• Exploring Entrepreneurial intention’s mediating role in the relationship between Self-efficacy and Nascent behaviour: evidence from Zambia, Africa

      Mwiya, Bruce; Wang, Yong; Kaulungombe, Bernadette (Emerald, 2018-09)
      Purpose –This paper examines the mediating role of entrepreneurial intention (EI) in relation to the influence of the five dimensions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) on nascent behaviour. Design/methodology/approach – The study relies on a quantitative approach where primary data were collected from 294 final year undergraduate students at a public university in Zambia. The data were examined by using correlation, logistic regression and mediation analyses. Findings – The findings indicate that each of the five dimensions of ESE is positively and significantly related with EI. Additionally, each of the ESE dimensions, except the financial aspect, is positively correlated with nascent behaviour. Lastly, the results show that the influence of ESE dimensions on nascent behaviour is significantly mediated by intention. Research limitations/implications –The study took place in a public university in Zambia; more universities could be involved to improve the generalisability of the study conclusions. Practical implications –The study shows that the five ESE dimensions positively influence not only business start-up intention but also nascent behaviour. To motivate graduates’ involvement in business start-up, there is a need to tailor training and practical pedagogical approaches on entrepreneurship that are focused on developing the five ESE dimensions. Originality/value – This paper extends an emerging body of knowledge which has not been fully investigated in terms of the mediating role of intention on the relationships between dimensions of ESE and nascent behaviour. The study also makes a valuable contribution to the under-researched context of Zambia and African entrepreneurship.
    • Sports operations management: examining the relationship between environmental uncertainty and quality management orientation

      Bamford, David; Hannibal, Claire; Kauppi, Katri; Dehe, Benjamin; Operations Management, The Business School, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK; Operations Management, University of Wolverhampton Business School, Wolverhampton, UK; Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Aalto University School of Business, Helsinki, Finland; Operations Management, The Business School, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK (Taylor & Francis, 2018-02-22)
      Research question: The outcome of a sporting competition is uncertain and one of the key reasons for the sustained popularity of spectator sport. Whilst unique and exciting, this context poses challenges for the management of the sporting experience as there is no control over the outcome of the competition; a disappointing result on-field may translate to a disappointing overall experience for the spectators. We wish to understand if and how quality management practices can be used in off-field operations to mitigate on-field uncertainty, and thus have greater control over spectator perception of the sporting experience. Research methods: A multi-country survey of operations managers of sporting stadia in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand was conducted. We operationalize environmental uncertainty as spectator co-creation and enforced collaboration, and assess quality management orientation from both a customer and process perspective. Linear regression is used for data analysis. Results and Findings: Surprisingly, we find that environmental uncertainty does not encourage the orientation of quality management practices towards the customer. Instead, we find a greater application of process focus. In considering sporting fans as passive customers rather than active co-creators of value, quality management practices seem to have skewed towards process rather than person. Implications: Customer satisfaction appears as secondary to process performance in the sample of stadia examined. This is in contrast to studies that have encouraged a focus on the customer in contexts of environmental uncertainty. We suggest a renewed focus on the customer for the longevity of sporting stadia.
    • Contemporary Perceptions of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour: a 21st century case for the U.S.A.

      Ruiz, Carlos E.; Hamlin, Robert G.; Gresch, Eric B. (North American Business Press, Inc, 2017)
      This qualitative study explores how contemporary US managers and non-managerial employees in the metropolitan region of Atlanta, Georgia behaviorally differentiate effective managers from ineffective ones. We collected from 81 research participants 381 critical incidents (CIs) of observed effective and ineffective managerial behavior. These CIs were subjected to open, axial and selective coding which resulted in the emergence of 10 effective and 13 ineffective behavioral indicators of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness. The findings could be valuable to managers seeking to make better decisions about how best to behaviorally manage and lead US employees in the 21st century.
    • Critical success factors for employee suggestion schemes: a literature review

      Lasrado, Flevy; Arif, Mohammed; Rizvi, Aftab; Urdzik, Chris (Emerald, 2016-05-09)
    • Mapping the inventor new product development process

      Smeilus, Gavin; Pollard, Andrew (International Society of Professional Innovation Management, 2016-02)
    • Measuring the Deliverable and Impressible Dimensions of Service Experience

      Beltagui, Ahmad; Darler, William; Candi, Marina (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2015-09)
      Service innovation has become a priority within the field of innovation management and is increasingly focused on the creation of memorable experiences that result in customer loyalty. Studies of experience design suggest individual service elements to be managed when staging an experience whereas conceptual models in the literature emphasize the holistic way in which an experience is perceived. In short, service experience is greater than the sum of its parts. Therefore, successful innovation management requires the ability to understand and measure the mechanisms by which service innovations impact customers’ experiences. Our research addresses this need by identifying dimensions of service experience and developing a tool for their measurement. Using a three stage process of 1) systematic literature review; 2) rigorous scale development and reduction; and 3) validation, we identify six dimensions of the service experience and develop scales to measure each one. This results in a model of service innovation that highlights the levers through which a company’s service innovation efforts can result in memorable experiences and ultimately generate service success.
    • Diversity and Conflict in Boards of Directors

      Walker, Alan; Machold, Silke; Ahmed, Pervaiz K. (2015-03-04)
      This study seeks to contribute to the debate on board behavior by investigating how deeper-level diversity, specifically differences in personality, interacts with demographic diversity to explain board cognitive and affective conflict. Using survey data from a pilot study of 98 directors in 16 UK boards, we show that dissimilarities in personality traits are negatively related to cognitive conflict, but this relationship is moderated by gender and tenure diversity. Personality differences do not explain affective conflict. The study provides insights into how theories from psychology may help us understand antecedents to board behaviors
    • The determinants for sustainability of an employee suggestion system

      Lasrado, Flevy; Arif, Mohammed; Rizvi, Aftab (Emerald, 2015-02-02)
    • test by CB

      Unknown author (2014-04-10)
    • Independent inventors and inbound open innovation: using a resource-based approach to create a tool for screening inventor approaches in order to facilitate technology in-licensing

      Smeilus, Gavin; Harris, Robert J.; Pollard, Andrew (2013)
      Open innovation literature identifies independent inventors as a source of novel external knowledge. This knowledge may be licensed into an organisation in order to supplement internal R&D activity, typically as part of an inbound open innovation strategy. In opening an organisation up to approaches from individuals the capacity of the core team to identify promising licensing opportunities is diminished by the sheer volume and variable quality of approaches received. Based on a survey of 202 UK independent inventors this paper utilises a resource-based approach to identifying the key resources possessed by successful independent inventors. Using this data, we devise a preliminary screening tool to facilitate technology in-licensing from independent inventors.
    • An Examination of Independent Inventor Integration in Open Innovation

      Smeilus, Gavin; Pollard, Andrew; Harris, Robert J (IGI Global, 2012)
      Open Innovation allows independent inventors to become suppliers of new product ideas to businesses. Unfortunately, only a small percentage of independent inventor approaches, to companies operating Open Innovation mechanisms, result in a commercialised product. Preliminary Critical Success Factors proposed in the previous chapter seek to improve the ability of independent inventors to operate as effective suppliers of new product ideas to businesses through Open Innovation. This chapter will take the preliminary critical success factors proposed in the previous chapter and utilise them as priori constructs (Eisenhardt, 1989) as evidence is sought through case study for their presence or non-presence in a practical context. A case study on the Caparo RightFuel, an automotive device originating from an independent inventor and commercialised through an Open Innovation model, forms the basis of this chapter.
    • The Integration of Independent Inventors in Open Innovation

      Smeilus, Gavin; Pollard, Andrew; Harris, Robert J (IGI Global, 2011-09)
      Whilst current academic literature points to the growing importance of Open Innovation as a means of companies capturing new products from sources other than internal R&D facilities; the integration of independent inventors, a source of innovative new products, within Open Innovation has proven challenging. This chapter presents a series of preliminary Critical Success Factors, driven by current academic literature, which are intended to positively contribute towards independent inventors becoming more successful suppliers of new product ideas to businesses operating an open innovation model; with the intention that adherence to such factors may have a positive influence on the effectiveness and future sustainability of Open Innovation.
    • An Examination of Independent Inventor Integration in Open Innovation

      Smeilus, Gavin; Pollard, Andrew; Harris, Robert J. (IGI Global, 2011-09)
    • An exploration of marketing tactics for turbulent environments

      Mason, Roger B.; Staude, Gavin (2009-07-21)
      This paper proposes that the choice of marketing tactics is influenced by the company’s external environment. It aims to illustrate the marketing tactics suggested for a complex, turbulent environment, when marketing and the environment are viewed through a complexity lens. Design/Methodology/Approach: A marketing mix model, derived from complexity literature, was assessed via a multiple case study to identify the type of marketing mix suggested for a complex, turbulent environment. The study was exploratory, using depth interviews with two companies in the IT industry. Findings: The results tentatively confirmed that the more successful company used a destabilizing marketing mix, and suggest that using complexity theory to develop marketing tactics could be helpful in turbulent environments. Research limitations/implications: The findings are limited by the study’s exploratory, qualitative nature and the small sample. Generalizing should be done with care and therefore further research with larger samples and in different environments is recommended. Practical Implications: This paper will benefit marketers by emphasizing a new way to consider future marketing activities of their companies. The model can assist marketers to identify the tactics to use, dependent on the nature of their environment. Originality/Value: Most work on complexity in marketing has concentrated on strategy, with little emphasis on tactics and the marketing mix. Therefore, this paper is an important contribution to the understanding of marketing mix choices, of interest to both practicing marketers and marketing academics.
    • Management actions, attitudes to change and perceptions of the external environment. A complexity theory approach.

      Mason, Roger B. (Braybrook Press Ltd, 2008)
      This paper, based on complexity theory principles, suggests relationships between environmental turbulence, managers' perceptions of the external environment, attitudes to change, management actions and business success. Data was collected via a case study method, using in-depth interviews, document analysis and observation from two companies each in the computer and packaging industries. Findings reflected a relationship between environmental perceptions and attitudes to change. The more successful firms expected and almost welcomed change, while the less successful companies were victims of change. Overall external environment perceptions, attitudes to change and the resulting management approaches differed between the more successful and less successful companies.
    • Power, Interdependence and Influence in Marketing Manager/Sales Manager Working Relationships

      Massey, Graham R.; Dawes, Philip L. (Academy of Marketing, 2008)
      Relationships between Marketing Managers and Sales Managers are amongst the most important working relationships within modern firms, though to date, these have received little attention in the literature. Our study adds to knowledge of this working relationship by examining the effects of Sales unit power, total interdependence between Marketing and Sales, and the type and effects of the influence tactics employed by Sales Managers in this important CFR. Our results suggest that not all influence tactics are effective in increasing a Sales Manager’s influence within the firm. Also, our findings provide support for the notion that managers of powerful departments are less likely to spend time and effort using influence tactics to secure peer managers’ cooperation and compliance. Conversely, where peer managers are highly interdependent, they will increase their use of a wide array of influence tactics to secure desired outcomes.
    • Ethical aspects of aesthetic labour, and links to an earlier concept: sprezzatura. Where next?

      Scarff, William (University Forum for Human Resource Development (UFHRD), 2008)
      The term aesthetic labour is considered with reference to earlier literature on the influence of attractiveness on recruitment, selection and retention issues for employees, for Human Resource managers and the processes of selecting candidates for training opportunities. The subjectivity and emotional nature of beauty are both noted. A link for future research is suggested to the term sprezzatura from the Italian Renaissance. An unsettling presence of power is considered as a link between aesthetic labour and sprezzatura. Both terms are considered from an employee choosing to use these methods for self advancement and in the case of aesthetic labour when role requires certain behaviour and image. A research question is posed around the tensions between creating the best image for an organisation and adhering to ‘correct’ Human Resource professional practice, with identification of conflict of personal and organisational ethics. A less well known framework for ethics is introduced. The paper is brought to a close by asking conference members about realistic linkages between aesthetic labour, sprezzatura ethics professionalism the role of the Human Resource manager and power.
    • An extended model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Consumer Satisfaction for Hospitality Services

      Ekinci, Yuksel; Dawes, Philip L.; Massey, Graham R. (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2008)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of self-congruence on consumer satisfaction with services and to develop and test a conceptual model of the antecedents and consequences of consumer satisfaction in the hospitality industry. Design/methodology/approach – The conceptual framework consists of the following constructs: actual self-congruence, ideal self-congruence, desires congruence, service quality, consumers' overall attitude to a service firm, and intention to return. Moreover, 12 hypotheses were developed and tested. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used to test the validity of the measures, while PLS was used in hypotheses testing. Data were collected from 185 consumers who had recently visited a restaurant or hotel. Findings – Strong support was found for 11 of the 12 hypotheses. Findings reveal that ideal self-congruence and desires congruence have positive effects on consumer satisfaction. In contrast, it is shown that actual self-congruence is not related to consumer satisfaction. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the two dimensions of service quality – physical quality and staff behaviour – have a positive impact on both desires congruence and consumer satisfaction. Importantly, consumer satisfaction is found to be a better indicator of the consumers' overall attitude to the service firm than service quality. The study confirms that consumer satisfaction mediates the relationship between the two service quality dimensions, ideal self-congruence, and intention to return. Originality/value – This study makes four important contributions. First, satisfaction research is advanced by integrating self-concept theory into the postpurchase evaluation of services. Second, the relationship between the multidimensional nature of service quality and consumer satisfaction is examined by testing paths from two posited dimensions of service quality – physical quality and staff behaviour – to satisfaction. Third, the consumers' overall attitude to a service firm is integrated into existing models of satisfaction and its impact on behavioural loyalty (intention to return) is tested. Finally, a contribution is made to the satisfaction research literature by testing the effect of service quality on desires congruence, and the effect of desires congruence on consumer satisfaction.
    • We are not all Terrorists: UK Based Iranians, Consumption Practices and the ‘Torn’ Self.

      Jafari, Aliakbar; Goulding, Christina (Informaworld - Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group), 2008)
      This paper presents an exploratory study of the consumption practices of UK-based young Iranians. Based on a series of in-depth interviews and participatory observation we provide an insight into the identity-constituting meanings associated with consumption practices. We illustrate how individuals use consumption discourses to tackle a series of ideological tensions in their sociocultural settings, both in Iran and in the UK. We describe how in a theocratic state individuals use commodified cultural symbolic mediators to construct and reaffirm a sense of self and identity and also to covertly resist the dominant order. We discuss consumer's paradoxes and dilemmas when confronted with a complex set of clashes between restricting political/institutional dynamics and the emancipatory forces of Western consumption. We conclude by discussing how these contradictions and strategies lead to a form of “torn” self.