Recent Submissions

  • Stepping into safety: a systematic review of extended reality technology applications in enhancing vulnerable road user safety

    Sudhakaran, Gargy; Prabhakaran, Abhinesh; Booth, Colin; Abbey, Samuel; Mahamadu, Abdul–Majeed; Georgakis, Panagiotis; Pohle, Maria; School of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK (Emerald, 2024-07-04)
    Purpose In alignment with the European Union’s Vision Zero initiative to eliminate road fatalities by 2050, leveraging technological advancements becomes crucial for addressing the challenges of vulnerable road users (VRUs), and for mitigating the impact of human error. Despite increasing scholarly interest in applications of extended reality (XR), a research gap persists, particularly in the role of XR in transportation safety. Therefore, the aim of the study was to fill this gap through a systematic literature review to evaluate comprehensively the potential scope and practical applicability of XR technologies in enhancing the safety of VRUs. Design/methodology/approach A systematic review was undertaken, following PRISMA guidelines meticulously, in which 80 relevant articles from databases, such as Scopus and Science Direct, were identified and analysed. Findings The results of the analysis revealed the potential of XR beyond pedestrians and cyclists, and highlighted a lack of research about the impact of XR with regard to the personal traits or abilities of VRUs. The results of a thorough analysis confirmed the potential of XR as a promising solution for an approach to collaborative co-creation in addressing the safety challenges of VRUs. In addition, the integration of eye-tracking with virtual reality emerged as a promising innovation for enhancing the safety of vulnerable road users. Research limitations/implications Theoretical implications include enhancing the understanding of applications of XR in VRUs’ safety and providing insights into future research possibilities and methodological approaches. Valuable insights into search strategies and inclusion-exclusion criteria can guide future research methodologies. Practical implications Practically, the findings from the study offer insights to assist urban planners and transportation authorities in incorporating XR technologies effectively for VRUs safety. Identifying areas for further development of XR technology could inspire innovation and investment in solutions designed to meet the safety needs of VRUs, such as enhanced visualisation tools and immersive training simulations. Originality/value The findings of previous research underscore the vast potential of XR technologies within the built environment, yet their utilisation remains limited in the urban transport sector. The intricacies of urban traffic scenarios pose significant challenges for VRUs, making participation in mobility studies hazardous. Hence, it is crucial to explore the scope of emerging technologies in addressing VRUs issues as a pre-requisite for establishing comprehensive safety measures.
  • Ecological value of urban environments

    Trueman, Ian C.; Young, Christopher (Blackwell, 2012-01-06)
  • Study skills enhancement through geography and environmental fieldwork

    Wheeler, Anne; Young, Christopher; Oliver, Ken; Smith, John (Taylor & Francis, 2011-12-31)
    Fieldwork is central to the GEES disciplines and is widely recognised as being key to the development of subject knowledge and skills. This paper focuses on the acquisition of study skills and the additional dimension that fieldwork contributes to the overall student learning experience. We define a study skill as a learned or inherent ability that assists in the gaining of knowledge. Using this definition our research indicates that fieldwork significantly influences the development of students' study skills and builds confidence in their subject and personal abilities.
  • Sustainable transformation of the United Arab Emirates oil and gas sector

    Zayer, Nisreen; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Al Shebli, Ahmed (British Academy of Management, 2024-09-06)
    The global economy is facing a paradigm shift due to the increasing issues of sustainability. The oil and gas sector are at the centre of this change as it produces a significant amount of carbon emissions through burning of fossil fuels. As a large producer of oil and gas, UAE must act accordingly, to ensure sustainability in its oil explorations activities. This will ensure the surface temperatures are kept below 2oC as championed by Paris Agreement, COP28, and national sustainability targets. This research aims to critically review the sustainable transformation of the United Arab Emirates oil and gas sector by exploring the issues, strategies, challenges and barriers in the implementation of sustainability measures. This will also involve the appraisal of the status of nationally set targets to promote environmental, social and economic sustainability of the energy sector in UAE. This research presents quantitative analysis of data by conducting a systematic review of literature.
  • The challenge of digital transformation for the benefit of socio-economic and environmental impact in the UK railway sector

    Seabright, Luke; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Erriadi, Wahiba; Hiremath, Rahul (British Academy of Management, 2024-09-06)
    The UK railway sector is at various stages of digital transformation throughout the various disciplines within the organisation. Socio-economic and environmental goals are clearly defined with technology there to support and implement efficient solutions. There are many challenges that come with digital transformation especially when considering the socioeconomic and environmental impacts, such as balancing budget cuts with reliability and performance and investing into digital innovations. This paper aims to raise awareness on the challenges the UK railway sector is currently facing and inform the current progress of digital transformation where socio-economic and environmental value is concerned. The industry is struggling to recruit the younger generation and diverse backgrounds due to lack of awareness in the public eye of the opportunities that are available and there is still lots of room for improvement on the recruiting, training, and upskilling side of the sector. This is becoming increasingly important as the ageing workforce are not as tech savvy as the younger generations and are less aware of digital technologies, specifically the risk of cyber attacks that come with it. Strategies can only do so much without implementation and awareness but function as a key enabler and provide guidance to the goals that are to be achieved. The industry needs to continue its current commitment to innovation and research and academia need to focus on the bigger picture rather than small niche engineering problems. Frameworks and decision-making tools are exceptionally good strategic processes, but they do not identify the strategic problem at hand along with the various interdependencies. It is good to solve a small problem one by one but solve one big problem and the small problems will follow.
  • Smart cities and competitive advantage: A perspective of MENA region

    Osman Hamed, Salih; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom (British Academy of Management, 2024-09-06)
    In the context of recently estimated trends, it is anticipated that the growth pattern of the populace in urban regions will be more significant in the first thirty years of the 21st century in comparison to the accumulative urban development patterns seen in previous data gathered from around the world. The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is the region that consists of developing countries, out of which most are rapidly urbanising populations that are expected to double by the end of 2030. Although many of the major countries in the Middle East are becoming aware of their rapidly coupling populace, which not only consists of natives but also foreign expatriates, the evidence of a shift towards technology and competitiveness of being a benchmark of standardised culture and science mix has been witnessed only in economic centres. The successful initiatives by some MENA countries to pave their way forward in streamlining their future potential to facilitate sustainability through digitalisation help in laying out a baseline framework for the adoption of the guidelines for moving towards smartness. The purpose of this research is to develop a framework for successful implementation of smart cities strategies in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.
  • Building a resilient future healthcare sector: net zero perspective

    Renukappa, Suresh; Bindiganavilae Ramaniharan, Rajeev; Subbarao, Chandrashekar; Suresh, Subashini; Fernando, Kieran; Rangaswamy, Chandrashekar; Veenith, Tonny (British Academy of Management, 2024-09-06)
    The urgency to combat climate change, highlighted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, prompted the UK’s National Health Service (NHS) to commit to achieving net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2040, positioning healthcare as a leader in environmental sustainability. To accomplish this goal, this paper aims to propose a comprehensive framework emphasising three principles and as applicable to NHS. Firstly, reducing the demand for health services through policies addressing social determinants of health and prioritising health promotion is essential. Secondly, aligning healthcare resources with patient needs and promoting value-based healthcare reform is crucial. Lastly, reducing emissions from healthcare operations and supply chains, through measures like optimising building performance and transitioning to renewable energy sources, is necessary. This paper adopts a mixed method research methodology. It stresses the need for systemic changes in healthcare policies and practices to integrate environmental considerations and achieve sustainable health equity. It also suggests that the transition to net zero healthcare emissions not only mitigates climate change but also promotes overall health and wellbeing. The COVID-19 pandemic’s transformative potential, supported by informed political action, underscores the feasibility and necessity of embracing a new era of planetary healthcare.
  • Maturity level of industry 4.0 strategies implementation in UK infrastructure sector

    Jallow, Haddy; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Georgakis, Panagiotis; Stride, Nicolle; Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, U.K (British Academy of Management, 2024-09-06)
    Industry 4.0 can provide a lot of opportunities for companies in various fields, however for companies to gain full benefit from Industry 4.0 solutions, the implementation of these technologies needs to be done in a manner where the full benefits are gained by the companies. Concerning Industry 4.0 strategies, a maturity model (MM) can be considered as a tool to describe and assess organisations’ processes concerning the environment, economy, and society, in addition, this allows them to better compare the best practices within their organisation and externally with competitors. It is argued that in terms of smart technology, there is a gap between MM and project management where a MM can allow organisations to assess the different levels of efficiency, project management, organisational management, and improvement of processes to enable the overcoming of their weaknesses allowing the promotion of smart transformation. The methodology of this research was undertaken through a pragmatic approach as the study is of a nature that has not been explored before. Secondary data was collected through a systematic literature review using the PICO model and primary data was collected following a qualitative methodology to study the objectives of the research. A purposive sampling method was selected for this research and further in the research snowball sampling was adopted due to the sensitive nature of the study. Semi structured interviews were chosen as the data collection method. Overall, the UK infrastructure sector is medium in terms of levels of implementation, despite there being six main technologies identified;(1) BIM, (2) 3D models, (3) Big Data, (4) Drones, (5) GIS and (6) Point clouds and Digital Survey, to have been implemented, more industry 4.0 agendas could positively impact the industry such as Artificial Intelligence, however from this study only one large organisation has started to invest in the technology. This study adopts the Maturity Model too allow the understanding on what level organisations in the UK infrastructure are in terms of industry 4.0 strategies implementation. This can allow the understanding of what plans to put in place to gain a higher level of maturity within this field.
  • A systematic review of the barriers and attraction strategies for females in the construction industry

    Rutherford, Naomi; Daniel, Emmanuel Itodo (Emerald, 2024-06-26)
    The construction industry is overwhelmingly male-dominated and has a rapidly ageing workforce. Comprehensive research shows that women are being considered as an untapped resource that can be used to fill the skills gap however, numerous barriers are hindering women from either entering or progressing in the industry across the board. Globally, governments and organisations within the sector have implemented various attraction strategies considered effective solutions for dealing with gender disparity and lack of diversity. However, there is a limited number of studies available that provide a holistic review that incorporates data extrapolated to reveal geographical and thematic trends of the most common barriers and attraction strategies found in an endeavour to encourage females into the construction industry. This research seeks to bridge that gap by conducting a systematic review using Scopus, from which 51 journals were analysed using qualitative research design. It was identified that Australia has been at the forefront of conducting research in the last decade, and discrimination and apprenticeships/pre-apprenticeship programmes were strong factors impacting or influencing females and their career prospects in the industry. The study offers valuable insight for governments, human resources, educational organisations, and self-employed individuals.
  • Exploring intersectionality into the design of an equality strategy within Higher Education: A Brazilian and UK study

    Starr, Sean; Suresh, Subashini; Renukappa, Suresh; Faculty of Arts, Business and Social Sciences, and Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, U.K. (British Academy of Management, 2024-09-06)
    Incorporating intersectionality within higher education institutions (HEIs) strategies is not merely theoretical but a practical necessity for fostering inclusive environments. This paper explores a strategic approach that embraces the transformative potential of intersectionality, emphasizing the importance of comprehensive approaches that address the diverse experiences of academic communities. This study integrated semiotic analysis and rich picture methods along with intersectionality within higher education framework to investigate the dynamics of equality in Brazil and UK HEIs. Findings of the study advocates for continuous reinterpretation and adaptation of equality strategies, in line with evolving understandings of intersectional identities and their impact on educational experiences. The paper concludes by emphasizing the interplay between social justice and environmental sustainability, advocating for a holistic approach to addressing social inequalities alongside environmental challenges. This integrated perspective is crucial for HEIs aiming to contribute to societal transformation through research and education.
  • Women In the built environment: Why don’t women want to join the sector

    Stride, Mark; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Sinha, Ritika; Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom (British Academy of Management, 2024-09-06)
    The construction industry is continually challenged due to the skills deficit throughout the sector. This is currently impacting numerous projects throughout the UK including the housing programme, HS2 and significant infrastructure upgrades. Women only represent 13% of the built environment and whilst this number has increased since the Equality Act was implemented in the UK in 2010, the sector still needs to encourage more women to join the sector. This paper discusses why women do not want join the industry, how women can improve the construction sector and some of the methods that can help do this such as flexible and remote working, culture changes and implementing key frameworks.
  • The knowledge, attitude, and motivation gap towards climate change among young adults in the Humber, UK

    Sarrakh, Redouane; Lakshmi, Geetha; Daniels, Anthony; Renukappa, Suresh (British Academy of Management, 2024-09-06)
    Transitioning to a net-zero economy is crucial for combatting and reducing carbon emissions. Various industrial clusters are preparing for climate related deadlines, like 2050, in the UK and globally. With their concentration of energy-intensive industries, industrial clusters, like the Humber (UK), play a pivotal role in this transition. Efforts have been made to speed up the processes, using new technologies like Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and blue hydrogen. However, the success of achieving the UK's net-zero emissions goal relies not only on technology, but also heavily on the availability of the future workforce. The literature around work preparedness of young individuals for these sectors is still nebulous. Using survey data collected in November-December 2023, this paper explores the knowledge, attitudes, and motivations of 490 young people (aged 11 to 18) who study in a Lincolnshire college. We find of those surveyed, slightly over half have a reasonable degree of understanding but do not feel a desire to work in climate related jobs. Our assessment is that some further clarity is needed about green jobs and climate literacy.
  • Business model innovation for sustainability in the construction sector: An institutional theory perspective

    Renukappa, Suresh; De Jesús Miranda Herrero, Arturo; Suresh, Subashini; Sarrakh, Redouane; Gowda, Thandava; Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, U.K (British Academy of Management, 2024-09-06)
    In recent years, sustainability has been increasingly incorporated at every fabric of the organisation. Construction organisations have a significant role in achieving the sustainability objectives. This has led to the new form of business model innovation considering sustainability aspects into the construction organisations goals and process for creating positive impact while reducing negative consequences for the environment and society while being cost-effective. This paper identified a list of the external pressure’s construction organisations needs to innovate their business models, focused on sustainable practices. The research methodology adopted was a critical review of literature. Institutional theory framework was selected to classify and examine the factors influencing the adoption of the sustainable business model innovation for construction organisations. The external drivers for construction organisations to adopt sustainable business models are classified into coercive, mimetic, and normative pressures.
  • Is the UK water sector responsible?

    Zaman, Haamid; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Georgakis, Panagiotis; Erriadi, Wahiba; Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, U.K (British Academy of Management, 2024-09-06)
    At present in the UK water companies and their leaders face huge scrutiny in the media over their alleged failings. To begin to address this issue of whether the UK water organisation sector is responsible, a literature review has been carried out based around the theme of corporate social responsibility. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices within the United Kingdom water sector organisations. The study reveals that CSR initiatives in the water sector aim to enhance societal well-being, align with regulatory requirements, and strengthen brand visibility. Social inclusion, stakeholder engagement, and environmental stewardship are the core components of CSR. Through a critical analysis, the review demonstrates the significance of CSR in marketing, shaping organisational operations, and fostering diversity and inclusion policies. The impacts of CSR include minimising operational disruptions, strengthening brand reputation, and contributing to environmental sustainability. There are challenges to consider, including climatic changes, financial constraints, and the need for a sustainable CSR culture. Furthermore, the review focuses on the role of regulations, incentives, and reporting requirements in influencing CSR practices in the UK water industry. By building stakeholder trust, building reputation, and improving operational efficiency, CSR contributes significantly to the overall performance of the UK water industry. The conclusion identifies a research gap, urging future studies to investigate the effectiveness of different CSR strategies and the application of innovative technologies for sustainable water management.
  • Drivers for managing knowledge in the context of smart cities: An empirical study

    Renukappa, Suresh; Abdalla, Wala; Suresh, Subashini; Gandhi, Lingaraja; Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, United Kingdom (British Academy of Management, 2024-09-06)
    Knowledge management is seen as a core element for successful implementation of smart cities projects and initiatives. KM can contribute to make faster, smarter and better decisions, increase productivity, decrease task completion time, and to increase organisational learning and innovativeness. However, so as to create efficient KM strategies, it is critical for smart cities organisations to understand and identify their unique drivers to manage knowledge in their particular environment. The aim of this paper is to investigate the key drivers that have pushed forward the implementation of KM strategies within the context of smart cities. The study deployed an online questionnaire survey conducted via 97 participants from various public and private sector organisations involves in smart cities projects and initiatives. Through the online survey questionnaire respondents were asked to indicate the level of importance of the drivers for managing knowledge in the context of smart cities. The quantitative data has been analysed with the help of statistical techniques such as descriptive analysis and the t-test. Statistical analyses were undertaken using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings of this study revealed that the five most important drivers for managing smart cities related knowledge are: to improve sharing of knowledge related to smart cities agenda, to protect loss of smart cities related knowledge due to key workers’ departures, to help integrate knowledge assets related to smart cities agenda, to improve the capture knowledge related to smart cities agenda, and to improve employee’s productivity in implementing smart cities agenda. Therefore, smart cities organisations need to carefully identify their key drivers to deploy KM. They need to be aware of the factors that can influence, enable or hinder the effectiveness of KM strategies. Additionally, smart cities organisations leadership and senior management need to create encouraging the supportive corporate culture that contribute to employees’ willingness to share their knowledge
  • Taking care of elderly at home: approaches for the family caregivers

    Kar, Nilamadhab (The Institute of Insight, 2024-02-02)
    Most of the elderly stay at home, along with their family members. Some live alone and others in old age homes. The preference to stay in the family home is well recognised. The care of the elderly primarily involves basic care for the activities of daily life, support regarding illnesses, providing medications and other medical treatment, nursing care, and dealing with psychological stress and loneliness. Caring is an enjoyable experience, but can be psychologically stressful for the family caregivers beyond a point, and many may suffer from burnout. While most families understand the needs of their elderly members and try to support them, there are still concerns of inadequate care, neglect, and even abuse. Lack of time is often quoted as the reason by the family members, besides lack of awareness and expertise in taking care. Awareness of the needs of the elderly, a family-specific strategy, and keenness to care can change the scenario, and the quality of care the elderly get in their family home by the members can be greatly improved.
  • 3D printed CoCrMo personalised load-bearing meta-scaffold for critical size tibial reconstruction

    Wanniarachchi, Chameekara; Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Singh, Manpreet; Robinson, John; Vance, Aaron; Appiah, Martin; Arafat, Abul (Elsevier, 2024-06-26)
    Porous scaffolds have evolved, allowing personalised 3D-printed structures that can improve tissue reconstruction. By using scaffolds with specific porosity, Poisson's ratio and stiffness, load-bearing tissues such as tibial reconstruction can be improved. Recent studies suggest the potential for negative Poisson's ratio (-ν) meta-scaffolds in mimicking the behaviour of natural tissue, leading to improved healing and tissue reintegration. This study reveals a porous meta-scaffold that offers high -ν and can be personalised to match desired stiffness. By using laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) of CoCrMo, a porous structure was created, characterised by its ability to achieve heightened -ν. Prototype testing and numerical modelling unveiled a proxy-model capable of predicting and personalising the porosity, yield strength, elastic modulus, and -ν of the tibial meta-scaffold representing a novel contribution to the field. The surrogate model also aids characterising the impact of design variables such as of the scaffold on the key performance requirements of the tibial scaffold. This approach enables the fabrication of porous biomaterials with personalised properties, specifically suited for load-bearing tibial reconstruction. The resulting meta-scaffold offers -ν ranging from -0.16 to -0.38, porosity between 73.46% and 85.36%, yield strength of 30–80 MPa, and elastic modulus ranging from 8.6 to 22.6 GPa. The optimised architecture feature -ν of 0.223 and a targeted elastic modulus of 17.53 GPa, while also showcasing yield strength and porosity of 57.2 MPa and 76.35%, respectively. By combining 3D printing with tailored scaffolds, this study opens doors to mass customisation of improved load-bearing porous biomaterials that of negative Poisson's ratio and stiffness matching.
  • Low muscularity and myosteatosis is related to the host systemic inflammatory response in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer

    Malietzis, George; Johns, Neil; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar; Knight, Stella; Kennedy, Robin H.; Fearon, Kenneth C.H.; Aziz, Omer; Jenkins, John T.; *Department of Surgery, St Marks Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex, UK †Antigen Presentation Research Group of Imperial College, St Marks Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex, UK ‡Department of Clinical and Surgical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Scotland §Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College, Paddington, London, UK ¶Department of Colorectal Surgery, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK. (Wolters Kluwer Health, 2016-01-01)
    Objective: We examined the relationships between computed tomography (CT)-defined skeletal muscle parameters and the systemic inflammatory response (SIR) in patients with operable primary colorectal cancer (CRC). Background: Muscle depletion is characterized by a reduced muscle mass (myopenia) and increased infiltration by inter-and intramuscular fat (myosteatosis). It is recognized as a poor prognostic indicator in patients with cancer, but the underlying factors remain unclear. Methods: A total of 763 patients diagnosed with CRC undergoing elective surgical resection between 2006 and 2013 were included. Image analysis of CT scans was used to calculate Lumbar skeletal muscle index (LSMI), and mean muscle attenuation (MA). The SIR was quantified by the preoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and albumin levels. Correlation and multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify independent relationships between patient SIR and muscle characteristics. Results: Patients with NLR > 3 had significantly lower LSMI and lower MA than those with NLR < 3 [LSMI = 42.07 cm2m-2 vs 44.27 cm2m-2 (P = 0.002) and MA = 30.04 Hounsfield unit (HU) vs 28.36 HU (P = 0.016)]. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high NLR [odds ratio (OR) = 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29-2.45), P < 0.001] and low albumin [OR = 1.80 (95% CI: 1.17-2.74), P = 0.007] were independent predictors of reduced muscle mass. High NLR was significantly related with a low mean MA and hence myosteatosis [OR = 1.60 (95% CI: 1.03-2.49), P = 0.038]. Conclusions: These results highlight a direct association between myopenia, myosteatosis, and the host SIR in patients with operable CRC. A better understanding of factors that regulate muscle changes such as myopenia and myosteatosis may lead to the development of novel therapies that influence a more metabolically "healthy" skeletal muscle and potentially alter cancer outcomes.
  • Body composition of the host influences dendritic cell phenotype in patients treated for colorectal cancer

    Malietzis, George; Lee, Gui Han; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar; Bernardo, David; Blakemore, Alexandra I.F.; Kennedy, Robin H.; Moorghen, Morgan; Jenkins, John T.; Knight, Stella; Antigen Presentation Research Group, Imperial College London, North West London Hospitals Campus, Watford Road, Harrow, HA1 3UJ, UK. (Springer, 2016-03-10)
    Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells that can acquire tumour antigens and initiate cytotoxic T cell reactions. Obesity has been proposed as a cause for tumours escaping immune surveillance, but few studies investigate the impact of other body composition parameters. We examined the relationship of DC phenotype with computer tomography (CT)-defined parameters in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). DCs were identified within peripheral blood mononuclear cells by flow cytometry as HLA-DR positive and negative for markers of other cell lineages in 21 patients. Analysis of CT scans was used to calculate lumbar skeletal muscle index (LSMI) and mean muscle attenuation (MA). Positive correlation between the LSMI and expression of CD40 in all DCs (r = 0.45; p = 0.04) was demonstrated. The MA was positively correlated with scavenger receptor CD36 [all DCs (r = 0.60; p = 0.01) and myeloid DCs (r = 0.63; p < 0.01)]. However, the MA was negatively correlated with CCR7 expression in all DCs (r = −0.46, p = 0.03.) and with CD83 [all DCs (r = −0.63; p = 0.01) and myeloid DCs (r = −0.75; p < 0.01)]. There were no relationships between the fat indexes and the DC phenotype. These results highlight a direct relationship between muscle depletion and changes in stimulatory, migratory and fatty acid-processing potential of DC in patients with CRC.

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