Recent Submissions

  • Crotalus oreganus concolor (Viperidae; Crotalinae): A case of envenomation with venom analysis from the envenomating snake and a diagnostic conundrum of myo-neurological symptoms

    Keyler, Daniel E.; Saini, Vinay; O'Shea, Mark; Gee, Jeff; Smith, C.F.; Mackessy, Stephen (Elsevier, 2018-07)
    Background:Crotalus oreganus concolor is a smaller species of North American rattlesnake indigenous to a confined middle region of the western United States. Reports of envenomation to humans are quite rare, and studies regarding the toxicity and pharmacological actions of C. o. concolor venom have shown the presence of low molecular weight myotoxins with myotoxic effects, and low metalloproteinase activity. Method: A case that occurred in a remote location following the bite of a captive C. o. concolor is presented. Case: The bite was sustained to the right thumb while removing the snake from a drawer-type housing unit and it resulted in a single fang puncture. Immediately, there was tingling in the bitten thumb followed by extreme tingling in the lips that progressed to the toes, and tightening of the face, forehead, and chest. Ambulance ground transport to a medical helicopter airlift site was initiated. While in transport early on the patient experienced a cascade of symptoms beginning with blurry vision, total body paresthesia, dyspnea and transient diaphragmatic paralysis followed by three waves of spastic muscle paresis of the hands and feet. These symptoms were transient and had resolved spontaneously prior to arrival at the hospital three hours post bite. Patient laboratory values and coagulation parameters remained within normal limits, except for a mild increase in D-dimer, elevated creatine kinase, and reduced total calcium. Local envenomation at the bite site was minimal, but numbness of the thumb persisted for longer than a week. For various reasons antivenom was not administered at any stage and symptoms were successfully managed symptomatically. At 24 hours, and following discharge, the patient was experiencing total body weakness, but able to walk slowly without assistance. He continued to experience myalgias in the right arm and overall generalized weakness for several days. Several weeks later sloughing of skin around the bite site was observed, but other local symptoms, other than numbness of the thumb, had resolved completely. Venom from the offending snake was collected and venom analysis performed revealing the presence of very high levels of myotoxins, small peptides that induce rapid tetanic muscle contractions in mice, and several serine proteinases often associated with coagulopathies. Discussion/Conclusion: Causes of the patient’s transient myo-neurological symptoms were confounding diagnostically with respect to those that were potentially venom-induced versus those that may have been stress-induced physiological responses.
  • Plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 4 inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis through interaction with calcineurin.

    Baggott, Rhiannon R; Alfranca, Arantzazu; López-Maderuelo, Dolores; Mohamed, Tamer M A; Escolano, Amelia; Oller, Jorge; Ornes, Beatriz C; Kurusamy, Sathishkumar; Rowther, Farjana B; Brown, James E; Oceandy, Delvac; Cartwright, Elizabeth J; Wang, Weiguang; Gómez-del Arco, Pablo; Martínez-Martínez, Sara; Neyses, Ludwig; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Armesilla, Angel Luis (Lippincott, 2014-10-01)
    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been identified as a crucial regulator of physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Among the intracellular signaling pathways triggered by VEGF, activation of the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling axis has emerged as a critical mediator of angiogenic processes. We and others previously reported a novel role for the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) as an endogenous inhibitor of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway, via interaction with calcineurin, in cardiomyocytes and breast cancer cells. However, the functional significance of the PMCA/calcineurin interaction in endothelial pathophysiology has not been addressed thus far. Using in vitro and in vivo assays, we here demonstrate that the interaction between PMCA4 and calcineurin in VEGF-stimulated endothelial cells leads to downregulation of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway and to a significant reduction in the subsequent expression of the NFAT-dependent, VEGF-activated, proangiogenic genes RCAN1.4 and Cox-2. PMCA4-dependent inhibition of calcineurin signaling translates into a reduction in endothelial cell motility and blood vessel formation that ultimately impairs in vivo angiogenesis by VEGF. Given the importance of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway in the regulation of pathological angiogenesis, targeted modulation of PMCA4 functionality might open novel therapeutic avenues to promote or attenuate new vessel formation in diseases that occur with angiogenesis.
  • The role of oestrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in the aetiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Ofosu, Wendy Amy; Mohamed, Daahir; Corcoran, Olivia; Ojo, Opeolu Oyejide (Bentham Science, 2018-01-19)
    Challenges facing the treatment of type 2 diabetes necessitate the search for agents which act via alternative pathways to provide better therapeutic outcomes. Recently, an increasing body of evidence implicates the activation of oestrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) in the development and treatment of underlying conditions in type 2 diabetes. This article summarizes available evidence for the involvement of oestrogen receptors in insulin secretion, insulin resistance as well as glucose uptake and highlights the potential of ERβ as a therapeutic target. Recent studies indicate an association between the activation of each of the isoforms of ER and recent findings indicate that ERβ show promise as a potential target for antidiabetic drugs. In vitro and in vivo studies in receptor knock out mice indicate beneficial actions of selective agonists of ERβ receptor and underscore its therapeutic potential. Studies are needed to further elucidate the exact mechanism underlying the role of ERβ activation as a therapeutic approach in the management of type 2 diabetes.
  • Possible association between ABCC8 C49620T polymorphism and type 2 diabetes in a Nigerian population.

    Engwa, Godwill Azeh; Nwalo, Friday Nweke; Chikezie, Claribel Chidimma; Onyia, Christie Oby; Ojo, Opeolu Oyejide; Mbacham, Wilfred Fon; Ubi, Benjamin Ewa (Springer Nature, 2018-05-12)
    The association between ABCC8 gene C49620T polymorphism and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in populations of diverse ethnic backgrounds has been reported. However, such occurrence in an African population is yet to be established. This case-control study involving 73 T2D and 75 non-diabetic (ND) patients investigated the occurrence of this polymorphism among T2D patients in Nigeria and assessed its relationship with body lipids of patients. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were collected and lipid profile indices including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were assayed. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR (RFLP-PCR) was employed to genotype the ABCC8-C49620T polymorphism using PstI restriction enzyme. This study revealed significantly (p < 0.05) higher prevalence of the T allele of the ABCC8 gene in T2D patients (33.1%) compared to ND patients (28.0%). The mutant TT genotype was also higher than the CC and CT genotypes in T2D patients compared to ND patients but did not show any significant risk (p>0.05) of T2D for the unadjusted codominant, dominant and recessive models. Following age adjustment, the mutant genotypes (CT and TT) showed significant (p<0.05) risk of T2D for all the models with the recessive model presenting the greatest risk of T2D (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.16-4.91, p<0.018). The TT genotype significantly (p<0.05) associated with high level of HDL and reduced levels of TC, TG and LDL in non-diabetic patients but was not associated with any of the demographic and clinical characteristics among T2D patients. ABCC8 C49620T polymorphism showed possible association with T2D marked by predominance of the mutant TT genotype in T2D patients. However, the relationship between TT genotype and lipid abnormalities for possible beneficial effect on people suffering from T2D is unclear.
  • Assessment of the Pro12Ala Polymorphism in the PPAR-γ2 Gene among Type 2 Diabetes Patients in a Nigerian Population.

    Engwa, Godwill Azeh; Nwalo, Friday Nweke; Chiezey, Venatus Osita; Unachukwu, Marian N; Ojo, Opeolu Oyejide; Ubi, Benjamin Ewa (MDPI, 2018-04-05)
    The association between the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARγ2 gene, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and obesity in certain ethnic populations has been reported. However, this relationship has not yet been described among diabetes patients in Nigeria. This study investigated the relationship between the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARγ2 gene, obesity, and lipid abnormalities characterizing T2D among patients in Nigeria. This case-control study recruited 73 T2D and 75 non-diabetic (ND) patients. Demographic and clinical data were collected and blood glucose levels together with serum lipid profile for patients were measured. Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARγ2 gene was genotyped by restriction fragment length-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RFLP-PCR). The PPAR-γ2 gene (amplicon size = 270 base pair) was successfully amplified for all samples. Following restriction enzyme digestion and analysis by agarose gel electrophoresis, amplicons from samples showed a band of size 270 bp and were of the wild homozygous Pro/Pro genotype. Ala12 variant was totally absent from the study population. Obesity, estimated using Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in T2D patients compared to the non-diabetic patients. More so, the prevalence of lipid abnormalities; hypercholesterolaemia (TC > 200 mg/dL), hypertriglyceridaemia (TG > 150 mg/dL), high HDL (>100 mg/dL), and low HDL (<50 mg/dL) was significantly greater (p < 0.001) in T2D patients compared to non-diabetic patients. Results obtained further indicated lack of significant association between PPAR-γ2 gene polymorphism, T2D, and obesity. However, obesity and dyslipidaemia were strongly associated in T2D patients.
  • Can Microsoft Academic help to assess the citation impact of academic books?

    Kousha, Kayvan; Thelwall, Mike (Elsevier, 2018-08-15)
    Despite recent evidence that Microsoft Academic is an extensive source of citation counts for journal articles, it is not known if the same is true for academic books. This paper fills this gap by comparing citations to 16,463 books from 2013 to 2016 in the Book Citation Index (BKCI) against automatically extracted citations from Microsoft Academic and Google Books in 17 fields. About 60% of the BKCI books had records in Microsoft Academic, varying by year and field. Citation counts from Microsoft Academic were 1.5 to 3.6 times higher than from BKCI in nine subject areas across all years for books indexed by both. Microsoft Academic found more citations than BKCI because it indexes more scholarly publications and combines citations to different editions and chapters. In contrast, BKCI only found more citations than Microsoft Academic for books in three fields from 2013-2014. Microsoft Academic also found more citations than Google Books in six fields for all years. Thus, Microsoft Academic may be a useful source for the impact assessment of books when comprehensive coverage is not essential.
  • Gastric cooling and menthol cause an increase in cardiac parasympathetic efferent activity in healthy adult human volunteers.

    Kazadi, Lubobo-Claude; Fletcher, Janine; Barrow, Paul A (Wiley, 2018-08-02)
    What is the central question of this study? How do gastric stretch and gastric cooling stimuli affect cardiac autonomic control? What is the main finding and its importance? Gastric stretch causes an increase in cardiac sympathetic activity. Stretch combined with cold stimulation result in an elimination of the sympathetic response to stretch and an increase in cardiac parasympathetic activity, in turn resulting in a reduction in heart rate. Gastric cold stimulation causes a shift in sympathovagal balance towards parasympathetic dominance. The cold-induced bradycardia has the potential to decrease cardiac workload, which might be significant in individuals with cardiovascular pathologies. Gastric distension increases blood pressure and heart rate in young, healthy humans, but little is known about the effect of gastric stretch combined with cooling. We used a randomized crossover study to assess the cardiovascular responses to drinking 300 ml of ispaghula husk solution at either 6 or 37°C in nine healthy humans (age 24.08 ± 9.36 years) to establish the effect of gastric stretch with and without cooling. The effect of consuming peppermint oil capsules to activate cold thermoreceptors was also investigated. The ECG, respiratory movements and continuous blood pressure were recorded during a 5 min baseline period, followed by a 115 min post-drink period, during which 5 min epochs of data were recorded. Cardiac autonomic activity was assessed using time and frequency domain analyses of respiratory sinus arrhythmia to quantify parasympathetic autonomic activity, and corrected QT (QTc) interval analysis to quantify sympathetic autonomic activity. Gastric stretch only caused a significant reduction in QTc interval lasting up to 15 min, with a concomitant but non-significant increase in heart rate, indicating an increased sympathetic cardiac tone. The additional effect of gastric cold stimulation was significantly to reduce heart rate for up to 15 min, elevate indicators of cardiac parasympathetic tone and eliminate the reduction in QTc interval seen with gastric stretch only. Stimulation of gastric cold thermoreceptors with menthol also caused a significant reduction in heart rate and concomitant increase in the root mean square of successive differences. These findings indicate that gastric cold stimulation causes a shift in the sympathovagal balance of cardiac control towards a more parasympathetic dominant pattern.
  • Biomass Extraction Using Non-Chlorinated Solvents for Biocompatibility Improvement of Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Jiang, Guozhan; Johnston, Brian; Townrow, David E; Radecka, Iza; Koller, Martin; Chaber, Pawel; Adamus, Grazyna; Kowalczuk, Marek (MDPI, 2018-07-03)
    An economically viable method to extract polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from cells is desirable for this biodegradable polymer of potential biomedical applications. In this work, two non-chlorinated solvents, cyclohexanone and -butyrolactone, were examined for extracting PHA produced by the bacterial strain Cupriavidus necator H16 cultivated on vegetable oil as a sole carbon source. The PHA produced was determined as a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) homopolyester. The extraction kinetics of the two solvents was determined using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). When cyclohexanone was used as the extraction solvent at 120 C in 3 min, 95% of the PHB was recovered from the cells with a similar purity to that extracted using chloroform. With a decrease in temperature, the recovery yield decreased. At the same temperatures, the recovery yield of -butyrolactone was significantly lower. The effect of the two solvents on the quality of the extracted PHB was also examined using GPC and elemental analysis. The molar mass and dispersity of the obtained polymer were similar to that extracted using chloroform, while the nitrogen content of the PHB extracted using the two new solvents was slightly higher. In a nutshell, cyclohexanone in particular was identified as an expedient candidate to efficiently drive novel, sustainable PHA extraction processes.
  • Investigation of activated carbon/ethanol for low temperature adsorption cooling

    Elsayed, Ahmed; AL-Dadah, Raya K.; Mahmoud, Saad; Kaialy, Waseem (Taylor & Francis Online, 2015)
  • Most bacteria synthesise Polyphosphate by unknown mechanisms

    Whitehead, Michael; Eagles, Lawrence; Hooley, Paul; Brown, Michael (Microbiology comment, 2013-11)
  • Physical Characteristics of Wireless Communication Channels for Secret Key Establishment: A Survey of the Research

    Bottarelli, Mirko; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Ismail, Dhouha Kbaier Ben; Karadimas, Petros; Al-Khateeb, Haider (Elsevier, 2018-08-14)
    Physical layer security protocols have recently been deployed in the context of Wireless communications. These are derived from the intrinsic characteristics of the communication media for key generation, sharing and randomness extraction. These protocols always seek to exhibit both low computational complexity and energy efficiency, whilst also maintain unconditionally secure communications. We present herein, a comprehensive literature review of existing “state-of-the-art” quantisation schemes for physical layer security, with a strong emphasis upon key performance metrics and intrinsic channel characteristics. Our survey seeks not only to concentrate upon the most common quantisation methods, hence their efficiency during key generation; but also crucially, describes the inherent trade-offs as between these standardised metrics. The exact way(s) in which these metrics are duly influenced by quantisation schemes is also discussed, by means of a comprehensive critical narrative of both existing and future developments in the field.
  • Branched Polyurethanes Based on Synthetic Polyhydroxybutyrate with Tunable Structure and Properties

    Brzeska, Joanna; Elert, Anna; Morawska, Magda; Sikorska, Wanda; Rutkowska, Maria; Kowalczuk, Marek (MDPI, 2018-07-28)
    Branched, aliphatic polyurethanes (PURs) were synthesized and compared to linear analogues. The influence of polycaprolactonetriol and synthetic poly([R,S]-3-hydroxybutyrate) (R,S-PHB) in soft segments on structure, thermal and sorptive properties of PURs was determined. Using FTIR and Raman spectroscopies it was found that increasing the R,S-PHB amount in the structure of branched PURs reduced a tendency of urethane groups to hydrogen bonding. Melting enthalpies (on DSC thermograms) of both soft and hard segments of linear PURs were higher than branched PURs, suggesting that linear PURs were more crystalline. Oil sorption by samples of linear and branched PURs, containing only polycaprolactone chains in soft segments, was higher than in the case of samples with R,S-PHB in their structure. Branched PUR without R,S-PHB absorbed the highest amount of oil. Introducing R,S-PHB into the PUR structure increased water sorption. Thus, by operating the number of branching and the amount of poly([R,S]-3-hydroxybutyrate) in soft segments thermal and sorptive properties of aliphatic PURs could be controlled.
  • Prediction studies of environment-friendly biodegradable polymeric packaging based on PLA. Influence of specimens’ thickness on the hydrolytic degradation profile

    Sikorska, W.; Musioł, M.; Rydz, J.; Zięba, M.; Rychter, P.; Lewicka, K.; Šiškova, A.; Mosnáčková, K.; Kowalczuk, Marek; Adamus, G. (Elsevier, 2018-07-11)
    Application of new biodegradable polymer packaging based on polylactide (PLA), susceptible to organic recycling, can help in the waste reduction in landfills. In this paper, the results of the study on abiotic degradation of PLA and its blend containing 15 mol% of poly[(R,S)-3-hydroxybutyrate], as a model for the first step of organic recycling were presented. The samples used for this study have different shapes and thicknesses: rigid films and cuboid-bars. Particular emphasis was placed on determining the pattern of degradation products released into the medium. Originally, the results of present study revealed that the application of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry supported by high performance liquid chromatography allowed envisaging the differences in the degradation products pattern released from the studied PLA-based samples differing in thickness. The significant differences in degradation products pattern were predominately observed in the first steps of incubation process and are caused by an autocatalytic effect, which occurs mainly during degradation of the large size PLA samples. Although, the thickness of PLA-based packaging changes the degradation product patterns, however this does not increase the total amounts of acids released to the medium. Thus, it may be concluded that thickness should not affect significantly organic recycling of the packaging.
  • Improved tableting behavior of paracetamol in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone additive: Effect of mixing conditions

    Rose, Ayuk Agbor; Kaialy, Waseem (Science Direct, 2018-06-28)
    Monoclinic paracetamol (PA) is notorious as a poorly compactible model drug. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is a polymer that can act as an effective binder to improve the mechanical properties of PA. It is surprising however that the role of mixing conditions on the physicochemical and mechanical properties of PA–PVP mixtures has not been reported previously. The results of this work showed that PA–PVP mixtures containing 5% (w/w) PVP prepared using high energy mixing conditions had considerably smaller particle size distributions and higher cohesivities than mixtures prepared using low energy mixing conditions. Solid-state analysis did not detect any change in the monoclinic crystalline form of PA after mixing with PVP. The following rank order of tabletability for PA–PVP mixtures was obtained according to the mixing condition: low shear ∼ medium shear < dry high shear < wet high shear < high-speed homogenization. A higher level of hydrogen bonding was detected in the mixtures prepared via high energy mixing conditions than in those prepared using low energy mixing conditions. Mixing is therefore a critical process that needs to be optimized during the preparation of interactive mixtures for tableting.
  • Prophylactic antibiotic use in orthopaedic surgery - is it worth it?

    Patel, Bhavini; Morrissey, Hana; Rahman, Ayesha (EJBPS, 2018-08)
    Introduction: The administration of pre-operative prophylactic antibiotic is widely accepted in decreasing the risk of developing surgical site infections in orthopaedic surgery. The choice of antibiotic, duration, dosage and use of antibiotic laden bone cement varies substantially in clinical practise. Aims: This meta-analysis was conducted to assess the association of antibiotic choice, duration and dosage on the prevalence of surgical site infections in different types of orthopaedic surgery (hip replacements, knee arthroplasty, spinal surgery, ankle and foot surgery, shoulder surgery) and the identification of causative microorganisms. Methods: A literature search was performed in MEDLINE databases, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register published in the Cochrane Library, and Science Direct from January 2000-February 2018. Outcomes of interest included presence of post-operative surgical site infections. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool was used to assess the risk of bias, extract outcomes of interest and to identify studies for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Results: The literature search revealed 169 studies out of which 18 studies were analysed and ultimately six studies in total were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled data investigating the post-operative deep surgical site infections rates favouring the use of prophylactic antibiotics (p=0.03). Only one study showed statistical significance (p=0.041) favouring the usage of high dosage antibiotic loaded bone cement in hemiarthroplasty procedures. Conclusion: This systematic review and meta-analysis recommends the use of high-dose antibiotic loaded bone cement and prophylactic oral antibiotics concurrently and as indicated, to prevent surgical site infections in hemiarthroplasties. The duration of prophylactic antibiotic use should be restricted to 24 hours commenced preoperatively or within 1-2 hours from incision. This systematic review also highlights the urgent need for more double blind RCT to validate the prophylactic use of antibiotics.
  • Comparison of experiment and theory for superelastic electron collision studies from laseraligned magnesium

    Pursehouse, James; Bostock, Chris; Nixon, Kate; Harvey, Matthew; Fursa, Dmitry V; Bray, Igor; Murray, Andrew James (APS, 2018-08-09)
    A combined experimental and theoretical study of superelastic electron collisions from laser-aligned magnesium atoms for a range of collision energies from 35eV to 55eV is presented. 24Mg atoms were excited from the 31S0 ground state to the 31P1 excited state using continuous-wave linearly-polarized laser radiation at ~285 nm. Electrons of well-defined energy Einc then de-excited the targets, and the superelastically scattered electrons emerging from the collision were detected as a function of scattering angle and laser polarization. Results for alignment of the target by the electron beam are presented for a range of scattering angles, for outgoing energies from Eout = 35eV to 55eV . The agreement between the measurements and the results of the convergent close-coupling theory are encouraging, but some discrepancies remain.
  • C/EBPβ and Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Differentially Regulate Adamts-1 Induction by Stimuli Associated with Vascular Remodeling

    Oller, Jorge; Alfranca, Arántzazu; Méndez-Barbero, Nerea; Villahoz, Silvia; Lozano-Vidal, Noelia; Martín-Alonso, Mara; Arroyo, Alicia G.; Escolano, Amelia; Armesilla, Angel Luis; Campanero, Miguel R.; Redondo, Juan Miguel (American Society for Microbiology, 2016)
    Emerging evidence indicates that the metalloproteinase Adamts-1 plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of vessel remodeling, but little is known about the signaling pathways that control Adamts-1 expression. We show that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiotensin-II, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor α, stimuli implicated in pathological vascular remodeling, increase Adamts-1 expression in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Analysis of the intracellular signaling pathways implicated in this process revealed that VEGF and angiotensin-II upregulate Adamts-1 expression via activation of differential signaling pathways that ultimately promote functional binding of the NFAT or C/EBPβ transcription factors, respectively, to the Adamts-1 promoter. Infusion of mice with angiotensin-II triggered phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of C/EBPβ proteins in aortic cells concomitantly with an increase in the expression of Adamts-1, further underscoring the importance of C/EBPβ signaling in angiotensin-II-induced upregulation of Adamts-1. Similarly, VEGF promoted NFAT activation and subsequent Adamts-1 induction in aortic wall in a calcineurin-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that Adamts-1 upregulation by inducers of pathological vascular remodeling is mediated by specific signal transduction pathways involving NFAT or C/EBPβ transcription factors. Targeting of these pathways may prove useful in the treatment of vascular disease.
  • High temperature (HT) polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) A review

    Chandan, Amrit; Hattenberger, Mariska; El-kharouf, Ahmad; Du, Shangfeng; Dhir, Aman; Self, Valerie; Pollet, Bruno G; Ingram, Andrew; Bujalski, Waldemar (Elsevier, 2013-01-28)
    One possible solution of combating issues posed by climate change is the use of the High Temperature (HT) Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell (FC) in some applications. The typical HT-PEMFC operating temperatures are in the range of 100–200 °C which allows for co-generation of heat and power, high tolerance to fuel impurities and simpler system design. This paper reviews the current literature concerning the HT-PEMFC, ranging from cell materials to stack and stack testing. Only acid doped PBI membranes meet the US DOE (Department of Energy) targets for high temperature membranes operating under no humidification on both anode and cathode sides (barring the durability). This eliminates the stringent requirement for humidity however, they have many potential drawbacks including increased degradation, leaching of acid and incompatibility with current state-of-the-art fuel cell materials. In this type of fuel cell, the choice of membrane material determines the other fuel cell component material composition, for example when using an acid doped system, the flow field plate material must be carefully selected to take into account the advanced degradation. Novel research is required in all aspects of the fuel cell components in order to ensure that they meet stringent durability requirements for mobile applications.
  • Crashworthiness optimal design of multi-cell triangular tubes under axial and oblique impact loading

    Tran, TrongNahn; Baroutaji, Ahmad (Elsevier, 2018-07-05)
    This paper addresses multi-objective optimisation design for multi-cell structures under multiple loading angles. Triangular tubes with three different cross-sectional shapes are considered in this study. Numerical simulations are constructed via LS-DYNA to analyse the crashworthiness responses of the tubes where the accuracy of the numerical model is verified using experimental and theoretical techniques. It was observed that the global bending deformation mode occurs for all tubes at large loading angle whereas the progressive deformation mode is developed in some tubes under axial and oblique loading with small loading angles. Also, it was revealed that the load angle and number of cells have a significant effect on mean crushing force (MCF) where the impact of the number of cell on MCF is less than that of the load angle. A new kind of multiobjective optimisation for multiple loading cases (MOMLC) employing metamodeling and linear weighted average methods is presented. This optimisation strategy considers all impact loading cases simultaneously and thus it is effective for designing the multi-cell tubes under the multiple-loading case. The results exhibit that the optimal designs of the multi-cell tubes show better crashworthiness performance for multiple load cases.
  • Iloperidone - New Second Generation Antipsychotic: Pharmacological Aspects and Schizophrenia Clinical Management

    Reyad, Ayman Antoun; Mishriky, Raafat (Villupuram : journalcmpr, 2018-07-02)
    Iloperidone is a new atypical antipsychotic drug approved by FDA for the treatment of schizophrenia. In this article, we searched the published randomized controlled trials (RCT) and other literature to review the efficacy and safety of iloperidone using the following database (Science Direct, PubMed) and illustrate its role in the management of schizophrenia. Iloperidone showed efficacy by causing significant improvements in psychiatric scales such as Positive and Negative Syndrome scale (PANSS) and clinical global impressions (CGI). Iloperidone was associated with a number of common side effects such as metabolic and cardiovascular side effects. This review illustrated that iloperidone was well tolerated with significant improvements in disease severity and symptom intensity control in patients suffering with schizophrenia, however, iloperidone was associated with a significantly higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular side effects with minimal extrapyramidal side effects. These findings would guide psychiatrists and pharmacists in their clinical role for supporting the care of psychiatric patients.

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