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  • 3D printed cobalt-chromium-molybdenum porous superalloy with superior antiviral activity

    Arjunan, Arun; Robinson, John; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Tuñón-Molina, Alberto; Martí, Miguel; Serrano-Aroca, Ángel (MDPI, 2021-11-24)
    COVID-19 pandemic and associated supply-chain disruptions emphasise the requirement for antimicrobial materials for on-demand manufacturing. Besides aerosol transmission, SARS-CoV-2 is also propagated through contact with virus-contaminated surfaces. As such, the development of effective biofunctional materials that can inactivate SARS-CoV-2 is critical for pandemic preparedness. Such materials will enable the rational development of antiviral devices with prolonged serviceability, reducing the environmental burden of disposable alternatives. This research reveals the novel use of Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) to 3D print porous Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) superalloy with potent antiviral activity (100% viral inactivation in 30 min). The porous material was rationally conceived using a multi-objective surrogate model featuring track thickness (tt) and pore diameter (ϕd) as responses. The regression analysis found the most significant parameters for Co-Cr-Mo track formation to be the interaction effects of scanning rate (Vs) and laser power (Pl) in the order PlVs>Vs>Pl. Contrastively, the pore diameter was found to be primarily driven by the hatch spacing (Sh). The study is the first to demonstrate the superior antiviral properties of 3D printed Co-Cr-Mo superalloy against an enveloped virus used as biosafe viral model of SARS-CoV-2. The material significantly outperforms the viral inactivation time of other broadly used antiviral metals such as copper and silver, as the material’s viral inactivation time was from 5 h to 30 min. As such, the study goes beyond the current state-of-the-art in antiviral alloys to provide extra protection to combat the SARS-CoV-2 viral spread. The evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic brings new and unpredictable challenges where on-demand 3D printing of antiviral materials can achieve rapid solutions while reducing the environmental impact of disposable devices
  • Mesoporous perovskite solar cells with Al- and Zn-based metal-organic frameworks

    Furasova, Aleksandra D; Hix, Gary; Makarov, S.V.; Di Carlo, A. (IOP Publishing, 2021-11-17)
    The improvement of lead halide perovskites solar cells (PSC) by hydrophobic metal-organic frameworks (MOF) is one of the promising tools for modern photovoltaic technology to achieve stable and efficient thin-film devices. To show the MOF applicability for PSC, we incorporate two types of MOF: NH2-MIL-53(Al) and basolite Z1200 in n-i-p mesoporous MAPbI3 based solar cells that can add 2.2% efficiency by increasing main photovoltaic parameters. The simplicity of the proposed MOF's integration allows to use and adopt this approach to incorporate other frameworks for thin-film perovskite devices.
  • Scientometric analysis of global scientific literature on aging in place

    Oladinrin, Olugbenga; Gomis, Muhandiramge Kasun; Wadu Mesthrige, Jayantha; Obi, Lovelin; Rana, Muhammad Qasim (MDPI, 2021-11-26)
    The amount of literature reporting “aging-in-place” studies has increased sharply in recent decades. However, the studies have taken a global view of the range and scope of the research that has taken place. This study presents a bibliometric analysis of the current status of the aging in place research themes published as scientific articles between 1970 and 2021, using the Web of Science database. VOSviewer software was employed to map and visualize the 1331 items of bibliographic data retrieved. The findings reveal a continuous growing trend in the publication of aging in place research. Most productive institutions derive from the USA. The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is the most preferred Journal. The most popular research hotspots or areas include; older adults, aging, housing, dementia, long-term care, and technology, and their associations with the field of “aging in place” field were elucidated. This study offers several valuable insights to scholars, research institutions, and policymakers, enabling a better understanding of the developments in the aging in place research domain.
  • Daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone in transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: Frailty subgroup analysis of MAIA

    Facon, Thierry; Cook, Gordon; Usmani, Saad Z.; Hulin, Cyrille; Kumar, Shaji; Plesner, Torben; Touzeau, Cyrille; Bahlis, Nizar J.; Basu, Supratik; Nahi, Hareth; et al. (Springer Nature, 2022)
    In the phase 3 MAIA study of patients with transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM), daratumumab/lenalidomide/dexamethasone (D-Rd) improved progression-free survival (PFS) versus lenalidomide/dexamethasone (Rd). We present a subgroup analysis of MAIA by frailty status. Frailty assessment was performed retrospectively using age, Charlson comorbidity index, and baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score. Patients were classified as fit, intermediate, non-frail (fit+intermediate), or frail. Of the randomized patients (D-Rd, n=368; Rd, n=369), 396 patients were non-frail (D-Rd, 196 [53.3%]; Rd, 200 [54.2%]) and 341 patients were frail (172 [46.7%]; 169 [45.8%]). After 36.4-month median follow-up, non-frail patients had longer PFS than frail patients, but the PFS benefit of D-Rd versus Rd was maintained across subgroups: non-frail (median, not reached [NR] vs 41.7 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.48; P<0.0001) and frail (NR vs 30.4 months; HR, 0.62; P=0.003). Improved rates of complete response or better and minimal residual disease (10–5) negativity were observed for D-Rd across subgroups. The most common grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse event in non-frail and frail patients was neutropenia (non-frail, 45.4% [D-Rd] and 37.2% [Rd]; frail, 57.7% and 33.1%). These findings support the clinical benefit of D-Rd in transplant-ineligible NDMM patients enrolled in MAIA, regardless of frailty status.
  • Effect of indoor environmental quality on visual comfort and productivity in office buildings

    Kaushik, Amit; Arif, Mohammed; Ebohon, Obas John; Arsalan, Hord; Rana, Muhammad Qasim; Obi, Lovelin (Emerald, 2021-11-15)
    Purpose: The Purpose of this paper is to identify statistical relationships between visual environment and occupant productivity. Visual environment is one of the most important indoor environmental quality (IEQ) parameters, and it directly impacts occupant productivity in offices. The literature outlines the significance of the impact. Still, there is a lack of investigation, statistical analysis and inter-relationships between the independent variables (IEQ factors), especially in the hot and arid climate. Design/methodology/approach: This study presents a research study investigating the effects and shows statistical relationships between IEQ on occupant comfort and productivity. The study was conducted in the Middle East, and data was collected for 12 months. It used the response surface analysis to perform analysis. Findings: This study outlined seven unique relationships highlighting the recommended range, inter-dependencies. Results include that illumination has maximum effect on visual comfort and temperature, daylight having direct influence and relative humidity, wall type next to the seat and kind of workspace also impact visual comfort and productivity. These findings would help to improve occupant comfort and productivity in office buildings. It is recommended to include results and recommendations on design guidelines for office buildings. Originality/value: This study presents the unique effects of non-visual IEQ parameters on visual comfort and productivity. This investigation also provides a unique method to develop the statistical relationship between various indoor environmental factors and productivity in different contexts and buildings.
  • Assessing off-site readiness in construction organisations from the contractors' perspective: a case study from India

    Rana, Muhammad; Bendi, Deepthi; Arif, Mohammed; Oladinrin, Olugbenga; Kaushik, Amit (OMICS, 2022-06-30)
    Purpose This paper intends to present factors affecting the Indian construction organisations in adopting Off-Site Construction (OSC) methods. Design/Methodology/Approach An existing readiness maturity model has been used to assess three large organisations in different parts of India. A case study methodology has been adopted in this paper to highlight critical issues in OSC adoption in India. Findings This paper presents three case studies and concludes the Indian construction sectors readiness to adopt the OSC methods. Through the case studies, different issues related to the adoption of OSC have been identified and highlighted for the Indian construction sector. Although the three companies are large, there are several Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ (SME) operating in India's construction sector, and future research shall be needed to review these SMEs. Originality/Value Through the three case studies, several factors related to the implementation of OSC methods have been identified and highlighted within the Indian construction sector. Although the model has been applied to the Indian construction sector, it can easily be modified to fit into other areas and similar dynamics and business conditions. Practical Implications The proposed OSC readiness maturity model guides construction practitioners in India through a structured process to assess their OSC readiness in the market. This assessment enables them to evaluate and benchmark their processes through the strategic and operational phases. This research will add to the existing knowledge of OSC in India by mapping issues relevant to India's construction industry. The research has provided background on the status of OSC, the drivers and barriers affecting the implementation of Off-site Construction techniques in the Indian construction industry. Limitations: This research study is broadly focused on developing and assessing an off-site construction readiness framework for Indian construction organisations. The research scope and the population for data collection are limited to Large construction organisations in India only.
  • Researching women and men 1996-2020: Is androcentrism still dominant?

    Thelwall, Michael; Abdullah, Abrizah; Fairclough, Ruth (MIT Press, 2022-06-30)
    This article assesses the balance of research concerning women and men over the past quarter century using the crude heuristic of counting Scopus-indexed journal articles relating to women or men, as suggested by their titles or abstracts. A manual checking procedure together with a word-based heuristic was used to identify whether an article related to women or men. The heuristic includes both explicit mentions of women and men, implicit mentions, and a set of gender-focused health issues and medical terminology. Based on the results, more published articles now relate to women than to men. Moreover, more than twice as many articles relate exclusively to women than exclusively to men, with the ratio increasing from 2.16 to 1 in 1996 to 2.25 to 1 in 2020. Monogender articles mostly addressed primarily female health issues (maternity, breast cancer, cervical cancer) with fewer about primarily male health issues (testicular cancer, pancreatic cancer, health needs of men who have sex with men). Some articles also explicitly addressed gender inequality, such as empowering women entrepreneurs. The findings suggests that the androcentrism of early science has eroded in terms of research topics. This apparent progress should be encouraging for women researchers and society.
  • A study of the antimicrobial activity of combined black pepper and cinnamon essential oils against Escherichia fergusonii in traditional African yoghurt

    Ogwaro, B.A.; O'Gara, Elizabeth A.; Hill, David J.; Gibson, Hazel (MDPI, 2021-11-18)
    The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of black pepper (BPE) and cinnamon bark (CE) extracts against E. fergusonii was assessed in pasteurized full cream milk during and post-fermentation. The milk was fermented with 1% (v/v) of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus (NCIMB 11778) and Streptococcus thermophilus (NCIMB 10387) (approx. 106 cfu/mL each) and incubated and stored at 25 °C for 5 days (144 h) or at 43 °C for 24 h and then stored at 25 °C for 120 h. The milk was spiked with E. fergusonii at the start of fermentation by the lactic acid bacteria (pre-fermentation contamination) for after fermentation (post fermentation contamination). BPE and CE were applied at concentrations based on their minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.5% and 0.25% respectively as follows: 0.5% BPE alone; 0.125% BPE with 0.1875% CE; 0.25% BPE with 0.125% CE; 0.375% BPE with 0.0625% CE; 0.25% CE alone. Results showed that during fermentation at 25 °C, E. fergusonii grew to a similar level (approx. 109 CFU/mL) in control samples and 108 CFU/mL when BPE or CE were added alone. Whereas, in the samples with the combined essential oils, the bacterium grew to 106–107 CFU/mL only. During the milk fermentation at 43 °C, E. fergusonii grew to approx. 109 CFU/mL in samples without treatment. However, it was not detected in samples containing mixed BPE with CE after 8, 10 and 12 h of fermentation. Subsequent storage at 25 °C resulted in undetectable levels of the bacterium in all the samples treated with BPE or CE after 24 h of storage. These results indicated that BPE in combination with CE reduced growth during fermentation and was bactericidal during storage.
  • Detecting shifts in metropolitan structure: a spatial network perspective

    Odell, Harry; Navarro Lopez, Eva; Pinto, Nuno; Deas, Iain (SAGE, 2022-06-30)
    The spatial distribution of metropolitan areas creates a complex system of competing and cooperating economic units. Understanding the size, scale and functional structure of such systems is an important topic in regional science. This paper uses commuter flow data over a forty year period to analyse the changing structure of the Greater Manchester metropolitan area. We apply a combination of complex network analysis, residual network analysis and spatial network visualisation to detect Greater Manchester’s polycentric structure and identify intra-regional communities. This method is able to identify economic geographies in a highly complex and interdependent commuter network. We comment on the role of administrative boundaries in shaping metropolitan regions and discuss the potential of our work to inform debates on regional governance geographies and local government planning practices.
  • Structured experiential learning placement for pharmacy undergraduate students – a pilot study

    Singh, Amardeep; Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick Anthony (SPER Publications and Solutions Pvt. Ltd., 2021-11)
    Integration of a pharmacist role into the United Kingdom core healthcare services became better recognized in recent years. The General Pharmacy Council is modernizing pharmacy education through the introduction of the foundation year, replacing the pre-registration year, moving to five-year from a four-year degree, and proposed hands-on undergraduate placements across the five years. Experiential learning placements (ELP) are not a component of the current pharmacy education. ELP was designed as a pilot, to explore the logistics and sustainability of this initiative. While the sample was small (n=6), the students who attended demonstrated good academic performance in exams and practical assessments. Students and supervisors were provided with structured activities, a workbook guide, and students' pre-placement training. The pre-placement taught topics were; counter medications counseling, measuring blood pressure, selling devices such as thermometers, receiving prescriptions from patients, and stock and waste management. The community pharmacists appreciated the structured activities and workbook; and having the freedom to allocate other activities to the students during the placement period. The low uptake by students during the pilot, was due to their preference to take paid jobs rather than unpaid placement, combined with the unwillingness of community pharmacists to provide unremunerated ongoing participation‎.
  • SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses following CD20-depletion treatment in patients with haematological and rheumatological disease: a West Midlands Research Consortium study

    Shields, Adrian M.; Venkatachalam, Srinivasan; Shafeek, Salim; Paneesha, Shankara; Ford, Mark; Sheeran, Thomas; Kelly, Melanie; Qureshi, Iman; Salhan, Beena; Karim, Farheen; et al. (Wiley, 2022-06-30)
    B cell depleting agents are amongst the most commonly used drugs to treat haemato-oncological and autoimmune diseases. They rapidly induce a state of peripheral B cell aplasia with the potential to interfere with nascent vaccine responses, particularly to novel antigens. We have examined the relationship between B cell reconstitution and SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses in two cohorts of patients previously exposed to B cell depleting agents: a cohort of patients treated for haematological B cell malignancy and another treated for rheumatological disease. B cell depletion severely impairs vaccine responsiveness in the first 6 months after administration: SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence was 42.2% and 33.3% in the haemato-oncological patients and rheumatology patients respectively and 22.7% in patients vaccinated while actively receiving anti-lymphoma chemotherapy. After the first 6 months, vaccine responsiveness significantly improved during early B cell reconstitution, however, the kinetics of reconstitution was significantly faster in haemato-oncology patients. The AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine and the Pfizer BioNTech 162b vaccine induced equivalent vaccine responses, however shorter intervals between vaccine doses (<1m) improved the magnitude of the antibody response in haeamto-oncology patients. In a subgroup of haemato-oncology patients, with historic exposure to B cell depleting agents (>36m previously) vaccine non-responsiveness was independent of peripheral B cell reconstitution. The findings have important implications for primary vaccination and booster vaccination strategies in individuals clinically vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2.
  • Perforated steel stud to improve the acoustic insulation of drywall partitions

    Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Robinson, John (MDPI, 2021-11-09)
    Steel studs are an inevitable part of drywall construction as they are lightweight and offer the required structural stability. However, the studs act as sound bridges between the plasterboards, reducing the overall sound insulation of the wall. Overcoming this often calls for wider cavity walls and complex stud decoupling fixtures that increase the installation cost while reducing the floor area. As an alternative approach, this research reveals the potential of perforated studs to improve the acoustic insulation of drywall partitions. The acoustic and structural performance is characterized using a validated finite element model that acted as a prediction tool in reducing the number of physical tests required. The results established that an acoustic numerical model featuring fluid-structure-interaction can predict the weighted sound reduction index of a stud wall assembly at an accuracy of ±1 dB. The model was used to analyze six perforated stud designs and found them to outperform the sound insulation of non-perforated drywall partitions by reducing the sound bridging. Overall, the best performing perforated stud design was found to offer improvements in acoustic insulation of up to 4 dB, while being structurally compliant.
  • The challenges of cloud computing in forensic science

    Ubaid Ullah, Raja Muhammad; Buckley, Kevan; Garvey, Mary; Li, Jun (Seventh Sense Research Group, 2019-07-31)
    Cloud computing (CC) is rapidly growing new information technology (IT) in private, public and especially in Government sectors internationally. CC technology facilitates rather than deploy and manage an in-house physical IT infrastructure by having local servers or personal devices to manage their softwares application. This new technology helps to transfer their traditional IT services model into remote, virtualised environments, which are often hosted and managed by the third parties. Therefore, CC environment of any organisation turn prospective opportunity for cyber attackers, which is become a primary challenges of CC in the protection of valuable data from different types of attacks. CC posed a serious risk and major challenge to digital investigators, also offers sufficient opportunities to investigators for better refining the forensic science. This study summarises the key areas of CC forensics science challenges and analyses by the researched performed by other researchers. The challenges also presented along with associated literature that particularly reference them. Finally the discussion and analysis, which is based on the study finding to consider the challenges provoke by the CC forensics science on our findings.
  • High-temperature oxidation and erosion of HVOF sprayed NiCrSiB/Al2O3 and NiCrSiB/WC Co coatings

    Praveen, Ayyappan Susila; Arjunan, Arun (Elsevier, 2021-11-02)
    Material deterioration due to erosion and oxidation in high-temperature environments is a major cause of wear in power plants, aircraft engines and petrochemical industries. NiCrSiB based surface coatings using thermal spray techniques such as High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) offer a cost-effective route to improve the tribological properties for a range of substrate materials. The study investigates the high-temperature oxidation and erosion resistance of HVOF coated NiCrSiB reinforced with Al2O3 and WC single bond Co on SS304 stainless steel substrate. The oxidation kinetics and erosion responses of the coatings at 750 °C were evaluated for a period of 160 hrs and the coating microstructure, morphology and chemical compositions characterised. A total of three coating compositions were studied namely: NiCrSiB/Al2O3, NiCrSiB/n-Al2O3 and NiCrSiB/WC single bond Co where the results indicate a superior oxidation and erosion resistance in all cases in comparison to uncoated SS304. However, it was found that the NiCrSiB reinforced with micro-structured Al2O3 outperformed all the other coatings in terms of oxidation resistance. When it comes to erosion resistance, NiCrSiB/WC single bond Co was found to demonstrate the highest performance.
  • Golimumab induction and maintenance for moderate to severe ulcerative colitis: results from GO-COLITIS (Golimumab: a Phase 4, UK, open label, single arm study on its utilization and impact in ulcerative Colitis)

    Probert, Christopher SJ; Sebastian, Shaji; Gaya, Daniel R; Hamlin, P John; Gillespie, Gillian; Rose, Anita; Tate, Helen; Wheeler, Colin; Irving, Peter M; Probert, C; et al. (BMJ, 2018-07-07)
    GO-COLITIS aimed to measure the effectiveness of subcutaneous golimumab in tumour necrosis factor-α antagonist-naive patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis (UC) despite conventional treatment.GO-COLITIS was an open label, single arm, phase 4 study with a pragmatic design which reflected UK clinical practice. Adult patients were eligible if diagnosed with UC ≥3 months, partial Mayo score (PMS) 4-9. Patients received subcutaneous golimumab induction (200 mg initially and 100 mg at week 2) followed at week 6 by 50 mg or 100 mg (depending on weight) every 4 weeks until week 54 with a 12-week follow-up. Efficacy was measured by PMS at baseline, week 6, 30, 54 and 66. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) and EuroQol Group 5 Dimensions Health Questionnaire (EQ-5D)) was assessed at baseline, week 6 and week 54. All safety adverse events (AEs) were recorded.207 patients were enrolled and 205 received golimumab (full analysis set (FAS)205). At week 6, 68.8% (95% CI 62.0% to 75.1%) and 38.5% (95% CI 31.8% to 45.6%) of patients were in response and remission, respectively, using PMS. At the end of the induction phase, 140/141 patients in clinical response continued into the maintenance phase (Maintenance FAS). Sustained clinical response through week 54 was achieved in 51/205 (24.9%) of the FAS205 population and 51/140 (36.4%) of the Maintenance FAS population. Statistically significant improvements from baseline to week 6 were observed for the IBDQ total score and for each IBDQ domain score (bowel symptoms, emotional function, systemic symptoms and social function), as well as the EQ-5D index score and associated visual analogue scale score (p<0.0001). Improvement of HRQoL was sustained through week 54. Serious AEs leading to treatment discontinuation occurred in 8.8% of patients.In this study measuring patient-reported outcomes in patients with moderate to severe UC, golimumab induced and maintained response as measured by PMS and significantly improved quality of life measures.NCT02092285; 2013-004583-56.
  • International genome-wide meta-analysis identifies new primary biliary cirrhosis risk loci and targetable pathogenic pathways

    Cordell, HJ; Han, Y; Mells, GF; Li, Y; Hirschfield, GM; Greene, CS; Xie, G; Juran, BD; Zhu, D; Qian, DC; et al. (Springer, 2015-09-22)
    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a classical autoimmune liver disease for which effective immunomodulatory therapy is lacking. Here we perform meta-analyses of discovery data sets from genome-wide association studies of European subjects (n=2,764 cases and 10,475 controls) followed by validation genotyping in an independent cohort (n=3,716 cases and 4,261 controls). We discover and validate six previously unknown risk loci for PBC (Pcombined <5 × 10-8) and used pathway analysis to identify JAK-STAT/IL12/IL27 signalling and cytokine-cytokine pathways, for which relevant therapies exist.
  • A conditional opposition-based particle swarm optimization for feature selection

    Too, Jingwei; Sadiq, Ali Safaa; Mirjalili, Seyed Mohammad (Taylor & Francis, 2022-06-30)
    Because of the existence of irrelevant, redundant, and noisy attributes in large datasets, the accuracy of a classification model has degraded. Hence, feature selection is a necessary pre-processing stage to select the important features that may considerably increase the efficiency of underlying classification algorithms. As a popular metaheuristic algorithm, particle swarm optimization has successfully applied to various feature selection approaches. Nevertheless, particle swarm optimization tends to suffer from immature convergence and low convergence rate. Besides, the imbalance between exploration and exploitation is another key issue that can significantly affect the performance of particle swarm optimization. In this paper, a conditional opposition-based particle swarm optimization is proposed and used to develop a wrapper feature selection. Two schemes, namely opposition-based learning and conditional strategy are introduced to enhance the performance of the particle swarm optimization. Twenty-four benchmark datasets are used to validate the performance of the proposed approach. Furthermore, nine metaheuristics are chosen for performance verification. The findings show the supremacy of the proposed approach not only in obtaining high prediction accuracy but also in small feature sizes.
  • The effects of COVID-19 pandemic on the UK construction industry and the process of future proofing business

    Mark, Stride; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Egbu, Charles (Emerald, 2022-12-31)
    Purpose COVID-19 was officially declared as a worldwide pandemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO) on March 11th 2020, before the UK was put into lockdown on the 23rd March 2020. Organisations had to reconsider their policies and procedures to allow their businesses to continue. This paper focuses on the effects of COVID-19 that the UK construction sector has had to undertake to enable businesses whilst employees had to adhere to COVID-19 lockdown rules. In addition, how the sector can positively continue once normality has returned within the industry. In doing so, this paper understands the historical issues within the construction sector and have had an effect during COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative research methodology approach was taken to help obtain live information. In total, 19 semi-structured interviews from 15 organisations related to the construction sector were conducted to collect data. This information was evaluated using thematic analysis to arrive at the results, inferences and recommendations to the sector. Findings This research has revealed that companies have had to adopt a three-stage process to overcome a new dimensional challenge of COVID-19. These include: 1. Making quick decisions during the first stage of the pandemic. 2. Producing new policies and procedures to restart businesses enabling staff to return to workplace safely. 3. Implementing methods to future proof organisations against any potential pandemics. To help organisations to future proof their business five C’s are recommended. Originality/value This paper provides a rich insight into the understanding and awareness of the effects of COVID-19 and the changes that the construction sector has had to undertake in order to adhere to the lockdown rules whilst remaining productive. This research contributes towards informing policymakers on some of the lessons learnt during the management of the COVID-19 pandemic from a construction sector perspective.

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