, technology awareness and cost of implementation. These findings were used to develop a strategic framework for implementing smart devices in construction companies. The framework stablishes the actors, elements and actions to be considered by construction companies when implementing smart devices. Originality/value: The paper provides a richer insight into the understanding and awareness of implementing smart devices. A strategic framework for implementing smart devices in the construction industry and providing guidelines for adopting smart devices in construction projects was developed and validated. This study provides a better understanding of the key factors to be considered by construction companies when embedding smart devices into their projects.
    • Transition towards circular economy implementation in the construction industry: a systematic review

      Osobajo, O; Omotayo,, T; Oke, A; Obi, Lovelin (Emerald, 2020-12-31)
      Purpose – While Circular Economy (CE) is fast becoming a political and economic agenda for global urban development, there are still substantial knowledge gaps in possible strategies to speed up such transition, especially in the construction industry. This study analyses literature surrounding circular economy to unpack current trends possible future research directions to foster CE implementation in the construction industry. Design/methodology/approach- The study undertakes a systematic review of Circular economy literature published between 1990 and 2019. It adopts a fivestage procedure as a methodological approach for the review: formulation of the evaluation of studies; analysis or synthesis; and results reporting. Findings – The findings on CE research in the construction industry show extensive focus on resource use and waste management. There are limited investigations in other areas of construction such as supply chain integration, building designs, policy, energy efficiency, land use, offsite manufacturing, whole life costing, and risk, cost reduction, cost management, health and safety management. The study findings provide evidence that current CE practice fails to incorporate other areas that would facilitate the network of true circular construction industry. Originality/value – This research provides a comprehensive overview of research efforts on CE in the construction context, identifying areas of extensive and limited coverage over three decades. Besides, it identifies possible pathways for future research directions on CE implementation, towards the accelerated transition to a true circular construction industry for the benefit of funding bodies and researchers.
    • Dynamic reciprocal authentication protocol for mobile cloud computing

      Ahmed, Abdulghani Ali; Wendy, Kwan; Kabir, Mohammed Noman; Al-Shakarchi, Ali (IEEE, 2020-12-31)
      A combination of mobile and cloud computing delivers many advantages such as mobility, resources, and accessibility through seamless data transmission via the Internet anywhere at any time. However, data transmission through vulnerable channels poses security threats such as man-in-the-middle, playback, impersonation, and asynchronization attacks. To address these threats, we define an explicit security model that can precisely measure the practical capabilities of an adversary. A systematic methodology consisting of 16 evaluation criteria is used for comparative evaluation, thereby leading other approaches to be evaluated through a common scale. Finally, we propose a dynamic reciprocal authentication protocol to secure data transmission in mobile cloud computing. In particular, our proposed protocol develops a secure reciprocal authentication method, which is free of Diffie–Hellman limitations, and has immunity against basic or sophisticated known attacks. The protocol utilizes multi-factor authentication of usernames, passwords, and a one-time password. The password is automatically generated and regularly updated for every connection. The proposed protocol is implemented and tested using Java to demonstrate its efficiency in authenticating communications and securing data transmitted in the mobile cloud computing environment. Results of the evaluation process indicate that compared with the existing works, the proposed protocol possesses obvious capabilities in security and in communication and computation costs.
    • Open access books in the humanities and social sciences: an open access altmetric advantage

      Taylor, Michael (Springer, 2020-12-31)
      The last decade has seen two significant phenomena emerge in research communication: the rise of open access (OA) publishing, and evidence of online sharing in the form of altmetrics. There has been limited examination of the effect of OA on online sharing for journal articles, and little for books. This paper examines the altmetrics of a set of 32,222 books (of which 5% are OA) and a set of 220,527 chapters (of which 7% are OA) indexed by the scholarly database Dimensions in the Social Sciences and Humanities. Both OA books and chapters have significantly higher use on social networks, higher coverage in the mass media and blogs, and evidence of higher rates of social impact in policy documents. OA chapters have higher rates of coverage on Wikipedia than their non-OA equivalents, and are more likely to be shared on Mendeley. Even within the Humanities and Social Sciences, disciplinary differences in altmetric activity are evident. The effect is confirmed for chapters, although sampling issues prevent the strong conclusion that OA facilitates extra attention at whole book level, the apparent OA altmetrics advantage suggests that the move towards OA is increasing social sharing and broader impact.
    • Once-weekly selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone versus twice-weekly bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with multiple myeloma (BOSTON): a randomised, open-label phase 3 trial

      Grosicki, Sebastian; Simonova, Maryana; Spicka, Ivan; Pour, Ludek; Kriachok, Iryrna; Gavriatopoulou, Maria; Pylypenko, Halyna; Auner, Holger W.; Leleu, Xavier; Doronin, Vadim; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-12-31)
      Background Selinexor with dexamethasone has demonstrated activity in patients with heavily pretreated multiple myeloma (MM). In a phase 1b/2 study, the combination of oral selinexor with the proteasome inhibitor (PI) bortezomib, and dexamethasone (SVd) induced high response rates with low rates of peripheral neuropathy, the main dose-limiting toxicity of bortezomib. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the clinical benefit of weekly SVd versus standard bortezomib and dexamethasone (Vd) in patients with previously treated MM. Methods This phase 3, randomised, open label trial was conducted at 123 sites in 21 countries. Patients who were previously treated with one to three lines of therapy, including PIs were randomised (1:1) to selinexor (100 mg once-weekly) plus bortezomib (1·3 mg/m2 once-weekly) and dexamethasone (20 mg twice-weekly) [SVd] or bortezomib (1·3 mg/m2 twice-weekly) and dexamethasone (20 mg 4 times per week) [Vd]. Randomisation was done using interactive response technology and stratified by previous PI therapy, lines of treatment, and MM stage. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) in the intention-to-treat population. Patients who received at least one dose of study treatment were included in the safety population. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03110562. Findings Between June 2017 and February 2019, 402 patients were randomised: 195 to SVd and 207 to Vd. Median PFS was 13·93 (95% CI 11·73–NE) with SVd versus 9·46 months (8·11–10·78) with Vd; HR 0·70, [95% CI 0·53–0·93]; P=0.0075. Most frequent grade ≥3 adverse events (SVd vs Vd) were thrombocytopenia (77 [40%] vs 35 [17%]), fatigue (26 [13%] vs 2 [1%]), anaemia (31 [16%] vs 20 [10%]), and pneumonia (22 [11%] vs 22 [11%]). Peripheral neuropathy rates (overall, 32·3% vs 47·1%; OR 0·52, [95% CI 0·35-0·79]; P=0.0010 and grade ≥2, 21·0% vs 34·3%; OR 0·50, [95% CI 0·32-0·79]; P=0.0013) were lower with SVd. There were 47 (24%) deaths on SVd and 62 (30%) on Vd. Interpretation Once-weekly SVd is a novel, effective, and convenient treatment option for patients with MM who have received 1-3 prior therapies.
    • A mesoscopic modelling approach for direct numerical simulations of transition to turbulence in hypersonic flow with transpiration cooling

      Cerminara, Adriano; Deiterding, Ralf; Sandham, Neil (Elsevier, 2020-12-31)
      A rescaling methodology is developed for high-fidelity, cost-efficient direct numerical simulations (DNS) of flow through porous media, modelled at mesoscopic scale, in a hypersonic freestream. The simulations consider a Mach 5 hypersonic flow over a flat plate with coolant injection from a porous layer with 42 % porosity. The porous layer is designed using a configuration studied in the literature, consisting of a staggered arrangement of cylinder/sphere elements. A characteristic Reynolds number Rec of the flow in a pore cell unit is first used to impose aerodynamic similarity between different porous layers with the same porosity, ∈, but different pore size. A relation between the pressure drop and the Reynolds number is derived to allow a controlled rescaling of the pore size from the realistic micrometre scales to higher and more affordable scales. Results of simulations carried out for higher cylinder diameters, namely 24 µm, 48 µm and 96 µm, demonstrate that an equivalent Darcy-Forchheimer behaviour to the reference experimental microstructure is obtained at the different pore sizes. The approach of a porous layer with staggered spheres is applied to a 3D domain case of porous injection in the Darcy limit over a flat plate, to study the transition mechanism and the associated cooling performance, in comparison with a reference case of slot injection. Results of the direct numerical simulations show that porous injection in an unstable boundary layer leads to a more rapid transition process, compared to slot injection. On the other hand, the mixing of coolant within the boundary layer is enhanced in the porous injection case, both in the immediate outer region of the porous layer and in the turbulent region. This has the beneficial effect of increasing the cooling performance by reducing the temperature near the wall, which provides a higher cooling effectiveness, compared to the slot injection case, even with an earlier transition to turbulence.
    • Implementing a HBIM approach to manage the translocation of heritage buildings

      Heesom, David; Boden, Paul; Hatfield, Anthony; De Los Santos Melo, Aneuris; Czarska-Chukwurah, Farida (Emerald, 2020-12-31)
      Purpose The purpose of the paper is to present a study which exploited synergies between the fields of Heritage BIM, conservation and building translocation to develop a new approach to support a digitally enabled translocation process. The translocation (or relocation) of buildings or structures is a niche area of the construction sector and much of the significant work in this field has focused on the relocation of heritage buildings. However, hitherto there was a paucity of work integrating translocation with the process and technology of BIM. Design/Methodology/Approach The study employed a Constructive Research approach to analyse the phenomenon of heritage translocation. As part of this approach, semi structured interviews were undertaken with professionals engaged in heritage translocation projects within the UK and this was supported by a multi-faceted review of literature within the cross cutting themes of translocation and HBIM. Building on the results, a BIM enabled process was implemented to support the translocation of a 19th Century timber framed building in the UK. Findings Following analysis of results of semi structured interviews, and supported by findings from prevailing literature in the field of translocation and HBIM, a HBIM for Translocation Conceptual Framework (TransHBIM) was developed. Building on the key constructs of the framework, a HBIM based workflow was implemented to develop a digitally enabled translocation process which provided a new approach to managing and documenting heritage translocation where disassembly and reconstruction is utilised. The workflow provided a more effective way of documenting individual elements of the building within a digital environment opening up potential for new simulation of the entire process. Originality/Value Current approaches to translocation involve manual methods of recording the building and cataloguing the key heritage elements for all aspects of the process. This new approach implements BIM technologies and processes along with the use of barcode or RFID tags to create a digital bridge between the physical elements of the building and the BIM database. This provides more accurate recording of the heritage and also opens up opportunities to support the process with additional digital simulation techniques enhancing the efficiency of the entire process.
    • Vitamin A derivatives use in the treatment of skin conditions

      Al-Abadie, Mohammed; Oumeish, Faris; Al-Rubaye, Mohammed; Rafiq, Shahid; Ball, Patrick; Morrissey, Hana (Innovare Academic Sciences, 2020-12-31)
      Retinoids are used to treat various skin diseases. They add valuable impact of when used early in the treatment of dermatological conditions. Overall vitamin A derivatives are underused, with isotretinoin is the most used. This paper aims to develop prescribers’ knowledge about their benefits, to improve their usability and aids in alleviating patient concerns to improve therapeutic outcomes in dermatological conditions. In acne vulgaris, adapalene gel and tretinoin cream showed equal efficacy. In psoriasis the combination of acitretin and PUVA was superior to PUVA alone. Acitretin showed a reduction of 41% in the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index and similar efficacy to potent steroids and calcipotriol. In chronic hand eczema, alitretinoin showed 50% improvement in patient’s refractory to steroid treatment. In photoaging and aging, retinoids were shown to increase the synthesis and decrease the degradation rate of collagen and hyaluronate, reducing the impact of aging. In rosacea, topical and systemic isotretinoin showed complete remission in 24% of the patients compared to only 14 % with antibiotics (metronidazole and doxycycline). In lichen planus, isotretinoin demonstrated clinical and histopathological efficacy. In cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, bexarotene used alone or with PUVA or narrow band UVB, showed a response between 80.0% to 84.0%. Lastly in Kaposi sarcoma alitretinoin gel showed superiority to all other agents and better tolerance. This review highlights the benefit of timely use of vitamin A derivatives to encourage wider use.