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  • Antibiotics utilization patterns and direct cost in an emergency treatment unit in Sri Lanka

    Morrissey, Hana; Ball, PATRICK A; ABERATHNA, ACHINI; Zawahir, Shukry (Innovare Academic Sciences, 2019-11-15)
    Objective: Anecdotal evidence suggested that antibiotics are frequently used in the Emergency Treatment Units in Sri Lanka, mostly for the respiratory tract, soft tissue or urinary tract infections. This study aimed to describe the utilization patterns of antibiotics in terms of most common type, indication and associated direct cost in ETU at the Teaching Hospital Karapitiya, Sri Lanka. Methods: In this study, utilization patterns and the direct cost of antibiotics in an emergency treatment unit was evaluated by checking the bed-head tickets of all patients admitted to the unit from 1/5/16 to 15/5/16. Out of the 414 bed-head tickets checked 156 patients were receiving antibiotic treatment. Socio-demographic characteristics were analyzed. The prices of antibiotics in SriLankan government hospitals were taken from the hospital medical supply division price list. Data were analyzed by Microsoft Excel™. Results: In this study, 45.5% (out of 156 patients) were aged between 61-80years. The most used antibiotic was amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (18.1%) and clarithromycin (15.5%). Generic antibiotics were used for most patients (95.58%). Fixed-dose combinations were used in 18.5% of cases, including amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and piperacillin/tazobactam. The common indications for prescribing antibiotics were respiratory tract infections (31.2%) and soft tissues injuries (12.1%). Conclusion: This study revealed that there is apparent overuse of antibiotics and reveals that antibiotic stewardship programme could reduce antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance, and cost. Improved understanding of the rationale for antibiotic use would contribute optimising their use. Further studies are needed to establish the extent of sub-optimal prescribing of antibiotics in Sri Lankan hospitals.
  • Janus kinase enzyme (JAK) inhibitors and rheumatoid arthritis: a review of the literature

    Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick A; Askari, Ayman; NOURI, ABDULLA KHALID (Innovare Academic Sciences, 2019-11-15)
    Cytokines play an essential role in normal cell growth and the regulation of immune function. The emergence of Janus Kinase Enzyme inhibitors promises the start of a revolution in the treatment of several chronic diseases. Their efficacy and safety profile have been demonstrated in multiple trials and they have been licensed for the treatment of a number of diseases including RA and PsA. Moreover, the use of highly selective Janus Kinase Enzyme inhibitors is currently being studied aiming to reduce side effects compared with traditional JAKinibs, an example of that would be the recent FDA approved upadacitinib. The Janus Kinase Enzyme inhibitorsmay supplant the classical biologic agents in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, since they exhibitthe advantages of oral administration, simultaneous blockade of multiple cytokines, reversibility and the lack of immunogenicity.
  • Systems thinking and CMM for continuous improvement in the construction industry

    Omotayo, TS; Boateng, P; Osobajo, O; Oke, A; Obi, LI (Emerald, 2019-09-12)
    © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a capability maturity model (CMM) developed to implement continuous improvement in small and medium scale construction companies (SMSCC) in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: A multi-strategy approach involving qualitative studies of SMSCC in Nigeria was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively selected construction experts in Nigeria to identify variables essential for continuous improvement in SMSCC. Data collected were thematically analysed using NVIVO. Subsequently, a system thinking approach is employed to design and develop the CMM for implementing continuous improvement SMSCC, by exploring possible relationships between the variables established. Findings: CMM provided a five-level approach for the inclusion of investigated variables such as team performance; culture; structure; post-project reviews, financial risk management, waste management policy and cost control. These variables are factors leading to continuous improvement in SMSCC, implementable within a six to seven and a half years’ timeline. Practical implications: The system thinking model revealed cogent archetypes in the form of reinforcing loops that can be applied in developing the performance of SMSCC. Continuous improvement is feasible. However, it takes time to implement. Further longitudinal studies on the cost of implementing continuous improvement through CMM a knowledge transfer project can be initiated. Originality/value: A methodical strategy for enhancing the effectiveness and operations of SMSCC in developing countries can be extracted from the causal loop diagram and the CMM.
  • Who shares health and medical scholarly articles on Facebook?

    Thelwall, Michael; Mohammadi, Ehsan; Barahmand, Nilofar (Wiley, 2020-01-31)
    Over a million journal articles had been shared on public Facebook pages by 2017, but little is known about who is sharing (posting links to) these papers and whether mention counts could be an impact indicator. This study classified users who had posted about 749 links on Facebook before October 2017 mentioning 500 medical and health-related research articles, obtained using altmetric.com data. Most accounts (68%) belonged to groups, including online communities, journals, academic organizations, and societies. Of individual profiles, academics accounted for only 4%, but the largest group were health care professionals (16%). More than half (58%) of all Facebook accounts examined were not academic. The non-academic dominance suggests that public Facebook posts linking to health-related articles are mostly used to facilitate scientific knowledge flow between nonacademic professionals and the public. Therefore, Facebook mention counts may be a combined academic and non-academic attention indicator in the health and medical domains.
  • Optimization of thermo-mechanical reliability of solder joints in crystalline silicon solar cell assembly

    Zarmai, MT; Ekere, NN; Oduoza, CF; Amalu, EH (Elsevier, 2015-12-28)
    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. A robust solder joint in crystalline silicon solar cell assembly is necessary to ensure its thermo-mechanical reliability. The solder joint formed using optimal parameter setting accumulates minimal creep strain energy density which leads to longer fatigue life. In this study, thermo-mechanical reliability of solder joint in crystalline silicon solar cell assembly is evaluated using finite element modelling (FEM) and Taguchi method. Geometric models of the crystalline silicon solar cell assembly are built and subjected to accelerated thermal cycling utilizing IEC 61215 standard for photovoltaic panels. In order to obtain the model with minimum accumulated creep strain energy density, the L9 (33) orthogonal array was applied to Taguchi design of experiments (DOE) to investigate the effects of IMC thickness (IMCT), solder joint width (SJW) and solder joint thickness (SJT) on the thermo-mechanical reliability of solder joints. The solder material used in this study is Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu and its non-linear creep deformation is simulated using Garofalo-Arrhenius creep model. The results obtained indicate that solder joint thickness has the most significant effect on the thermo-mechanical reliability of solder joints. Analysis of results selected towards thermo-mechanical reliability improvement shows the design with optimal parameter setting to be: solder joint thickness - 20 μm, solder joint width - 1000 μm, and IMC thickness - 2.5 μm. Furthermore, the optimized model has the least damage in the solder joint and shows a reduction of 47.96% in accumulated creep strain energy density per cycle compared to the worst case original model. Moreover, the optimized model has 16,264 cycles to failure compared with the expected 13,688 cycles to failure of a PV module designed to last for 25 years.
  • A nonuniform DPLL architecture for optimized performance

    Al-Ali, OAK; Anani, N; Al-Araji, S; Al-Qutayri, M (Wiley, 2013-11-26)
    This paper presents the design, analysis, simulation, and implementation of the architecture of a new nonuniform-type digital phase-locked loop (DPLL). The proposed loop uses a composite phase detector (CPD), which consists of a sample-and-hold unit and an arctan block. The CPD improves the system linearity and results in a wider lock range. In addition, the loop has an adaptive controller block, which can be used to minimize the overall system sensitivity to variations in the power of the input signal. Furthermore, the controller has a tuning mechanism that gives the designer the flexibility to customize the loop parameters to suit a particular application. These performance parameters include lock range, acquisition time, phase noise or jitter, and signal-to-noise ratio enhancement. The simulation results show that the proposed loop provides flexibility to optimize the major conflicting system parameters. A prototype of the proposed system was implemented using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), and the practical results concur with those obtained by simulation using MATLAB/Simulink. © 2013 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan.
  • Evaluation of analytical methods for parameter extraction of PV modules

    Ibrahim, H; Anani, N (Elsevier, 2017-10-23)
    © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. A review and evaluation of the main analytical techniques for parameters extraction of photovoltaic (PV) modules with due account taken of their applications in modelling photovoltaic systems is presented. Six prevalent analytical methods are investigated and assessed using software tools, which have been developed to extract the required parameters of some commercially available PV modules using these methods. The results were subsequently compared with those obtained using well-established numerical methods. It is shown that, despite the fact that analytical methods can involve a fair amount of approximations, some analytical methods can compete in terms of accuracy with their numerical counterparts with much reduced computational complexity. .
  • Variations of PV module parameters with irradiance and temperature

    Ibrahim, H; Anani, N (Elsevier, 2017-10-23)
    © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This paper presents a comparison of common and well-documented methods for varying the single-diode model parameters extracted at standard test conditions (STC) of a PV module to suit varying operating conditions of irradiance and temperature. To perform such a comparison, accurate values of the single-diode parameters at STC are required. These were obtained using well-established numerical and iterative methods. The Newton-Raphson method was found to be most accurate for obtaining these parameters at STC. Consequently, these parameters were used to compare the methods of varying the single-diode model parameters with temperature and irradiance. MATLAB software has been developed to evaluate the performance of each method using the Shell SQ150 PV module. Results are compared with measured data and discussion of the accuracy of various methods is presented. .
  • An analysis of diversity management in the construction industry: a case study of a main contractor

    Ramesh, Marasini; Daniel, Emmanuel; Haizelden, Julia (Association of Researchers in Construction Management, 2019-12-31)
    In recent times there is an increasing argument for diversity and inclusivity in work places. Although the construction industry is moving forward to improve diversity, there is still a long way to create a more inclusive workforce. Not only are there legal requirements that organisations must adhere to following the release of the Equality Act 2010, there is also a moral and business case for managing diversity. It has been speculated that improving diversity and reaching out to wider talent pools could help improve the skills shortage that is currently affecting the industry. However, there is limited evidence to substantiate this claim in the construction industry context. The aim of this study is to establish a theoretical perspective on how diversity management would improve the construction industry and evaluate whether main contractors are managing diversity effectively. A theoretical framework was developed through the review of the literature to monitor the effectiveness of the DM strategies. A case study of one of the top ten major contractors in the United Kingdom has been carried out to see the extent to which the company is applying the diversity management requirements. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews with senior management mainly Director, Project Manager and Diversity Manager to understand their current approach to manage diversity, document analysis and observations. Following these interviews, a questionnaire was issued to all employees of the company to identify if the approach taken from senior management is working. The case study findings highlight that there are policies and tools in place to comply equality legislation and to improve and enhance diversity. There is a positive attitude to implement and maintain steps to improve diversity with some incentives. However, the results of the questionnaire survey reveal that the main contractor lacks diverse workforce as the employment of women or ethnic minorities; majority of women in the organisation are on lower level positions. There is limited evidence to quantify the productivity improvements, nevertheless majority of the respondents believed that diverse workforce enhances productivity.
  • Variation of the performance of a PV panel with the number of bypass diodes and partial shading patterns

    Ibrahim, Haider; Anani, Nader (IEEE, 2019-10-28)
    This paper presents an investigation into the variation of the performance of a PV module under different patterns of partial shading with variation in the number of bypass diodes. The investigation was performed using a MATLAB/Simulink simulation approach, which mitigates the need for complex numerical techniques. The single-diode model of a PV cell was used in the modelling. The performance is assessed in terms of the global maximum power yield and the number of local power peaks in the power-voltage characteristic of the PV module. Results indicate that increasing the number of bypass diodes can improve the energy yield of a module at the expense of increasing the number of local power peaks in the power-voltage curve. It is also found that the latter depends, not only on the pattern of partial shading, but also on its severity.
  • The relationship between the last planner® system and collaborative planning practice in UK construction

    Daniel, EI; Pasquire, C; Dickens, G; Ballard, HG (Emerald, 2017-05-15)
    © 2017 Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify how the newly emerging UK practice of "collaborative planning" (CP) for construction project delivery aligns with the advocated principles of the global last planner system (LPS) of production planning and control. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed, qualitative, exploratory approach was adopted for the study. This entailed qualitative data through three techniques, namely: semi-structured interviews, documents analysis, and structured observation. In total, 30 in-depth interviews were conducted over a 12 month period with lean construction consultants, clients, main contractors, and subcontractors drawn from the building, highways and infrastructure and rail sector. In all, 15 projects were visited where practices were observed. Findings: The study reveals that the current practice of CP in the UK partially aligns with the LPS principles. Where practitioners have heard of the LPS they believe it to be the same practice as CP. Research limitations/implications: This study is limited to 30 interviews, observation of 15 projects and document analysis. The aim of the study is not to generalise the findings, however, since the study examined top construction companies and practitioners in the UK and the findings were consistent across the sample, some conclusions could be made. The study is also limited to examining the construction phase only, future studies should incorporate the design phase. Practical implications: A clear identification of the elements of current practice compared to the components of the LPS provides a contribution to the future practice of project production planning and management in the construction industry. Social implications: The study highlights a continuing resistance to collaboration within the industry. This resistance is subtly embedded within implemented practices even though they are based on collaborative working for their success. Originality/value: This is among the first studies in the UK that comprehensively examines and reports the application of LPS/CP practice in construction across the major construction sectors. Future studies could build on the findings from this work to develop an approach/methodology to improve the current practice.
  • Creating social value within the delivery of construction projects: the role of lean approach

    Daniel, EI; Pasquire, C (Emerald, 2019-07-15)
    © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the current knowledge surrounding social value (SV) and show how lean approach supports SV realisation in the delivery of construction projects. Design/methodology/approach: A critical literature review was adopted, to gather the current knowledge surrounding SV from mainstream management sciences, construction management and lean literature. A total of 70 studies were critically reviewed. Findings: The study establishes that the current level of awareness on SV is still low and there is a dearth of scholarly publications on SV especially in the construction management literature. The investigation reveals the potentials of lean approach in supporting the delivery of SV on construction projects. Social implications: This study conceptualises the community and the physical environment around where the construction project is executed as customers using lean production approach. It shows that the transformation, flow and value view supports smooth workflow, which enhances the achievement of SV objectives. This creates a new insight into how SV can be realised in construction project delivery. Originality/value: This study extends the on-going debate around the need for SV in construction project delivery and contributes to construction management and lean construction literature on SV. Future studies could build on this to obtain empirical data and develop an approach/method that would support the evidencing of SV delivery on construction projects.
  • Mechanical performance of highly permeable laser melted Ti6Al4V bone scaffolds

    Arjunan, Arun; Demetriou, Marios; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Wang, Chang (Elsevier, 2019-11-06)
    Critically engineered stiffness and strength of a scaffold are crucial for managing maladapted stress concentration and reducing stress shielding. At the same time, suitable porosity and permeability are key to facilitate biological activities associated with bone growth and nutrient delivery. A systematic balance of all these parameters are required for the development of an effective bone scaffold. Traditionally, the approach has been to study each of these parameters in isolation without considering their interdependence to achieve specific properties at a certain porosity. The purpose of this study is to undertake a holistic investigation considering the stiffness, strength, permeability, and stress concentration of six scaffold architectures featuring a 68.46–90.98% porosity. With an initial target of a tibial host segment, the permeability was characterised using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in conjunction with Darcy's law. Following this, Ashby's criterion, experimental tests, and Finite Element Method (FEM) were employed to study the mechanical behaviour and their interdependencies under uniaxial compression. The FE model was validated and further extended to study the influence of stress concentration on both the stiffness and strength of the scaffolds. The results showed that the pore shape can influence permeability, stiffness, strength, and the stress concentration factor of Ti6Al4V bone scaffolds. Furthermore, the numerical results demonstrate the effect to which structural performance of highly porous scaffolds deviate, as a result of the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. In addition, the study demonstrates that stiffness and strength of bone scaffold at a targeted porosity is linked to the pore shape and the associated stress concentration allowing to exploit the design freedom associated with SLM.
  • Author gender differences in psychology citation impact 1996-2018

    Thelwall, Michael (Wiley, 2019-12-31)
    Academic psychology in the USA is a gender success story in terms of overturning its early male dominance but there are still relatively few senior female psychology researchers. To assess whether there are gender differences in citation impact that might help to explain either of these trends, this study investigates psychology articles since 1996. Seven out of eight Scopus psychology categories had a majority of female first-authored journal articles by 2018. From regression analyses of first and last author gender and team size, female first authors associate with a slightly higher average citation impact, but extra authors have a ten times stronger association with higher average citation impact. Last author gender has little association with citation impact. Female first authors are more likely to be in larger teams and if team size is attributed to the first author’s work, then their apparent influence of female first authors on citation impact doubles. Whilst gender differences in average citation impact are too small to account for gender-related trends in academic psychology, they warn that male dominated citation-based ranking lists of psychologists do not reflect the state of psychology research today.
  • An evaluation of University of Wolverhampton Master of Pharmacy students’ perceptions of pharmacist prescribing

    Morrissey, Hana; Khan, Adnan; Key, Michelle; Ball, Patrick (FIP, 2019-10-31)
    The Prescribers Survey Report 2016 identified 3,944 annotated pharmacist prescribers on the General Pharmaceutical Council register in 2015 with 2,567 independent prescribers, 425 are supplementary prescribers and 952 are both. This survey-based study evaluated the perceptions of University of Wolverhampton Master of Pharmacy students about pharmacist independent prescribing. Ethics clearance was granted by the School of Pharmacy Ethics Board. A link to an online survey was sent to all students enrolled in the Master of Pharmacy course. The anonymous data analysed thematically. Cohort-dependant variations were identified, with Year 1 and 2 students more informed about independent prescribing and including it in their career plans. Students in Year 3 and 4 were more likely to pursue the career if it was appealing after graduation. This may be due to the course workload in Year 3 and 4 plus another year of internship, making further study unappealing at that time.
  • An ensemble of flexible conformations underlies mechanotransduction by the cadherin-catenin adhesion complex

    Bush, Martin; Alhanshali, Bashir M; Qian, Shuo; Stanley, Christopher B; Heller, William T; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M; Nicholl, Iain D; Walz, Thomas; Callaway, David JE; et al. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2019-10-07)
    The cadherin–catenin adhesion complex is the central component of the cell–cell adhesion adherens junctions that transmit mechanical stress from cell to cell. We have determined the nanoscale structure of the adherens junction complex formed by the α-catenin•β-catenin•epithelial cadherin cytoplasmic domain (ABE) using negative stain electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and selective deuteration/small-angle neutron scattering. The ABE complex is highly pliable and displays a wide spectrum of flexible structures that are facilitated by protein-domain motions in α- and β-catenin. Moreover, the 107-residue intrinsically disordered N-terminal segment of β-catenin forms a flexible “tongue” that is inserted into α-catenin and participates in the assembly of the ABE complex. The unanticipated ensemble of flexible conformations of the ABE complex suggests a dynamic mechanism for sensitivity and reversibility when transducing mechanical signals, in addition to the catch/slip bond behavior displayed by the ABE complex under mechanical tension. Our results provide mechanistic insight into the structural dynamics for the cadherin–catenin adhesion complex in mechanotransduction.
  • Development of approach to support construction stakeholders in implementation of the last planner system

    Daniel, EI; Pasquire, C; Dickens, G (American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2019-07-09)
    © 2019 American Society of Civil Engineers. Implementation of the Last Planner System (LPS) has gained prominence in the construction industry, and its influence on the production system seems to be rapid and significant. However, recent studies reveal that application of LPS principles on projects is fragmented. The aim of the current study, therefore, is to develop an approach to support construction stakeholders in implementation of the LPS. Thirty semistructured interviews and three in-depth case studies were conducted with construction stakeholders. The authors developed a nonprescriptive but all-inclusive approach for supporting construction stakeholders in implementation of the LPS on construction projects. This study contributes to knowledge in engineering management because it provides new insight into how to apply the LPS holistically in the management of engineering projects. The study further provides evidence regarding current practice and performance of the LPS in the management of civil engineering projects, as demonstrated in the case studies. Finally, identification of the three levels of support (organizational, project, and external enabler) provides a focal point for construction practitioners to focus on in implementation of the LPS in the management of civil engineering projects.
  • Implementing HBIM on conservation heritage projects: Lessons from renovation case studies

    Woodward, Alexa; Heesom, David (Emerald Publishing, 2020-01-31)
    Purpose: Heritage or Historic BIM, often referred to as HBIM, is becoming an established feature in both research and practice. The advancement of data capture technologies such as laser scanning and improved photogrammetry, along with the continued power of BIM authoring tools has provided the ability to generate more accurate digital representations of heritage buildings which can then be used during renovation and refurbishment projects. Very often these representations of HBIM are developed to support the design process. What appears to be often overlooked is the issue of conservation and how this can be linked to the BIM process to support the conservation management plan for the building once it is given a new lease of life following the refurbishment process. Approach: The paper presents a review of the context of conservation and HBIM then subsequently presents two case studies of how HBIM was applied to high profile renovation and conservation projects in the UK. In presenting the case studies, a range of issues is identified which support findings from the literature noting that HBIM is predominantly a tool for the geometric modelling of historic fabric with less regard for the actual process of renovation and conservation in historic buildings. Findings: Lessons learnt from the case studies and from existing literature are distilled to develop a framework for the implementation of HBIM on heritage renovation projects to support the ongoing conservation of the building as an integral part of a BIM based asset management strategy. Five key areas are identified in the framework including Value, Significance, Recording, Data Management and Asset Management. Building on this framework, a conceptual overlay is proposed to the current Level 2 BIM process to support conservation heritage projects. Originality/Value: This paper addresses the issue of HBIM application to conservation heritage projects. Whilst previous work in the field has identified conservation as a key area, there is very little work focusing on the process of conservation in the HBIM context. This work provides a framework and overlay which could be used by practitioners and researchers to ensure that HBIM is fully exploited and a more standardised method is employed which used on conservation heritage renovation projects.
  • Stress and Coping Strategies: A Correlational Analysis to Profiling Maladaptive Behaviors at Work

    Riva, Silvia; Chinyio, Ezekiel (World Academy of Science Engineering and Technology, 2019-05-23)
    Introduction: Workers in different sectors are prone to stress at varying levels. They also respond to stress in different ways. An inspiration was to study stress development amongst workers in a work dangerous setting (Construction Industry) as well as how they cope with specific stress incidences. Objective: The overarching objective of the study was to study and correlate between stress and coping strategies. The research was conducted in an organizational industrial setting, and its findings on the coping actions of construction workers are reported in this article. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted with 80 participants aged 18-62. These were working for three different construction organizations in the West Midland region of the UK. Their coping actions were assessed using the COPE Inventory (Carver, 2013) instrument while the level of stress was assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, 1994). Results: Out of 80 workers (20 female, 25%, mean age 40.66), positive reinterpretation (M=4.15, SD=2.60) and active coping (M=4.18, SD=2.55) were the two most adaptive strategies reported by the workers while the most frequent maladaptive behavior was mental disengagement (M=3.62, SD=2.25). Among the maladaptive tactics, alcohol and drug abuse was a significant moderator in stress reactions (t=6.12, p=.000). Conclusion: Some maladaptive strategies are adopted by construction workers to cope with stress. So, it could be argued that programs of stress prevention and control in the construction industry have a basis to develop solutions that can improve and strengthen effective interventions when workers are stressed or getting stressed.
  • Improving Productivity of Road Surfacing operations with the help of Lean and Discrete Event Simulation techniques; a UK case study

    Rana, Muhammad Qasim; Aziz, Zeeshan (CITC Global, 2017-03-08)
    Road surfacing is an important module in Highways Development and Maintenance sector. The resurfacing and rehabilitation of road pavements has become a costly requirement due to large number of private and commercial vehicles using the roads that cause pavements to disintegrate rapidly. The roadworks incur not only direct work costs, but also indirect costs from factors such as congestion, motor accidents, traffic disturbance and pollution. Maintenance activities on the roads usually cause delays and queuing. There is obviously a need for quick and cost effective maintenance that minimizes the occurrences and duration of these disruptions. This research investigates the role of Discrete Event Simulation (DES) to enhance the productivity of the delivery of road surfacing operations through achieving higher production rates and minimum road closure times.

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