• Accumulation and Working Class Exploitation, Some Origins of 1956 in Hungary.

      Haynes, Michael J. (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2007)
      This chapter: Mike Haynes looks at the origins of the Hungarian revolt, in terms of workplace politics while Anne Alexander reviews the impact that Suez had on Nasser s reputation within the Arab world and Arab nationalist politics. In the afternoon there was a widening of the focus. This book: ‘Through the Smoke of Budapest 50 Years On’, The February 2006 Conference of the London Socialist Historians Group was held at the Institute of Historical Research in central London, one of a series of such conferences over the previous ten years. Assembled were a modest group of academics and activists come to mark the 50th anniversary of the events of 1956, and to do so in a particular way. Firstly by presenting new historical research on the questions under review rather than trotting out tired orthodoxies. Secondly by linking historical inquiry to political activism. It was queried why such a conference was held in February 2006 rather than in the autumn, and the answer was a simple one. To intervene historically in the debates of the year by setting a socialist historical agenda for doing so.
    • Acts of faith: instinct, value and IT investment decisions

      Bannister, Frank; Remenyi, Dan (Palgrave Macmillan, 2000)
      Although well over 1000 journal articles, conference papers, books, technical notes and theses have been written on the subject of information technology (IT) evaluation, only a relatively small subset of this literature has been concerned with the core issues of what precisely is meant by the term 'value' and with the process of making (specifically) IT investment decisions. All too often, the problem and highly complex issue of value is either simplified, ignored or assumed away. Instead the focus of much of the research to date has been on evaluation methodologies and, within this literature, there are different strands of thought which can be classified as partisan, composite and meta approaches to evaluation. Research shows that a small number of partisan techniques are used by most decision makers with a minority using a single technique and a majority using a mixture of such techniques of whom a substantial minority use a formal composite approach. It is argued that, in mapping the set of evaluation methodologies on to what is termed the investment opportunity space, that there is a limit to what can be achieved by formal rational evaluation methods. This limit becomes evident when decision makers fall back on 'gut feel' and other non-formal/rigorous ways of making decisions. It is suggested that an understanding of these more complex processes and decision making, in IT as elsewhere, needs tools drawn from philosophy and psychology.
    • Age is just a number: rave culture and the cognitively young 'thirty something'

      Goulding, Christina; Shankar, Avi (Emerald, 2004)
      This paper looks at “dance” or “rave”, a phenomenon usually associated with youth culture. It suggests that there is a hidden consumer who falls into the 30-40 age group. The paper examines the emergence of dance/rave, and the process of commodification of a sub-cultural movement. It suggests that youth-related activities are migrating up the age scale and draws on the results of a phenomenological study to support this. The findings suggest that the experience is closely related to cognitive age and the dimensions of “felt” age, “look” age, “do” age, and “interest” age.
    • Alternative strategies for the development of mathematical thinking amongst undergraduate business studies students within the context of Operations Management

      Hockings, Christine (University of Wolverhampton, 2001)
      Author suggests alternative strategies for the development of mathematical thinking amongst undergraduate business studies students and describes attempts to initiate this and other changes within the context of an undergraduate operations management module and evaluates the effects of the changes on students’ mathematical thinking.
    • The antecedents and consequences of functional and dysfunctional conflict between Marketing Managers and Sales Managers

      Massey, Graham R.; Dawes, Philip L. (Elsevier, 2007)
      Focusing on the working relationship between Marketing Managers and Sales Managers, our study examines two dimensions of interpersonal conflict: dysfunctional conflict and functional conflict. Drawing on relevant theory, we include three communication variables – frequency, bidirectionality, and quality – as antecedents in our structural model. Using these explanatory variables we predict the two conflict dimensions, and in turn, use these same three communication variables, and the two conflict dimensions to predict our ultimate endogenous variable — perceived relationship effectiveness. Overall, our model has high explanatory power, and we find support for nine of the thirteen hypotheses. More specifically, two of the three communication variables – communication quality and bidirectionality – significantly impact on both forms of conflict, and relationship effectiveness, though communication frequency only influenced the quality of communication between the Marketing Managers and the Sales Managers. In addition, the variables in our model better predict the levels of functional conflict in the Marketing/Sales relationship than dysfunctional conflict. Finally, an important new finding in this research is that the overall level of dysfunctional conflict between these two functional managers is relatively low, while functional conflict is high.
    • Antecedents of conflict in marketing's cross-functional relationship with sales

      Dawes, Philip L.; Massey, Graham R. (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2005)
      The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a model of the factors that explain the level of interpersonal conflict between marketing managers and sales managers. The paper aims to establish the overall level of interpersonal conflict in the full sample and in the two sampled countries (UK and Australia). Design/methodology/approach – The study draws on two theoretical frameworks to develop the model, namely structural contingency theory and the interaction approach. More specifically, the conceptual framework uses three groups of variables to explain interpersonal conflict: structural, individual, and communication. Importantly, the study developed and tested nine hypotheses. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the validity of the measures while OLS regression was used in testing the hypotheses. The data were collected from 200 sales managers in the UK and Australia. Findings – Overall, the study finds that there was a surprisingly low level of interpersonal conflict between marketing managers and sales managers and that there were no differences across the two countries. Of the three groups of variables, the two communication variables – frequency and bidirectionality – had the strongest effects on interpersonal conflict. The next strongest effects were from the individual-level variables – psychological distance and the sales manager's formal education. The findings also reveal that the level of the sales manager's marketing training and the marketing manager's sales experience had no influence on interpersonal conflict. Two of the three structural variables – use of lateral linkages and being part of a corporation – had the hypothesized negative impact on interpersonal conflict. Originality/value – This is the first study to use a large empirical survey to examine the marketing and sales dyad. Also, it is one of the few studies to test the effects of communication behviours on peer manager conflict.
    • Approaches to management development: the domain of information management

      Bate, T (University of Wolverhampton, 1999)
      This paper seeks to examine the issues of information management in business in the contemporary world by reviewing the contemporary writers in the subject area in an attempt to indicate the area of curriculum appropriate for general managers undergoing a management development programme. The domain is that applicable to managers (i.e. general managers rather than specialists in the areas of IT or IS) participating in an MBA programme or a competence-based management development programme of a similar level with similar goals.
    • Behavioural indicators of effective and ineffective mentoring: An empirical study of mentor and protégé behaviour within a UK public sector organisation.

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Sage, Lesley (University Forum for Human Resource Development (UFHRD), 2008)
      Most mentoring research has investigated the antecedents, outcomes and benefits of mentoring and also the characteristics of mentors and mentees, but little attention has been given to the quality of the mentoring process or the effectiveness of mentoring relationships (Fagenon-Eland et al, 1997; Young and Perrewé, 2007). Yet for formal work-based mentoring programmes it is important to identify what differentiates ‘more effective’ from ‘less effective’ mentoring relationships (Ragins et al, 2000, Wanberg et al, 2007), particularly the behaviours of mentors and mentees that contribute to both ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ mentoring experiences (Eby et al, 2000; Bozeman and Feeney, 2007). This study investigated the mentoring component of a leadership development programme within a major UK public sector organization in order to identify the behavioural criteria of mentoring effectiveness from both the mentor and mentee perspective. Concrete examples of ‘effective’ and ‘ineffective’ mentor and mentee behaviours as observed respectively by mentees and external mentors were collected using the Critical Incident Technique (Flanagan (1954). These were analysed, reduced and classified using content and thematic analytic methods. From 167 usable critical incidents so obtained 187 discrete items of behaviour were identified. Of these 81 related to positive (effective) and 22 to negative (ineffective) mentor behaviour and 68 to positive (effective) and 16 to negative (ineffective) mentee behaviour. These were then grouped and classified into analytic categories which resulted in 11 positive and 4 negative mentor behavioural categories (criteria) and 9 positive and 3 negative mentee behavioural categories (criteria) being identified. The results lend support to Kram’s (1985) ‘two-function’ model of mentoring and to the recent emergent concepts of ‘negative’ and ‘marginal’ mentoring (Eby, et al, 2000; Eby and McManus, 2004). They also provide further empirical insights for HRD practitioners concerned with developing guidelines and interventions to enhance the effectiveness of formal mentoring programmes. This study is an inquiry into organizationally based formal mentoring relationships in which the mentors have been drawn from other organizations (Young and Perrewé, 2000). It has been located in both the ‘mentoring’, ‘coaching’ and ‘human resource development (HRD)’literatures for two main reasons. Firstly, although various writers claim ‘mentoring’ is different from ‘coaching’ (Cranwell-Ward, Bossons and Gover, 2004; Grant, 2001), the terms ‘mentoring’ and ‘coaching’ are often used interchangeably in many organizations with many people unable to make a clear distinction between them (D’Abate, Eddy and Tannenbaum, 2003; Klasen and Clutterbuck, 2002). The second reason is that for several decades coaching, mentoring and other forms of workplace learning have been core roles of HRD professionals (See Davis, Naughton and Rothwell, 2004; Hezlett and Gibson, 2005; Plunkett and Egan, 2004). Furthermore, increasingly, mentoring has been recognized as a powerful HRD intervention that assists employers in career advancement, serves as a form of on-the-job-training, and helps create learning organizations (Hegstad and Wentling , 2005).
    • Behavioural indicators of ineffective managerial coaching: a cross-national study.

      Ellinger, Andrea D.; Hamlin, Robert G.; Beattie, Rona S. (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2008)
      Purpose – The concept of managers assuming developmental roles such as coaches and learning facilitators has received considerable attention in recent years. Yet, despite the growing body of expert opinion that suggests that coaching is an essential core activity of everyday management and leadership, the literature base remains largely atheoretical and devoid of empirical research. While there is some consensus about what effective coaching looks like, little if any empirical research has examined ineffective coaching behaviours. The purpose of this paper is to compare the empirical findings from three separately conducted studies to derive a comprehensive understanding of the ineffective behaviours associated with managerial coaching. Design/methodology/approach – The current study adopted a cross-national “etic” methodology based on the empirical findings generated by three previously conducted and purposefully selected “emic” studies. Drawing on Berry's and Lyons and Chryssochoous' “emic-etic” approach and cross-cultural comparisons, the researchers employed Guba and Lincoln's file card approach to analyze and compare the three behavioral datasets of the previously conducted studies. Findings – The findings from this cross-national comparative “etic” study revealed that the vast majority of ineffective coaching behaviours previously identified in the emic studies were held in common with each other. The predominant ineffective behaviours included using an autocratic, directive, controlling or dictatorial style, ineffective communication and dissemination of information, and inappropriate behaviours and approaches to working with employees. Of the 17 ineffective behaviours that were compared only three were not held in common. Research limitations/implications – Limitations associated with this cross-national study included minor variations in the use of data collection approaches and samples of managers in the previously conducted emic studies. Practical implications – The ineffective managerial coaching behaviours derived from the cross-national comparisons can be integrated as diagnostic tools into coaching training programmes and management and leadership development programmes to improve the practice of managerial coaching. They can also be used to increase managers' awareness of the behaviours that impede their coaching interventions with their respective employees. Originality/value – The literature base on coaching in general and managerial coaching in particular has been criticized for not being research-informed and evidence-based, but rather predominantly practice-driven and guru-led. The findings from the current cross-national etic study not only add to a sparse base of empirical research on managerial coaching, but also illuminate an underdeveloped area, namely that of ineffective managerial coaching practice. Furthermore, the findings provide a foundation on which to compare and contrast future empirical research that may be conducted on managerial coaching behaviours.
    • Behavioural indicators of manager and managerial leader effectiveness: An example of Mode 2 knowledge production in management to support evidence-based practice.

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Bassi, Nirmal (Inderscience Enterprises Limited, 2008)
      This paper presents the results of a 'design science' study of managerial and leadership effectiveness through a programme of 'HRD Professional Partnership' research carried out within a UK private sector organisation, and discusses how the findings have been used to support evidence-based practice within the collaborating organisation. Additionally, the paper reveals the extent to which these results are held in common with equivalent findings from several UK public sector organisations and how they have contributed to the production of 'general knowledge' and empirical evidence that lend support to 'universal' theories of managerial and leadership effectiveness.
    • Business advice to fast growth small firms

      Mole, Kevin (University of Wolverhampton, 1999-06)
      A small proportion of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) create most new employment in the sector (Storey et al., 1987). Thus UK Business Link’s remit to provide advice to small firms with the potential to grow should maximise the employment impact of small firm advice. Yet, the risks involved in fast growth and the perceived need for visionary leadership constrains advisors from proffering that advice. This research uses data from 29 transcribed semi-structured research interviews and a group interview of 10 business advisors in the UK’s West Midlands region collected in Autumn 1996 to Spring 1997. The interviewees respond to a prompt for advice for a firm contemplating fast growth. This research suggests that in the implementation stage strategy toward small firms is subtly altered. The research suggests that advisors tend to offer general advice and support to all firms, and focus toward support for all, rather than targeting, and support to help companies survive, rather than grow. Given the importance of these fast growing firms to local employment the findings suggest that present business advice might reduce insolvency rather than increase the number of fast growth firms.
    • Can Brotherhood be Sold Like Soap…Online? An Online Social Marketing and Advocacy Pilot Study Synopsis

      Cugelman, Brian; Thelwall, Mike; Dawes, Philip L. (SpringerLink, 2007)
      Having engaged one billion users by early 2006, the Internet is the world’s fastest-growing mass communications medium. As it permeates into countless lives across the planet, it offers social campaigners an opportunity to deploy interactive interventions that encourage populations to adopt healthy living, environmental protection and community development behaviours. Using a classic set of social campaigning criteria, this paper explores relationships between social campaign websites and behavioural change.
    • Causal maps of information technology and information systems

      Singh, Gurmak (University of Wolverhampton, 1998-09)
      It is becoming increasingly recognised that a cognitive view of the individual user executing various tasks at the interface is an inadequate conceptual framework for developing information systems. The conventional cognitive setting has disregarded the importance of how these users execute work tasks in the real world when using information systems. Furthermore, the design process is heavily biased towards scientific problem solving methodologies that omit the psychological cognitive styles of the users. In this paper, IT and IS managers are considered as the ‘influencers’ in the development of information systems; a role that forms the shape of the system. A methodology for deriving the causal maps is described and then applied to twenty IT and IS managers. The maps are analysed from three perspectives; information analysis, end-users involvement in the development stages and characteristics of the users. The resulting causal maps are used to develop a conceptual framework for development of IS.
    • A chaos/complexity theory approach to marketing in the turbulent South African business environment.

      Mason, Roger B. (San Diego: University Readers, 2007)
      This book consists of articles selected by the editors from the papers presented at the 2006 Leadership & Management Studies in Sub-Sahara Africa Conferences in Stone Town, Zanzibar. Conferences are presented by a voluntary association of individuals interested in improving the leadership and management competencies of Africans. Volume I details the association’s initial efforts consisting of empirical and theoretical research investigations and reviews of studies in the area. Topics range from core leadership issues, problems in management and leadership education, and business competitiveness to an exploration of the historical context of Sub-Sahara Africa. Coupled with the research data and theoretical concepts presented in the selected articles, this volume presents an in-depth look into the strategies directed to address these issues.
    • Chinese entrepreneurship: the development of small family firms in China

      Poutziouris, Panikkos; Wang, Yong; Chan, Sally (Emerald, 2002)
      This explorative paper considers the recent developments in the emerging small family business sector in post-reform China as the country embraces socio-economic and structural transition from a centrally planned to a market-orientated system. The important contributions that Chinese small family firms play in the acceleration of private sector development across the social and industrial sectors as well as the geographic boundaries of the Pacific Rim are highlighted. The authors propose typologies of Chinese entrepreneurship and tentative enterprise policy recommendations for the future development of small private family businesses in China.
    • Coaching at the heart of managerial effectiveness: A cross-cultural study of managerial behaviours

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Ellinger, Andrea D.; Beattie, Rona S. (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2006)
      The concept of managers and managerial leaders assuming the developmental role of coaching has gained considerable attention in recent years as organizations seek to leverage learning by creating infrastructures that foster employee learning and development. However, despite the increasing focus on managerial coaching and the many contentions that coaching is an essential feature of really effective management, the literature remains predominantly practice-based and atheoretical. The present study attempts to address this lack of a sound and sufficient empirical base by presenting the results of a cross-cultural comparison of the empirical findings from several previous 'managerial coaching effectiveness' and 'managerial and leadership effectiveness' studies completed by the authors in their three respective countries. Its specific aim is to demonstrate empirically the extent to which being an effective coach is an essential feature of being an effective manager and/or managerial leader.
    • Consumer Protection Awareness in South Africa

      Mason, Roger B. (World Research Organization, 2007)
      This paper addresses the lack of knowledge about awareness of consumer protection in South Africa, especially amongst disadvantaged consumers. Literature shows that there is a high correlation between the level of economic development and the awareness of consumer rights. The more developed a country is, the more aware its people will be in terms of their consumer rights. The less developed a country is, the lower the level of consumer rights awareness consumers will have. Consumers, like any other citizens of a country, have a right to be protected by the law. Private and nongovernmental organisations and the consumer councils should to ensure that the interests and rights of consumers are well protected. The study involved a literature review and an exploratory empirical study into the effect of income and education on awareness of consumer protection by a sample of Durban consumers. A strong, positive relationship between consumer protection awareness and income and education was found. Recommendations for actions which should improve consumer protection awareness amongst low income, poorly educated consumers, are suggested in, this study, while, further research to develop a deeper understanding of the problem, and are also suggested.
    • Consumer research, interpretive paradigms and methodological ambiguities

      Goulding, Christina (MCB UP Ltd, 1999)
      The 1980s and 1990s have witnessed a growing application of qualitative methods, particularly in the study of consumer behaviour. This has led to some division between researchers on the basis of methodological orientation, or a positivist/interpretivist split. Much of the criticism regarding qualitative research centres on issues of clarity, methodological transgressions, and the mixing of methods without clear justification and explication of “why” and “how”. Offers the example of phenomenology and grounded theory, two methods which are often treated as one. Compares and contrasts them in relation to underpinning philosophies, procedures for sampling, data collection and techniques for analysis. Suggests that methods are “personal” and that researcher introspection and the philosophical basis of a given methodology should form the starting-point for enquiry.
    • Contemporary Perceptions of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour: a 21st century case for the U.S.A.

      Ruiz, Carlos E.; Hamlin, Robert G.; Gresch, Eric B. (North American Business Press, Inc, 2017)
      This qualitative study explores how contemporary US managers and non-managerial employees in the metropolitan region of Atlanta, Georgia behaviorally differentiate effective managers from ineffective ones. We collected from 81 research participants 381 critical incidents (CIs) of observed effective and ineffective managerial behavior. These CIs were subjected to open, axial and selective coding which resulted in the emergence of 10 effective and 13 ineffective behavioral indicators of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness. The findings could be valuable to managers seeking to make better decisions about how best to behaviorally manage and lead US employees in the 21st century.
    • Coping with complexity and turbulence: An entrepreneurial solution

      Mason, Roger B. (World Scientific Publishing, 2006)
      This paper considers the adoption of an entrepreneurial orientation as a paradigm for companies operating in a complex and turbulent environment, viewing the environment as a complex and turbulent system in terms of chaos theory. Approaches suggested by chaos theory are compared with the entrepreneurial orientation to identify if such an orientation matches these suggested approaches. Literature on chaos theory and entrepreneurship is compared, and a short case is presented, providing an illustration of how a company operating successfully in a complex and turbulent environment has used the principles of an entrepreneurial orientation. The paper identifies considerable similarity between the management approaches suggested by chaos theory and the principles of the entrepreneurial orientation, indicating that chaos theory may provide the theoretical underpinning of the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and turbulent environments. The case also shows how an entrepreneurial orientation has been successfully used in a complex and turbulent environment. The conclusion is that companies operating in a complex and turbulent environment could benefit from adopting an entrepreneurial orientation.