Poly-ƴ-Glutamic Acid: Biodegradable Polymer for Potential Protection of Beneficial Viruses

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/2436/619910
Title:
Poly-ƴ-Glutamic Acid: Biodegradable Polymer for Potential Protection of Beneficial Viruses
Authors:
Kowalczuk, Marek ( 0000-0002-2877-7466 ) ; Khalil, Ibrahim R; Irorere, Victor U; Radecka, Iza; Burns, Alan T. H.; Mason, Jessica; Khechara, Martin P
Abstract:
: Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a naturally occurring polymer, which due to its biodegradable, non-toxic and non-immunogenic properties has been used successfully in the food, medical and wastewater industries. A major hurdle in bacteriophage application is the inability of phage to persist for extended periods in the environment due to their susceptibility to environmental factors such as temperature, sunlight, desiccation and irradiation. Thus, the aim of this study was to protect useful phage from the harmful effect of these environmental factors using the γ-PGA biodegradable polymer. In addition, the association between γ-PGA and phage was investigated. Formulated phage (with 1% γ-PGA) and non-formulated phage were exposed to 50 ˝C. A clear difference was noticed as viability of non-formulated phage was reduced to 21% at log10 1.3 PFU/mL, while phage formulated with γ-PGA was 84% at log10 5.2 PFU/mL after 24 h of exposure. In addition, formulated phage remained viable at log10 2.5 PFU/mL even after 24 h of exposure at pH 3 solution. In contrast, non-formulated phages were totally inactivated after the same time of exposure. In addition, non-formulated phages when exposed to UV irradiation died within 10 min. In contrast also phages formulated with 1% γ-PGA had a viability of log10 4.1 PFU/mL at the same exposure time. Microscopy showed a clear interaction between γ-PGA and phages. In conclusion, the results suggest that γ-PGA has an unique protective effect on phage particles.
Publisher:
MDPI - Open Access Publishing
Journal:
Materials 9(1)
Issue Date:
Jan-2016
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/2436/619910
Additional Links:
http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/9/1
Type:
Article
Language:
en
ISSN:
1996-1944
Sponsors:
Iraqi cultural attaché, University of Wolverhampton
Appears in Collections:
FSE

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorKowalczuk, Mareken
dc.contributor.authorKhalil, Ibrahim Ren
dc.contributor.authorIrorere, Victor Uen
dc.contributor.authorRadecka, Izaen
dc.contributor.authorBurns, Alan T. H.en
dc.contributor.authorMason, Jessicaen
dc.contributor.authorKhechara, Martin Pen
dc.date.accessioned2016-09-06T13:38:32Z-
dc.date.available2016-09-06T13:38:32Z-
dc.date.issued2016-01-
dc.identifier.issn1996-1944-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2436/619910-
dc.description.abstract: Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a naturally occurring polymer, which due to its biodegradable, non-toxic and non-immunogenic properties has been used successfully in the food, medical and wastewater industries. A major hurdle in bacteriophage application is the inability of phage to persist for extended periods in the environment due to their susceptibility to environmental factors such as temperature, sunlight, desiccation and irradiation. Thus, the aim of this study was to protect useful phage from the harmful effect of these environmental factors using the γ-PGA biodegradable polymer. In addition, the association between γ-PGA and phage was investigated. Formulated phage (with 1% γ-PGA) and non-formulated phage were exposed to 50 ˝C. A clear difference was noticed as viability of non-formulated phage was reduced to 21% at log10 1.3 PFU/mL, while phage formulated with γ-PGA was 84% at log10 5.2 PFU/mL after 24 h of exposure. In addition, formulated phage remained viable at log10 2.5 PFU/mL even after 24 h of exposure at pH 3 solution. In contrast, non-formulated phages were totally inactivated after the same time of exposure. In addition, non-formulated phages when exposed to UV irradiation died within 10 min. In contrast also phages formulated with 1% γ-PGA had a viability of log10 4.1 PFU/mL at the same exposure time. Microscopy showed a clear interaction between γ-PGA and phages. In conclusion, the results suggest that γ-PGA has an unique protective effect on phage particles.en
dc.description.sponsorshipIraqi cultural attaché, University of Wolverhamptonen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherMDPI - Open Access Publishingen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/9/1en
dc.subjectbiodegradable polymeren
dc.subjectƴ-PGAen
dc.subjectbacteriophageen
dc.titlePoly-ƴ-Glutamic Acid: Biodegradable Polymer for Potential Protection of Beneficial Virusesen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.identifier.journalMaterials 9(1)en
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