• A chaos/complexity theory approach to marketing in the turbulent South African business environment.

      Mason, Roger B. (San Diego: University Readers, 2007)
      This book consists of articles selected by the editors from the papers presented at the 2006 Leadership & Management Studies in Sub-Sahara Africa Conferences in Stone Town, Zanzibar. Conferences are presented by a voluntary association of individuals interested in improving the leadership and management competencies of Africans. Volume I details the association’s initial efforts consisting of empirical and theoretical research investigations and reviews of studies in the area. Topics range from core leadership issues, problems in management and leadership education, and business competitiveness to an exploration of the historical context of Sub-Sahara Africa. Coupled with the research data and theoretical concepts presented in the selected articles, this volume presents an in-depth look into the strategies directed to address these issues.
    • A cross-industry review of B2B critical success factors

      Eid, Riyad; Trueman, Myfanwy; Ahmed, Abdel (Emerald, 2002)
      Business-to-business international Internet marketing (B2B IIM) has emerged as one of the key drivers in sustaining an organisation’s competitive advantage. However, market entry and communication via the Internet have affected the dynamics and traditional process in B2B commerce. Difficulties resulting from these new trends have been cited in the literature. Research into identifying what are the critical success factors for global market entry is rare. This research presents a comprehensive review in this field. The study identified 21 critical success factors applicable to most of the B2B IIM. These factors were classified into five categories: marketing strategy, Web site, global, internal and external related factors. The significance, importance and implications for each category are discussed and then recommendations are made.
    • A marketing mix model for a complex and turbulant environment

      Mason, Roger B. (SAe Publications, 2007)
      Purpose: This paper is based on the proposition that the choice of marketing tactics is determined, or at least significantly influenced, by the nature of the company’s external environment. It aims to illustrate the type of marketing mix tactics that are suggested for a complex and turbulent environment when marketing and the environment are viewed through a chaos and complexity theory lens. Design/Methodology/Approach: Since chaos and complexity theories are proposed as a good means of understanding the dynamics of complex and turbulent markets, a comprehensive review and analysis of literature on the marketing mix and marketing tactics from a chaos and complexity viewpoint was conducted. From this literature review, a marketing mix model was conceptualised. Findings: A marketing mix model considered appropriate for success in complex and turbulent environments was developed. In such environments, the literature suggests destabilising marketing activities are more effective, whereas stabilising type activities are more effective in simple, stable environments. Therefore the model proposes predominantly destabilising type tactics as appropriate for a complex and turbulent environment such as is currently being experienced in South Africa. Implications: This paper is of benefit to marketers by emphasising a new way to consider the future marketing activities of their companies. How this model can assist marketers and suggestions for research to develop and apply this model are provided. It is hoped that the model suggested will form the basis of empirical research to test its applicability in the turbulent South African environment. Originality/Value: Since businesses and markets are complex adaptive systems, using complexity theory to understand how to cope in complex, turbulent environments is necessary, but has not been widely researched. In fact, most chaos and complexity theory work in marketing has concentrated on marketing strategy, with little emphasis on individual tactics and even less on the marketing mix as a whole. Therefore, this paper can be viewed as an important foundation for a new stream of research using chaos and complexity theory to better understand marketing mixes and the choice of marketing tactics for complex and turbulent business environments.
    • A review of the Black Country economy and labour market from the PricewaterhouseCoopers West Midlands Business Surveys: 1994-1998

      Worrall, Les (University of Wolverhampton, 1998-09)
      This paper updates previous research papers and looks specifically at the economy and labour market of the Black Country focusing on a set of business performance, recruitment, training and skills issues. The report also “locates” the Black Country in the context of the West Midlands Region and in the context of recent macro-economic changes which are affecting different parts of the UK economy differentially. Reference is also made to the level of innovation in the Black Country and the region and to other “structural” issues as it is contended that levels of innovation, capital expenditure and training will largely determine the future health of the sub-regional economy. Uniquely, the questionnaire is targeted towards the most senior managers in West Midlands businesses: around 60% of respondents are Chairmen, Chief Executives or Managing Directors. Analysis of the data yields some insights into recent changes in the Black Country economy labour market viewed from the apex of a representative cross-section of around 1,000 regional businesses almost 300 of which are located in the four Black Country boroughs of Wolverhampton, Dudley, Walsall and Sandwell. This analysis can be used to augment economic and labour market intelligence derived from more traditional, nationally published sources. This report has been based on the West Midlands Business Survey which is funded by PricewaterhouseCoopers in the Midlands. Their support is gratefully acknowledged.
    • Accumulation and Working Class Exploitation, Some Origins of 1956 in Hungary.

      Haynes, Michael J. (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2007)
      This chapter: Mike Haynes looks at the origins of the Hungarian revolt, in terms of workplace politics while Anne Alexander reviews the impact that Suez had on Nasser s reputation within the Arab world and Arab nationalist politics. In the afternoon there was a widening of the focus. This book: ‘Through the Smoke of Budapest 50 Years On’, The February 2006 Conference of the London Socialist Historians Group was held at the Institute of Historical Research in central London, one of a series of such conferences over the previous ten years. Assembled were a modest group of academics and activists come to mark the 50th anniversary of the events of 1956, and to do so in a particular way. Firstly by presenting new historical research on the questions under review rather than trotting out tired orthodoxies. Secondly by linking historical inquiry to political activism. It was queried why such a conference was held in February 2006 rather than in the autumn, and the answer was a simple one. To intervene historically in the debates of the year by setting a socialist historical agenda for doing so.
    • Acts of faith: instinct, value and IT investment decisions

      Bannister, Frank; Remenyi, Dan (Palgrave Macmillan, 2000)
      Although well over 1000 journal articles, conference papers, books, technical notes and theses have been written on the subject of information technology (IT) evaluation, only a relatively small subset of this literature has been concerned with the core issues of what precisely is meant by the term 'value' and with the process of making (specifically) IT investment decisions. All too often, the problem and highly complex issue of value is either simplified, ignored or assumed away. Instead the focus of much of the research to date has been on evaluation methodologies and, within this literature, there are different strands of thought which can be classified as partisan, composite and meta approaches to evaluation. Research shows that a small number of partisan techniques are used by most decision makers with a minority using a single technique and a majority using a mixture of such techniques of whom a substantial minority use a formal composite approach. It is argued that, in mapping the set of evaluation methodologies on to what is termed the investment opportunity space, that there is a limit to what can be achieved by formal rational evaluation methods. This limit becomes evident when decision makers fall back on 'gut feel' and other non-formal/rigorous ways of making decisions. It is suggested that an understanding of these more complex processes and decision making, in IT as elsewhere, needs tools drawn from philosophy and psychology.
    • Age is just a number: rave culture and the cognitively young 'thirty something'

      Goulding, Christina; Shankar, Avi (Emerald, 2004)
      This paper looks at “dance” or “rave”, a phenomenon usually associated with youth culture. It suggests that there is a hidden consumer who falls into the 30-40 age group. The paper examines the emergence of dance/rave, and the process of commodification of a sub-cultural movement. It suggests that youth-related activities are migrating up the age scale and draws on the results of a phenomenological study to support this. The findings suggest that the experience is closely related to cognitive age and the dimensions of “felt” age, “look” age, “do” age, and “interest” age.
    • Alternative strategies for the development of mathematical thinking amongst undergraduate business studies students within the context of Operations Management

      Hockings, Christine (University of Wolverhampton, 2001)
      Author suggests alternative strategies for the development of mathematical thinking amongst undergraduate business studies students and describes attempts to initiate this and other changes within the context of an undergraduate operations management module and evaluates the effects of the changes on students’ mathematical thinking.
    • An evaluation of the perceived value and effectiveness of the Continuous Professional Development Journal for postgraduate Human Resource Management Diploma students and their employers

      Maiden, Barbara (University of Wolverhampton, 2005)
      Research undertaken with groups of first and second year Postgraduate Human Resource Management Diploma students at the University of Wolverhampton Business School. As part of their assessment in the first year students are required to undertake a work based project and accompanying reflective journal in order to develop a holistic approach to using their theoretical learning in practice. In the second year they are required to continue the process of maintaining a development journal to meet professional requirements and to build on their reflective practice. A pilot study of 19 postgraduate students indicated that there was little enthusiasm or genuine engagement with the process of maintaining a learning journal and it appeared that students were missing a valuable learning opportunity.
    • An evaluation of the use of formative assessment for general management students in promoting learning of Finance and Accounting

      Lowbridge, Robin; Price, Mark (University of Wolverhampton, 2005)
      Discusses a research project to evaluate the effectiveness of formative assessment as a diagnostic and developmental tool for improving the learning experience of students studying Financial Management and Accounting at the University of Wolverhampton Business School.
    • An Examination of Independent Inventor Integration in Open Innovation

      Smeilus, Gavin; Pollard, Andrew; Harris, Robert J. (IGI Global, 2011-09)
    • An Examination of Independent Inventor Integration in Open Innovation

      Smeilus, Gavin; Pollard, Andrew; Harris, Robert J (IGI Global, 2012)
      Open Innovation allows independent inventors to become suppliers of new product ideas to businesses. Unfortunately, only a small percentage of independent inventor approaches, to companies operating Open Innovation mechanisms, result in a commercialised product. Preliminary Critical Success Factors proposed in the previous chapter seek to improve the ability of independent inventors to operate as effective suppliers of new product ideas to businesses through Open Innovation. This chapter will take the preliminary critical success factors proposed in the previous chapter and utilise them as priori constructs (Eisenhardt, 1989) as evidence is sought through case study for their presence or non-presence in a practical context. A case study on the Caparo RightFuel, an automotive device originating from an independent inventor and commercialised through an Open Innovation model, forms the basis of this chapter.
    • An exploration of marketing tactics for turbulent environments

      Mason, Roger B.; Staude, Gavin (2009-07-21)
      This paper proposes that the choice of marketing tactics is influenced by the company’s external environment. It aims to illustrate the marketing tactics suggested for a complex, turbulent environment, when marketing and the environment are viewed through a complexity lens. Design/Methodology/Approach: A marketing mix model, derived from complexity literature, was assessed via a multiple case study to identify the type of marketing mix suggested for a complex, turbulent environment. The study was exploratory, using depth interviews with two companies in the IT industry. Findings: The results tentatively confirmed that the more successful company used a destabilizing marketing mix, and suggest that using complexity theory to develop marketing tactics could be helpful in turbulent environments. Research limitations/implications: The findings are limited by the study’s exploratory, qualitative nature and the small sample. Generalizing should be done with care and therefore further research with larger samples and in different environments is recommended. Practical Implications: This paper will benefit marketers by emphasizing a new way to consider future marketing activities of their companies. The model can assist marketers to identify the tactics to use, dependent on the nature of their environment. Originality/Value: Most work on complexity in marketing has concentrated on strategy, with little emphasis on tactics and the marketing mix. Therefore, this paper is an important contribution to the understanding of marketing mix choices, of interest to both practicing marketers and marketing academics.
    • An extended model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Consumer Satisfaction for Hospitality Services

      Ekinci, Yuksel; Dawes, Philip L.; Massey, Graham R. (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2008)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of self-congruence on consumer satisfaction with services and to develop and test a conceptual model of the antecedents and consequences of consumer satisfaction in the hospitality industry. Design/methodology/approach – The conceptual framework consists of the following constructs: actual self-congruence, ideal self-congruence, desires congruence, service quality, consumers' overall attitude to a service firm, and intention to return. Moreover, 12 hypotheses were developed and tested. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used to test the validity of the measures, while PLS was used in hypotheses testing. Data were collected from 185 consumers who had recently visited a restaurant or hotel. Findings – Strong support was found for 11 of the 12 hypotheses. Findings reveal that ideal self-congruence and desires congruence have positive effects on consumer satisfaction. In contrast, it is shown that actual self-congruence is not related to consumer satisfaction. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the two dimensions of service quality – physical quality and staff behaviour – have a positive impact on both desires congruence and consumer satisfaction. Importantly, consumer satisfaction is found to be a better indicator of the consumers' overall attitude to the service firm than service quality. The study confirms that consumer satisfaction mediates the relationship between the two service quality dimensions, ideal self-congruence, and intention to return. Originality/value – This study makes four important contributions. First, satisfaction research is advanced by integrating self-concept theory into the postpurchase evaluation of services. Second, the relationship between the multidimensional nature of service quality and consumer satisfaction is examined by testing paths from two posited dimensions of service quality – physical quality and staff behaviour – to satisfaction. Third, the consumers' overall attitude to a service firm is integrated into existing models of satisfaction and its impact on behavioural loyalty (intention to return) is tested. Finally, a contribution is made to the satisfaction research literature by testing the effect of service quality on desires congruence, and the effect of desires congruence on consumer satisfaction.
    • Antecedents of conflict in marketing's cross-functional relationship with sales

      Dawes, Philip L.; Massey, Graham R. (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2005)
      The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a model of the factors that explain the level of interpersonal conflict between marketing managers and sales managers. The paper aims to establish the overall level of interpersonal conflict in the full sample and in the two sampled countries (UK and Australia). Design/methodology/approach – The study draws on two theoretical frameworks to develop the model, namely structural contingency theory and the interaction approach. More specifically, the conceptual framework uses three groups of variables to explain interpersonal conflict: structural, individual, and communication. Importantly, the study developed and tested nine hypotheses. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the validity of the measures while OLS regression was used in testing the hypotheses. The data were collected from 200 sales managers in the UK and Australia. Findings – Overall, the study finds that there was a surprisingly low level of interpersonal conflict between marketing managers and sales managers and that there were no differences across the two countries. Of the three groups of variables, the two communication variables – frequency and bidirectionality – had the strongest effects on interpersonal conflict. The next strongest effects were from the individual-level variables – psychological distance and the sales manager's formal education. The findings also reveal that the level of the sales manager's marketing training and the marketing manager's sales experience had no influence on interpersonal conflict. Two of the three structural variables – use of lateral linkages and being part of a corporation – had the hypothesized negative impact on interpersonal conflict. Originality/value – This is the first study to use a large empirical survey to examine the marketing and sales dyad. Also, it is one of the few studies to test the effects of communication behviours on peer manager conflict.
    • Approaches to management development: the domain of information management

      Bate, T (University of Wolverhampton, 1999)
      This paper seeks to examine the issues of information management in business in the contemporary world by reviewing the contemporary writers in the subject area in an attempt to indicate the area of curriculum appropriate for general managers undergoing a management development programme. The domain is that applicable to managers (i.e. general managers rather than specialists in the areas of IT or IS) participating in an MBA programme or a competence-based management development programme of a similar level with similar goals.
    • Behavioural indicators of effective and ineffective mentoring: An empirical study of mentor and protégé behaviour within a UK public sector organisation.

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Sage, Lesley (University Forum for Human Resource Development (UFHRD), 2008)
      Most mentoring research has investigated the antecedents, outcomes and benefits of mentoring and also the characteristics of mentors and mentees, but little attention has been given to the quality of the mentoring process or the effectiveness of mentoring relationships (Fagenon-Eland et al, 1997; Young and Perrewé, 2007). Yet for formal work-based mentoring programmes it is important to identify what differentiates ‘more effective’ from ‘less effective’ mentoring relationships (Ragins et al, 2000, Wanberg et al, 2007), particularly the behaviours of mentors and mentees that contribute to both ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ mentoring experiences (Eby et al, 2000; Bozeman and Feeney, 2007). This study investigated the mentoring component of a leadership development programme within a major UK public sector organization in order to identify the behavioural criteria of mentoring effectiveness from both the mentor and mentee perspective. Concrete examples of ‘effective’ and ‘ineffective’ mentor and mentee behaviours as observed respectively by mentees and external mentors were collected using the Critical Incident Technique (Flanagan (1954). These were analysed, reduced and classified using content and thematic analytic methods. From 167 usable critical incidents so obtained 187 discrete items of behaviour were identified. Of these 81 related to positive (effective) and 22 to negative (ineffective) mentor behaviour and 68 to positive (effective) and 16 to negative (ineffective) mentee behaviour. These were then grouped and classified into analytic categories which resulted in 11 positive and 4 negative mentor behavioural categories (criteria) and 9 positive and 3 negative mentee behavioural categories (criteria) being identified. The results lend support to Kram’s (1985) ‘two-function’ model of mentoring and to the recent emergent concepts of ‘negative’ and ‘marginal’ mentoring (Eby, et al, 2000; Eby and McManus, 2004). They also provide further empirical insights for HRD practitioners concerned with developing guidelines and interventions to enhance the effectiveness of formal mentoring programmes. This study is an inquiry into organizationally based formal mentoring relationships in which the mentors have been drawn from other organizations (Young and Perrewé, 2000). It has been located in both the ‘mentoring’, ‘coaching’ and ‘human resource development (HRD)’literatures for two main reasons. Firstly, although various writers claim ‘mentoring’ is different from ‘coaching’ (Cranwell-Ward, Bossons and Gover, 2004; Grant, 2001), the terms ‘mentoring’ and ‘coaching’ are often used interchangeably in many organizations with many people unable to make a clear distinction between them (D’Abate, Eddy and Tannenbaum, 2003; Klasen and Clutterbuck, 2002). The second reason is that for several decades coaching, mentoring and other forms of workplace learning have been core roles of HRD professionals (See Davis, Naughton and Rothwell, 2004; Hezlett and Gibson, 2005; Plunkett and Egan, 2004). Furthermore, increasingly, mentoring has been recognized as a powerful HRD intervention that assists employers in career advancement, serves as a form of on-the-job-training, and helps create learning organizations (Hegstad and Wentling , 2005).
    • Behavioural indicators of ineffective managerial coaching: a cross-national study.

      Ellinger, Andrea D.; Hamlin, Robert G.; Beattie, Rona S. (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2008)
      Purpose – The concept of managers assuming developmental roles such as coaches and learning facilitators has received considerable attention in recent years. Yet, despite the growing body of expert opinion that suggests that coaching is an essential core activity of everyday management and leadership, the literature base remains largely atheoretical and devoid of empirical research. While there is some consensus about what effective coaching looks like, little if any empirical research has examined ineffective coaching behaviours. The purpose of this paper is to compare the empirical findings from three separately conducted studies to derive a comprehensive understanding of the ineffective behaviours associated with managerial coaching. Design/methodology/approach – The current study adopted a cross-national “etic” methodology based on the empirical findings generated by three previously conducted and purposefully selected “emic” studies. Drawing on Berry's and Lyons and Chryssochoous' “emic-etic” approach and cross-cultural comparisons, the researchers employed Guba and Lincoln's file card approach to analyze and compare the three behavioral datasets of the previously conducted studies. Findings – The findings from this cross-national comparative “etic” study revealed that the vast majority of ineffective coaching behaviours previously identified in the emic studies were held in common with each other. The predominant ineffective behaviours included using an autocratic, directive, controlling or dictatorial style, ineffective communication and dissemination of information, and inappropriate behaviours and approaches to working with employees. Of the 17 ineffective behaviours that were compared only three were not held in common. Research limitations/implications – Limitations associated with this cross-national study included minor variations in the use of data collection approaches and samples of managers in the previously conducted emic studies. Practical implications – The ineffective managerial coaching behaviours derived from the cross-national comparisons can be integrated as diagnostic tools into coaching training programmes and management and leadership development programmes to improve the practice of managerial coaching. They can also be used to increase managers' awareness of the behaviours that impede their coaching interventions with their respective employees. Originality/value – The literature base on coaching in general and managerial coaching in particular has been criticized for not being research-informed and evidence-based, but rather predominantly practice-driven and guru-led. The findings from the current cross-national etic study not only add to a sparse base of empirical research on managerial coaching, but also illuminate an underdeveloped area, namely that of ineffective managerial coaching practice. Furthermore, the findings provide a foundation on which to compare and contrast future empirical research that may be conducted on managerial coaching behaviours.
    • Behavioural indicators of manager and managerial leader effectiveness: An example of Mode 2 knowledge production in management to support evidence-based practice.

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Bassi, Nirmal (Inderscience Enterprises Limited, 2008)
      This paper presents the results of a 'design science' study of managerial and leadership effectiveness through a programme of 'HRD Professional Partnership' research carried out within a UK private sector organisation, and discusses how the findings have been used to support evidence-based practice within the collaborating organisation. Additionally, the paper reveals the extent to which these results are held in common with equivalent findings from several UK public sector organisations and how they have contributed to the production of 'general knowledge' and empirical evidence that lend support to 'universal' theories of managerial and leadership effectiveness.
    • Business advice to fast growth small firms

      Mole, Kevin (University of Wolverhampton, 1999-06)
      A small proportion of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) create most new employment in the sector (Storey et al., 1987). Thus UK Business Link’s remit to provide advice to small firms with the potential to grow should maximise the employment impact of small firm advice. Yet, the risks involved in fast growth and the perceived need for visionary leadership constrains advisors from proffering that advice. This research uses data from 29 transcribed semi-structured research interviews and a group interview of 10 business advisors in the UK’s West Midlands region collected in Autumn 1996 to Spring 1997. The interviewees respond to a prompt for advice for a firm contemplating fast growth. This research suggests that in the implementation stage strategy toward small firms is subtly altered. The research suggests that advisors tend to offer general advice and support to all firms, and focus toward support for all, rather than targeting, and support to help companies survive, rather than grow. Given the importance of these fast growing firms to local employment the findings suggest that present business advice might reduce insolvency rather than increase the number of fast growth firms.