• COVID-19 in haematology patients: A multi-centre West Midlands clinical outcomes analysis on behalf of West Midlands Research Consortium

      Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick; Mandal, Anandadeep; Nevill, Alan; Paneesha, Shankara; Basu, Supratik; Karim, Farheen; Imran, Mohammed; Phillips, Neil; Khawaja, Jahanzeb; et al. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-12-31)
    • Distributed Ledger Technologies in Supply Chain Security Management: A Comprehensive Survey

      Asante, Mary; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Bottarelli, Mirko; Ghafoor, Kayhan (IEEE, 2021-12-31)
      Supply-chains (SC) present performance bottlenecks that contribute to a high level of costs, infltration of product quality, and impact productivity. Examples of such inhibitors include the bullwhip effect, new product lines, high inventory, and restrictive data fows. These bottlenecks can force manufacturers to source more raw materials and increase production signifcantly. Also, restrictive data fow in a complex global SC network generally slows down the movement of goods and services. The use of Distributed LedgerTechnologies (DLT) in supply chain management (SCM) demonstrates the potentials to to reduce these bottlenecks through transparency, decentralization, and optimizations in data management. These technologies promise to enhance the trustworthiness of entities within the supply chain, ensure the accuracy of data-driven operations, and enable existing SCM processes to migrate from a linear to a fully circular economy. This paper presents a comprehensive review of 111 articles published in the public domain in the use and effcacyofDLTin SC.It acts asaroadmapfor current and futureresearchers whofocus onSC Security Management to better understand the integration of digital technologies such as DLT. We clustered these articles using standard descriptors linked to trustworthiness, namely, immutability, transparency, traceability, and integrity.
    • Male, female, and nonbinary differences in UK Twitter self-descriptions: A fine-grained systematic exploration

      Thelwall, Saheeda; Fairclough, Ruth; Thelwall, Michael (De Gruyter Open, 2021-12-31)
      Purpose: Although gender identities influence how people present themselves on social media, previous studies have tested pre-specified dimensions of difference, potentially overlooking other differences and ignoring nonbinary users. Design/methodology/approach: Word association thematic analysis was used to systematically check for fine-grained statistically significant gender differences in Twitter profile descriptions between 409,487 UK-based female, male, and nonbinary users in 2020. A series of statistical tests systematically identified 1474 differences at the individual word level, and a follow up thematic analysis grouped these words into themes. Findings: The results reflect offline variations in interests and in jobs. They also show differences personal disclosures, as reflected by words, with females mentioning qualifications, relationships, pets, and illnesses much more, nonbinaries discussing sexuality more, and males declaring political and sports affiliations more. Other themes were internally imbalanced, including personal appearance (e.g., male: beardy; female: redhead), self-evaluations (e.g., male: legend; nonbinary: witch; female: feisty), and gender identity (e.g., male: dude; nonbinary: enby; female: queen). Research limitations: The methods are affected by linguistic styles and probably under-report nonbinary differences. Practical implications: The gender differences found may inform gender theory, and aid social web communicators and marketers. Originality/value: The results show a much wider range of gender expression differences than previously acknowledged for any social media site.
    • Effects of hand-rearing on the behaviour of zoo-housed chimpanzees

      Spiezio, Caterina; Vaglio, Stefano; Vandelle, Camille; Sandri, Camillo; Regaiolli, Barbara (Karger, 2021-12-31)
      Early-life experiences may considerably affect the behavioural patterns of adult primates. Particularly, atypical rearing practices might lead to abnormal behaviours and social-sexual deficiencies in captive, adult non-human primates. We conducted behavioural observations of mother-reared (n = 5) and hand-reared (n = 6) adult chimpanzees in a social group at Parco Natura Viva, Italy. We used continuous focal animal sampling to collect behavioural data focusing on individual and social behaviours. We found that all study subjects performed individual and social species-specific behaviours. However, mother-reared chimpanzees performed locomotion and affiliative behaviours significantly more than hand-reared subjects. In addition to these species-typical behaviours, hand-reared chimpanzees showed significantly more abnormal behaviours than mother-reared subjects. Therefore, these findings suggest that hand-rearing could have wide-reaching effects on the behavioural repertoire in adult zoo-housed chimpanzees. Hence, even if sometimes human intervention in rearing may be necessary to ensure the survival of captive infant chimpanzees, our results suggest that zoo-housed chimpanzees might benefit from minimized human-animal interactions and exposure to conspecifics throughout their development. These suggestions should be implemented in regular husbandry practices.
    • Optimising driver profiling through behaviour modelling of in-car sensor and global positioning system data

      Ahmadi-Assalemi, Gabriela; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Maple, Carsten; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Hammoudeh, Mohammad; Jahankhani, Hamid; Pillai, Prashant (Elsevier, 2021-12-31)
      Connected cars have a massive impact on the automotive sector, and whilst this catalyst and disruptor technology introduce threats, it brings opportunities to address existing vehicle-related crimes such as carjacking. Connected cars are fitted with sensors, and capable of sophisticated computational processing which can be used to model and differentiate drivers as means of layered security. We generate a dataset collecting 14 hours of driving in the city of London. The route was 8.1 miles long and included various road conditions such as roundabouts, traffic lights, and several speed zones. We identify and rank the features from the driving segments, classify our sample using Random Forest, and optimise the learning-based model with 98.84% accuracy (95% confidence) given a small 10 seconds driving window size. Differences in driving patterns were uncovered to distinguish between female and male drivers especially through variations in longitudinal acceleration, driving speed, torque and revolutions per minute.
    • Small female citation advantages for US journal articles in medicine

      Thelwall, Michael; Maflahi, Nabeil (SAGE, 2021-12-31)
      Female underrepresentation continues in senior roles within academic medicine, potentially influenced by a perception that female research has less citation impact. This article provides systematic evidence of (a) female participation rates from the perspective of published journal articles in 46 Scopus medical subject categories 1996-2018 and (b) gender differences in citation rates 1996-2014. The results show female proportion increases 1996-2018 in all fields and a female majority of first authored articles in two fifths of categories, but substantial differences between fields: A paper is 7.3 times more likely to have a female first author in Obstetrics and Gynecology than in Orthopedics and Sports Medicine. Only three fields had a female last author majority by 2018, a probable side effect of ongoing problems with appointing female leaders. Female first-authored research tended to be more cited than male first-authored research in most fields (59%), although with a maximum difference of only 5.1% (log-transformed normalised citations). In contrast, male last-authored research tends to be more cited than female last-authored research, perhaps due to cases where a senior male has attracted substantial funding for a project. These differences increase if team sizes are not accounted for in the calculations. Since female first-authored research is cited slightly more than male first-authored research, properly analysed bibliometric data considering career gaps should not disadvantage female candidates for senior roles.
    • Infant survival among free-living bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) in South India

      Arlet, Małgorzata E; Balasubramaniam, Krishna N; Saha, Rajarshi; Beisner, Brianne; Marty, Pascal R; Kaburu, Stefano; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Kaasik, Ants; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa; McCowan, Brenda (Springer Nature, 2021-12-31)
      Female reproductive success depends to a large extent on infants’ ability to survive to maturity. While most studies of female reproductive success have focused on the effects of individuals’ sociodemographic factors (e.g. age/parity, dominance rank) on offspring survival among wild primates living in less disturbed habitats, little research has focused on offspring survival in urban or peri-urban animals. Here we investigated sociodemographic and anthropogenic determinants of infant survival (up to 1-yr of age) in free-ranging bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) living in a peri-urban environment in Southern India. We conducted the study from November 2016 to May 2018, on two groups of bonnet macaques at the Thenmala tourist site in the state of Kerala. Fifty infants were born across two birth seasons. 29.2% of infants died or disappeared in 2017 and 26.9% died or disappeared in 2018. We found that infant survival was strongly influenced by the mother’s parity: infants of experienced mothers had a better chance of survival than those of first-time mothers. We also found that male infants were more likely to die than female infants. However, we found no effects of mothers’ dominance rank, or of frequency of mothers’ interactions with humans and time spent foraging on anthropogenic food, on infant survival. Our results, consistent with findings from other wild primate species, show that even in challenging human-impacted environments, experienced bonnet macaque mothers have greater success than inexperienced ones.
    • Measuring community resilience using Q method: physical resilience perspective

      Tariq, Hisham; Pathirage, Chaminda; Fernando, Terrence (Emerald, 2021-12-31)
      Purpose Decision makers, practitioners and community members have a need to assess the disaster resilience of their communities and to understand their own capacities in disaster situations. There is a lack of consensus among researchers as to what resilience means and how it can be measured. This paper proposes a novel technique to achieve consensus among stakeholders on the definitions, objectives and indicators for measuring a key dimension of community disaster resilience, namely Physical Infrastructure (PI). Method This study uses a 5-step approach utilizing Q-methods to contextualize a resilience index for Physical Infrastructure. Interviews, focus groups and Q-sorting workshops were conducted to develop a tool that ranked measures according to stakeholder preference. A total of 84 participants took part in the workshops across four countries (UK, Malaysia, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). Findings The initial set of 317 measures was reduced to 128 and divided into the three community capacities of Anticipatory, Absorptive and Restorative. The Physical Infrastructure Capacity Assessment Tool (PI-CAT) was then finalized to encompass 38 indicators that were also ranked in order of importance by the participants. Practical implications The PI-CAT can be useful for local governments and communities to measure their own resilience. The tool allows stakeholders to be confident that the metrics being used are ones that are relevant, important and will meet their requirements. Originality The Q-method approach helps stakeholders to develop and use a community capacity assessment tool that is appropriate for their context. The PI-CAT can be used to identify effective investments that will enhance community disaster resilience.
    • A flow-based multi-agent data exfiltration detection architecture for ultra-low latency networks

      Marques, Rafael Salema; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Maple, Carsten; Hammoudeh, Mohammad; De Castro, Paulo Andre Lima; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond (Association for Computing Machinery, 2021-12-31)
      Modern network infrastructures host converged applications that demand rapid elasticity of services, increased security and ultra-fast reaction times. The Tactile Internet promises to facilitate the delivery of these services while enabling new economies of scale for high-fdelity of machine-to-machine and human-to-machine interactions. Unavoidably, critical mission systems served by the Tactile Internet manifest high-demands not only for high speed and reliable communications but equally, the ability to rapidly identify and mitigate threats and vulnerabilities. This paper proposes a novel Multi-Agent Data Exfltration Detector Architecture (MADEX) inspired by the mechanisms and features present in the human immune system. MADEX seeks to identify data exfltration activities performed by evasive and stealthy malware that hides malicious trafc from an infected host in low-latency networks. Our approach uses cross-network trafc information collected by agents to efectively identify unknown illicit connections by an operating system subverted. MADEX does not require prior knowledge of the characteristics or behaviour of the malicious code or a dedicated access to a knowledge repository. We tested the performance of MADEX in terms of its capacity to handle real-time data and the sensitivity of our algorithm’s classifcation when exposed to malicious trafc. Experimental evaluation results show that MADEX achieved 99.97% sensitivity, 98.78% accuracy and an error rate of 1.21% when compared to its best rivals. We created a second version of MADEX, called MADEX level 2 that further improves its overall performance with a slight increase in computational complexity. We argue for the suitability of MADEX level 1 in non-critical environments, while MADEX level 2 can be used to avoid data exfltration in critical mission systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the frst article in the literature that addresses the detection of rootkits real-time in an agnostic way using an artifcial immune system approach while it satisfes strict latency requirements.
    • Effects of scent enrichment on behavioural and physiological indicators of stress in zoo primates

      Vaglio, Stefano; Kaburu, Stefano; Pearce, Richard; Bryant, Luke; McAuley, Ailie; Lott, Alexandria; Sheppard, Demi; Smith, Sarah; Tompkins, Bethany; Elwell, Emily; et al. (Wiley, 2021-12-31)
      Captive breeding is vital for primate conservation, with modern zoos serving a crucial role in breeding populations of threatened species and educating the general public. However, captive populations can experience welfare issues that may also undermine their reproductive success. In order to enhance the well-being of endangered zoo primates, we conducted a study to assess the effects of a new scent enrichment programme on captive red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra), black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya), siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus), Lar gibbons (Hylobates lar) and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus). We combined behavioural observations and faecal endocrinology analyses to evaluate the effects of a series of essential oils (benzoin, lavender, lemongrass) on five captive troops (N = 19) housed at Dudley Zoo & Castle and Twycross Zoo (UK). We recorded observations of natural species-specific and abnormal stress-related behaviours for 480 hr using instantaneous scan sampling. We collected 189 faecal samples and measured the faecal cortisol concentrations using radioimmunoassay. We found a significant effect of the scent enrichment on behaviours, with red-ruffed lemurs and black howler monkeys reducing their social interactions, as well as red-ruffed lemurs and Lar gibbons decreasing their stress-related behaviours, after they were exposed to the series of essential oils. We also found that red-ruffed lemurs displayed a significant increase in faecal glucocorticoids following the exposure to essential oils. Our contradictory findings suggest that the effects of this series of essential oils may change depending on the species-specific social lives and olfactory repertoires of primates. In conclusion, we cannot recommend using these essential oils widely with zoo primates without additional evaluation.
    • The effects of micro- and macro- habitat variables on tent construction in the tent-roosting bat Artibeus watsoni on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

      Brown, Scott; Kaburu, Stefano; Besenyei, Lynn (Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2021-12-31)
      Bats spend half of their lives in their roosts, which play vital roles in the life histories of the bats that occupy them. More than half of all bat species roost in foliage. Within the Neotropics, 17 species of bat are known to modify foliage into structures referred to as “tents”. Of these species, Thomas’s fruit eating bat (Artibeus watsoni) uses the widest range of plant species for roosts, constructing five different tent types. However, the factors influencing the distribution and quantity of tents are not fully understood for this species. The aims of our study were to investigate whether [1] micro-habitat characteristics influence the number of tents on individual plants and [2] macro-habitat features influence the frequency of plants used for tent-roosting in the surrounding landscape. Our results demonstrate that the distribution of tents was influenced by proximity to fresh water, with 48.8% of tents within 100 m of fresh water. Additionally, A. watsoni constructed tents in sheltered habitats with a high cover abundance of trees. These types of habitat areas should be targeted for conservation efforts to conserve this species.
    • Time-dependent thixotropic behaviours of lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder pastes and flux mediums used in electronic assemblies

      Mallik, S; Ekere, Nduka; Depiver, Joshua (David Publishing, 2021-12-31)
      Solder pastes are widely used as crucial joining material in microelectronic assemblies. This study investigates time-depended behaviours of paste materials (solder pastes and flux mediums) in relation to their transportation, storage, handling and applications. Two fluxes and four commercially available lead-free solder pastes prepared from those fluxes were evaluated. Two rheological test methods – ‘hysteresis loop test’ and ‘step shear test’ were adapted, taking account of actual shear profile of solder pastes and flux mediums. Within hysteresis loop tests, samples were sheared for both single and multiple cycles, with increasing and decreasing shear rates. These tests provided a quick and straightforward way of benchmarking time-depended structural breakdown and build-up of paste materials. The test results also provided an effective means of predicting how the pastes will behave during their use, such as at various stages of the stencil printing process. Step shear tests were performed by applying a sequence of stepwise increase in shear rates. The step-wise increase in shear rate has influenced the timedependent behaviours of solder paste samples and flux mediums. The result from the stepshear-test implies that the build-up of solder paste structure depends mainly on both the previous shear history and the intensity of structural break-down.
    • COVID-19 and construction law: comparing the United Kingdom and Australian response

      Charlson, Jennifer; Dickson, Rebecca (Informa Business Intelligence, 2021-12-31)
    • Minimum energy transmission forest-based Geocast in software-defined wireless sensor networks

      Banerjee, Anuradha; Sufian, Abu; Sadiq, Ali Safaa; Mirjalili, Seyedali (Wiley, 2021-12-31)
      Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)-based geographic addressing and routing have many potential applications. Geocast protocols should be made energy efficient to increase the lifetime of nodes and packet delivery ratio. This technique will increase the number of live nodes, reduce message costs, and enhance network throughput. All geocast protocols in the literature of WSN apply mostly restricted flooding and perimeter flooding, which is why still the redundancy they produce significantly high message transmission costs and unnecessarily eats up immense energy in nodes. Moreover, perimeter flooding cannot succeed in the presence of holes. The present article models wireless sensor networks with software-defined constructs where the network area is divided into some zones. Energy-efficient transmission tree(s) are constructed in the geocast area to organize the flow of data packets and their links. Therefore, redundancy in the transmission is eliminated while maintaining network throughput as good as regular flooding. This proposed technique significantly reduces energy cost and improves nodes' lifetime to function for higher time duration and produce a higher data packet delivery ratio. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first work on geocast in SD-WSNs.
    • A multi-user collaborative BIM-AR system to support design and construction

      Garbett, James; Hartley, Thomas; Heesom, David (Elsevier, 2021-11-29)
      Augmented Reality (AR) is fast becoming an established tool for the construction industry. Previous research reports on the conversion of BIM geometric models and the implementation of these with marker-based AR, or the use of more wide area AR taking positional input from GPS. Much of this focused on the use of AR in an individual context, so there is need to align AR with the more collaborative nature of BIM. By implementing marker-based AR, and connecting to a cloud-based database, the presented BIM-AR system provides the ability to view, interact and collaborate with 3D and 2D BIM data via AR with geographically dispersed teams. An Agile Scrum Method was used to develop the prototype system including a mobile AR application and a Large Touch Screen application based on and a Model, View, Controller (MVC) approach. Finally, the system was tested and verified using a focus group of construction practitioners.
    • Review insights of nanotheranostics for molecular mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders and commensurate nanotherapeutics for neuropsychiatry: the mind-knockout

      Kumar, Rajiv; Chhikara, Bhupender S; Chandra, Mina; Gulia, Kiran; Chhilar, Mitrabasu (Ivyspring International Publisher, 2021-05-31)
      Bio-neuronal led psychiatric abnormalities transpired by the loss of neuronal structure and function (neurodegeneration), pro-inflammatory cytokines, microglial dysfunction, altered neurotransmission, toxicants, serotonin deficiency, kynurenine pathway, and excessively produced neurotoxic substances. These uncontrolled happenings in the etiology of psychiatric disorders initiate further changes in neurotransmitter metabolism, pathologic microglial, cell activation, and impaired neuroplasticity. Inflammatory cytokines, the outcome of dysfunctional mitochondria, dysregulation of the immune system, and under stress functions of the brain are leading biochemical factors for depression and anxiety. Nanoscale drug delivery platforms, inexpensive diagnostics using nanomaterials, nano-scale imaging technologies, and ligandconjugated nanocrystals used for elucidating the molecular mechanisms and foremost cellular communications liable for such disorders are highly capable features to study for efficient diagnosis and therapy of the mental illness. These theranostic tools made up of multifunctional nanomaterials have the potential for effective and accurate diagnosis, imaging of psychiatric disorders, and are at the forefront of leading technologies in nanotheranostics openings field as they can collectively and efficiently target the stimulated territories of the cerebellum (cells and tissues) through molecular-scale interactions with higher bioavailability, and bio-accessibility. Specifically, the nanoplatforms based neurological changes are playing a significant role in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and portraying the routes of functional restoration of mental disorders by newer imaging tools at nano-level in all directions. Because of these nanotherapeutic platforms, the molecules of nanomedicine can penetrate the Blood-Brain Barrier with an increased half-life of drug molecules. The discoveries in nanotheranostics and nanotherapeutics inbuilt unique multi-functionalities are providing the best multiplicities of novel nanotherapeutic potentialities with no toxicity concerns at the level of nano range
    • Self attended stack pointer networks for learning long term dependencies

      Tuç, Salih; Can, Burcu (Association for Computational Linguistics, 2021-03-31)
      We propose a novel deep neural architecture for dependency parsing, which is built upon a Transformer Encoder (Vaswani et al., 2017) and a Stack Pointer Network (Ma et al., 2018). We first encode each sentence using a Transformer Network and then the dependency graph is generated by a Stack Pointer Network by selecting the head of each word in the sentence through a head selection process. We evaluate our model on Turkish and English treebanks. The results show that our transformer-based model learns long term dependencies efficiently compared to sequential models such as recurrent neural networks. Our self attended stack pointer network improves UAS score around 6% upon the LSTM based stack pointer (Ma et al., 2018) for Turkish sentences with a length of more than 20 words.
    • Measuring the impact of biodiversity datasets: data reuse, citations and altmetrics

      Khan, Nushrat; Thelwall, Mike; Kousha, Kayvan (Springer, 2021-02-28)
      Despite growing evidence of open biodiversity data reuse by scientists, information about how data is reused and cited is rarely openly accessible from research data repositories. This study explores data citation and reuse practices in biodiversity by using openly available metadata for 43,802 datasets indexed in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and content analyses of articles citing GBIF data. Results from quantitative and content analyses suggest that even though the number of studies making use of openly available biodiversity data has been increasing steadily, best practice for data citation is not yet common. It is encouraging, however, that an increasing number of recent articles (16 out of 23 in 2019) in biodiversity cite datasets in a standard way. A content analysis of a random sample of unique citing articles (n=100) found various types of background (n=18) and foreground (n=81) reuse cases for GBIF data, ranging from combining with other data sources to create species distribution modelling to software testing. This demonstrates some unique research opportunities created by open data. Among the citing articles, 27% mentioned the dataset in references and 13% in data access statements in addition to the methods section. Citation practice was inconsistent especially when a large number of subsets (12~50) were used. Even though many GBIF dataset records had altmetric scores, most posts only mentioned the articles linked to those datasets. Among the altmetric mentions of datasets, blogs can be the most informative, even though rare, and most tweets and Facebook posts were for promotional purposes.
    • Strategic framework for implementing smart devices in the construction industry

      Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Silverio-Fernández, Manuel (Emerald, 2021-02-24)
      Purpose: The decentralisation of information and high rate of mobile content access in the construction industry provides an ideal scenario for improvement of processes via the implementation of the paradigm of the Internet of Things (IoT). Smart devices are considered as the objects interconnected in the IoT; therefore they play a fundamental role in the digital transformation of the construction industry. Currently, there is a lack of guidelines regarding the implementation of smart devices for digitalisation in the construction industry. Consequently, this paper intends to provide a set of guidelines for implementing smart devices in the construction industry Design/methodology/approach: An empirical study was performed in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Dominican Republic (DR). Following a systematic approach, qualitative data collection and analysis was performed based on semi-structured interviews involving professionals from construction companies in the UK and the DR. Interviews were recorded and subsequently transcribed using and exported to the software NVivo where it was used to find common thematic nodes across all interviews. Findings: The findings encompass drivers, challenges and Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for implementing smart devices in construction project. For both countries the top five CSFs were Leadership, Staff training, culture, technology awareness and cost of implementation. These findings were used to develop a strategic framework for implementing smart devices in construction companies. The framework stablishes the actors, elements and actions to be considered by construction companies when implementing smart devices. Originality/value: The paper provides a richer insight into the understanding and awareness of implementing smart devices. A strategic framework for implementing smart devices in the construction industry and providing guidelines for adopting smart devices in construction projects was developed and validated. This study provides a better understanding of the key factors to be considered by construction companies when embedding smart devices into their projects.
    • Future directions and requirements for tissue engineering biomaterials

      Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Robinson, John; Praveen, Ayyappan S; Pollard, Andrew; Wang, Chang (Elsevier, 2021-02-24)
      A wide array of biomaterials are being developed to be used as tissue engineering scaffolds, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. For all biomaterials, the challenge remains to achieve functionality to mimic the biomechanical environment, induce bioactivity, and support critical size tissue reintegration. This calls for a functional evolution in biomaterials to be used as tissue engineering constructs for partial and full tissue reconstruction. When characterizing biomaterials for tissue engineering, the relevant extensions include engineered surfaces, micro-patterns, and porous architectures along with, bioactive, bioresorbable, and infection resistant properties. Accordingly, functional biomaterials will drive the next generation of tissue engineering constructs. This paper, therefore, explores the major concepts, future direction, and recent signs of progress in the field of tissue engineering biomaterials. Traditional materials are not discounted entirely as bioinert materials are still relevant and emerging research offers new functionalities for them to support drug, gene, and cell tissue engineering. Therefore, an attempt is also made to explain how the requirements of biomaterials are changing to facilitate, sustain, control, and proliferate engineered tissue. The article begins with a brief introduction to the evolution of biomaterials followed by a commentary on their functional requirements when applied to tissue engineering. This is followed by an exploratory evaluation of key tissue engineering constructs and their qualifiers while systematically identifying their future direction and potential.