• Exploring Entrepreneurial intention’s mediating role in the relationship between Self-efficacy and Nascent behaviour: evidence from Zambia, Africa

      Mwiya, Bruce; Wang, Yong; Kaulungombe, Bernadette (Emerald, 2018-09)
      Purpose –This paper examines the mediating role of entrepreneurial intention (EI) in relation to the influence of the five dimensions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) on nascent behaviour. Design/methodology/approach – The study relies on a quantitative approach where primary data were collected from 294 final year undergraduate students at a public university in Zambia. The data were examined by using correlation, logistic regression and mediation analyses. Findings – The findings indicate that each of the five dimensions of ESE is positively and significantly related with EI. Additionally, each of the ESE dimensions, except the financial aspect, is positively correlated with nascent behaviour. Lastly, the results show that the influence of ESE dimensions on nascent behaviour is significantly mediated by intention. Research limitations/implications –The study took place in a public university in Zambia; more universities could be involved to improve the generalisability of the study conclusions. Practical implications –The study shows that the five ESE dimensions positively influence not only business start-up intention but also nascent behaviour. To motivate graduates’ involvement in business start-up, there is a need to tailor training and practical pedagogical approaches on entrepreneurship that are focused on developing the five ESE dimensions. Originality/value – This paper extends an emerging body of knowledge which has not been fully investigated in terms of the mediating role of intention on the relationships between dimensions of ESE and nascent behaviour. The study also makes a valuable contribution to the under-researched context of Zambia and African entrepreneurship.
    • Sports operations management: examining the relationship between environmental uncertainty and quality management orientation

      Bamford, David; Hannibal, Claire; Kauppi, Katri; Dehe, Benjamin; Operations Management, The Business School, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK; Operations Management, University of Wolverhampton Business School, Wolverhampton, UK; Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Aalto University School of Business, Helsinki, Finland; Operations Management, The Business School, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK (Taylor & Francis, 2018-02-22)
      Research question: The outcome of a sporting competition is uncertain and one of the key reasons for the sustained popularity of spectator sport. Whilst unique and exciting, this context poses challenges for the management of the sporting experience as there is no control over the outcome of the competition; a disappointing result on-field may translate to a disappointing overall experience for the spectators. We wish to understand if and how quality management practices can be used in off-field operations to mitigate on-field uncertainty, and thus have greater control over spectator perception of the sporting experience. Research methods: A multi-country survey of operations managers of sporting stadia in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand was conducted. We operationalize environmental uncertainty as spectator co-creation and enforced collaboration, and assess quality management orientation from both a customer and process perspective. Linear regression is used for data analysis. Results and Findings: Surprisingly, we find that environmental uncertainty does not encourage the orientation of quality management practices towards the customer. Instead, we find a greater application of process focus. In considering sporting fans as passive customers rather than active co-creators of value, quality management practices seem to have skewed towards process rather than person. Implications: Customer satisfaction appears as secondary to process performance in the sample of stadia examined. This is in contrast to studies that have encouraged a focus on the customer in contexts of environmental uncertainty. We suggest a renewed focus on the customer for the longevity of sporting stadia.
    • Contemporary Perceptions of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour: a 21st century case for the U.S.A.

      Ruiz, Carlos E.; Hamlin, Robert G.; Gresch, Eric B. (North American Business Press, Inc, 2017)
      This qualitative study explores how contemporary US managers and non-managerial employees in the metropolitan region of Atlanta, Georgia behaviorally differentiate effective managers from ineffective ones. We collected from 81 research participants 381 critical incidents (CIs) of observed effective and ineffective managerial behavior. These CIs were subjected to open, axial and selective coding which resulted in the emergence of 10 effective and 13 ineffective behavioral indicators of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness. The findings could be valuable to managers seeking to make better decisions about how best to behaviorally manage and lead US employees in the 21st century.
    • Critical success factors for employee suggestion schemes: a literature review

      Lasrado, Flevy; Arif, Mohammed; Rizvi, Aftab; Urdzik, Chris (Emerald, 2016-05-09)
    • Mapping the inventor new product development process

      Smeilus, Gavin; Pollard, Andrew (International Society of Professional Innovation Management, 2016-02)
    • Measuring the Deliverable and Impressible Dimensions of Service Experience

      Beltagui, Ahmad; Darler, William; Candi, Marina (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2015-09)
      Service innovation has become a priority within the field of innovation management and is increasingly focused on the creation of memorable experiences that result in customer loyalty. Studies of experience design suggest individual service elements to be managed when staging an experience whereas conceptual models in the literature emphasize the holistic way in which an experience is perceived. In short, service experience is greater than the sum of its parts. Therefore, successful innovation management requires the ability to understand and measure the mechanisms by which service innovations impact customers’ experiences. Our research addresses this need by identifying dimensions of service experience and developing a tool for their measurement. Using a three stage process of 1) systematic literature review; 2) rigorous scale development and reduction; and 3) validation, we identify six dimensions of the service experience and develop scales to measure each one. This results in a model of service innovation that highlights the levers through which a company’s service innovation efforts can result in memorable experiences and ultimately generate service success.
    • Diversity and Conflict in Boards of Directors

      Walker, Alan; Machold, Silke; Ahmed, Pervaiz K. (2015-03-04)
      This study seeks to contribute to the debate on board behavior by investigating how deeper-level diversity, specifically differences in personality, interacts with demographic diversity to explain board cognitive and affective conflict. Using survey data from a pilot study of 98 directors in 16 UK boards, we show that dissimilarities in personality traits are negatively related to cognitive conflict, but this relationship is moderated by gender and tenure diversity. Personality differences do not explain affective conflict. The study provides insights into how theories from psychology may help us understand antecedents to board behaviors
    • The determinants for sustainability of an employee suggestion system

      Lasrado, Flevy; Arif, Mohammed; Rizvi, Aftab (Emerald, 2015-02-02)
    • test by CB

      Unknown author (2014-04-10)
    • Independent inventors and inbound open innovation: using a resource-based approach to create a tool for screening inventor approaches in order to facilitate technology in-licensing

      Smeilus, Gavin; Harris, Robert J.; Pollard, Andrew (2013)
      Open innovation literature identifies independent inventors as a source of novel external knowledge. This knowledge may be licensed into an organisation in order to supplement internal R&D activity, typically as part of an inbound open innovation strategy. In opening an organisation up to approaches from individuals the capacity of the core team to identify promising licensing opportunities is diminished by the sheer volume and variable quality of approaches received. Based on a survey of 202 UK independent inventors this paper utilises a resource-based approach to identifying the key resources possessed by successful independent inventors. Using this data, we devise a preliminary screening tool to facilitate technology in-licensing from independent inventors.
    • An Examination of Independent Inventor Integration in Open Innovation

      Smeilus, Gavin; Pollard, Andrew; Harris, Robert J (IGI Global, 2012)
      Open Innovation allows independent inventors to become suppliers of new product ideas to businesses. Unfortunately, only a small percentage of independent inventor approaches, to companies operating Open Innovation mechanisms, result in a commercialised product. Preliminary Critical Success Factors proposed in the previous chapter seek to improve the ability of independent inventors to operate as effective suppliers of new product ideas to businesses through Open Innovation. This chapter will take the preliminary critical success factors proposed in the previous chapter and utilise them as priori constructs (Eisenhardt, 1989) as evidence is sought through case study for their presence or non-presence in a practical context. A case study on the Caparo RightFuel, an automotive device originating from an independent inventor and commercialised through an Open Innovation model, forms the basis of this chapter.
    • The Integration of Independent Inventors in Open Innovation

      Smeilus, Gavin; Pollard, Andrew; Harris, Robert J (IGI Global, 2011-09)
      Whilst current academic literature points to the growing importance of Open Innovation as a means of companies capturing new products from sources other than internal R&D facilities; the integration of independent inventors, a source of innovative new products, within Open Innovation has proven challenging. This chapter presents a series of preliminary Critical Success Factors, driven by current academic literature, which are intended to positively contribute towards independent inventors becoming more successful suppliers of new product ideas to businesses operating an open innovation model; with the intention that adherence to such factors may have a positive influence on the effectiveness and future sustainability of Open Innovation.
    • An Examination of Independent Inventor Integration in Open Innovation

      Smeilus, Gavin; Pollard, Andrew; Harris, Robert J. (IGI Global, 2011-09)
    • An exploration of marketing tactics for turbulent environments

      Mason, Roger B.; Staude, Gavin (2009-07-21)
      This paper proposes that the choice of marketing tactics is influenced by the company’s external environment. It aims to illustrate the marketing tactics suggested for a complex, turbulent environment, when marketing and the environment are viewed through a complexity lens. Design/Methodology/Approach: A marketing mix model, derived from complexity literature, was assessed via a multiple case study to identify the type of marketing mix suggested for a complex, turbulent environment. The study was exploratory, using depth interviews with two companies in the IT industry. Findings: The results tentatively confirmed that the more successful company used a destabilizing marketing mix, and suggest that using complexity theory to develop marketing tactics could be helpful in turbulent environments. Research limitations/implications: The findings are limited by the study’s exploratory, qualitative nature and the small sample. Generalizing should be done with care and therefore further research with larger samples and in different environments is recommended. Practical Implications: This paper will benefit marketers by emphasizing a new way to consider future marketing activities of their companies. The model can assist marketers to identify the tactics to use, dependent on the nature of their environment. Originality/Value: Most work on complexity in marketing has concentrated on strategy, with little emphasis on tactics and the marketing mix. Therefore, this paper is an important contribution to the understanding of marketing mix choices, of interest to both practicing marketers and marketing academics.
    • Behavioural indicators of manager and managerial leader effectiveness: An example of Mode 2 knowledge production in management to support evidence-based practice.

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Bassi, Nirmal (Inderscience Enterprises Limited, 2008)
      This paper presents the results of a 'design science' study of managerial and leadership effectiveness through a programme of 'HRD Professional Partnership' research carried out within a UK private sector organisation, and discusses how the findings have been used to support evidence-based practice within the collaborating organisation. Additionally, the paper reveals the extent to which these results are held in common with equivalent findings from several UK public sector organisations and how they have contributed to the production of 'general knowledge' and empirical evidence that lend support to 'universal' theories of managerial and leadership effectiveness.
    • Power, Interdependence and Influence in Marketing Manager/Sales Manager Working Relationships

      Massey, Graham R.; Dawes, Philip L. (Academy of Marketing, 2008)
      Relationships between Marketing Managers and Sales Managers are amongst the most important working relationships within modern firms, though to date, these have received little attention in the literature. Our study adds to knowledge of this working relationship by examining the effects of Sales unit power, total interdependence between Marketing and Sales, and the type and effects of the influence tactics employed by Sales Managers in this important CFR. Our results suggest that not all influence tactics are effective in increasing a Sales Manager’s influence within the firm. Also, our findings provide support for the notion that managers of powerful departments are less likely to spend time and effort using influence tactics to secure peer managers’ cooperation and compliance. Conversely, where peer managers are highly interdependent, they will increase their use of a wide array of influence tactics to secure desired outcomes.
    • Performance Monitoring and Accountability through Technology: E-government in Greece.

      Petrakaki, Dimitra J.; Hayes, Niall; Introna, Lucas D. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2008)
      The paper provides an account of the likely consequences that performance monitoring systems have on public service accountability. The research draws upon an in-depth empirical study on Citizens Service Centres, one of the biggest projects of the Greek e-government strategy. Specifically, we outline the rationale for introducing performance monitoring technology in Citizens Service Centres, the use the central government ministry made of the system and the ways in which Citizens Service Centre staff responded to such performance monitoring. Drawing upon studies on e-government and the critical literature on performance monitoring systems, we argue that performance monitoring technology is a limited tool for ensuring accountability. This is due to the effects of the monitoring and performance standards, which increase staffs concerns and are likely to encourage irresponsible and unaccountable practices.
    • Word of mouth as a promotional tool for turbulent markets.

      Mason, Roger B. (Informaworld: Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2008)
      Word-of-mouth advertising involves activities to encourage consumers to talk about a product or company to friends and neighbours, setting in motion a chain of communication that could spread through a whole market. Each activity, itself small and relatively unimportant, could escalate through word of mouth to create strong, positive brand images and beliefs. A major characteristic of chaos theory, sensitive dependence on initial conditions (the butterfly effect) is at work in word of mouth. This paper reviews word of mouth literature from a chaos/complexity theory perspective. Using a multiple case study approach, the significance of word of mouth in turbulent markets is assessed. It was found that more successful companies tended to use word of mouth proactively, and that it is an effective marketing tool for turbulent environments. Furthermore, chaos theory is shown as a good lens through which to view word of mouth. This paper is important because word of mouth has had little attention from the academic community, with the exception of electronic or Internet based word of mouth. Furthermore, it suggests an academic theory to underpin word of mouth that has not been considered before. In addition, it is important because, in South Africa and possibly in other under-developed and developing countries, word of mouth is critical to marketing to less sophisticated or literate markets.
    • Behavioural indicators of effective and ineffective mentoring: An empirical study of mentor and protégé behaviour within a UK public sector organisation.

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Sage, Lesley (University Forum for Human Resource Development (UFHRD), 2008)
      Most mentoring research has investigated the antecedents, outcomes and benefits of mentoring and also the characteristics of mentors and mentees, but little attention has been given to the quality of the mentoring process or the effectiveness of mentoring relationships (Fagenon-Eland et al, 1997; Young and Perrewé, 2007). Yet for formal work-based mentoring programmes it is important to identify what differentiates ‘more effective’ from ‘less effective’ mentoring relationships (Ragins et al, 2000, Wanberg et al, 2007), particularly the behaviours of mentors and mentees that contribute to both ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ mentoring experiences (Eby et al, 2000; Bozeman and Feeney, 2007). This study investigated the mentoring component of a leadership development programme within a major UK public sector organization in order to identify the behavioural criteria of mentoring effectiveness from both the mentor and mentee perspective. Concrete examples of ‘effective’ and ‘ineffective’ mentor and mentee behaviours as observed respectively by mentees and external mentors were collected using the Critical Incident Technique (Flanagan (1954). These were analysed, reduced and classified using content and thematic analytic methods. From 167 usable critical incidents so obtained 187 discrete items of behaviour were identified. Of these 81 related to positive (effective) and 22 to negative (ineffective) mentor behaviour and 68 to positive (effective) and 16 to negative (ineffective) mentee behaviour. These were then grouped and classified into analytic categories which resulted in 11 positive and 4 negative mentor behavioural categories (criteria) and 9 positive and 3 negative mentee behavioural categories (criteria) being identified. The results lend support to Kram’s (1985) ‘two-function’ model of mentoring and to the recent emergent concepts of ‘negative’ and ‘marginal’ mentoring (Eby, et al, 2000; Eby and McManus, 2004). They also provide further empirical insights for HRD practitioners concerned with developing guidelines and interventions to enhance the effectiveness of formal mentoring programmes. This study is an inquiry into organizationally based formal mentoring relationships in which the mentors have been drawn from other organizations (Young and Perrewé, 2000). It has been located in both the ‘mentoring’, ‘coaching’ and ‘human resource development (HRD)’literatures for two main reasons. Firstly, although various writers claim ‘mentoring’ is different from ‘coaching’ (Cranwell-Ward, Bossons and Gover, 2004; Grant, 2001), the terms ‘mentoring’ and ‘coaching’ are often used interchangeably in many organizations with many people unable to make a clear distinction between them (D’Abate, Eddy and Tannenbaum, 2003; Klasen and Clutterbuck, 2002). The second reason is that for several decades coaching, mentoring and other forms of workplace learning have been core roles of HRD professionals (See Davis, Naughton and Rothwell, 2004; Hezlett and Gibson, 2005; Plunkett and Egan, 2004). Furthermore, increasingly, mentoring has been recognized as a powerful HRD intervention that assists employers in career advancement, serves as a form of on-the-job-training, and helps create learning organizations (Hegstad and Wentling , 2005).